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the Black Sea by the Allies, 336;
first instructions to Lord Raglan,
337 ; the Russians recross the
Pruth, 338; the lines at Gallipoli,
339 ; proposed operations before

Silistria, 340
Russian War, inaction of the Allies
before Sebastopol, cxxi. 256

first difficulties of the Cri-

invasion, cxxviii. 403 ;
events which determined the
siege of Sebastopol, 404; division
of Russian parties on, 405; the
charges of the Heavy and Light
Brigades, 408, 410. See Kinglake,
A. W.

Mr. Bright's opposition to,
cxxix. 279; beneficial results of,
to England, 281

want of organised reserves
to replace British casualties,
cxxxiii. 229

recent declaration of Russia
against the Treaty of 1856, cxxxiii.
267; limitation of the Russian

navy in the Black Sea, 268; the
Vienna Conference of 1855, 269;
Prince Gortschakoff's proposal
thereat, 270; Lord Clarendon's
circular despatch, ib.; fall of
Sebastopol, 272; Four Points pro-
posed by Austria, ib.; conditions
insisted on by England, 26.; pro-
tocol of 1856 at Vienna, 273 ;
Congress opened at Paris, ib.; the
Black Sea neutralised by the
Treaty of Paris, ib., 276; solemnity
of Russian engagements, ib.; for-
bearance of the Allies, 277 ; Prince
Gortschakoff's recent pretext for
repudiation, ib. ; the Treaty vindi-

cated, 278
Rutherford (Lewis), his photogra-

phic maps of the moon, cxxxvii.

Rütli, the story of, cxxix. 144
Ruthven, Raid of, cxl. 341
Ryle (Mr.), his letters to the Re-

cord' on Evangelical reform,
cxxxiii. 417

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SAALFELD, battle of (1806), cxxxi.

Sabæans, the, wide use of the term

by the Arabs, cxxiv. 13
Saban Worship in America, cxxxi.

Sabbatarianism, theory of, cxiv. 536.

See Sunday
Sabbath, directions in the Talmud

respecting, cxxxviii. 62
Sabini Pietro, his collection of me-

diæval Christian inscriptions, cxx.

220, 221
Sabrinus (Canisius), anecdote of, by

Seneca, cxxiv. 356
Sacheverell (Dr. Henry, d. 1724),

his trial a political blunder, cxviii.

Sacheverell (Dr. Henry), his friend-

ship with Addison at Oxford,
cxxxiv. 190; his trial and sentence,

Sack, early use of the wine in Eng-

land, cxxvi. 201; the word derived,

Sackville, Thomas. See Dorset,

Earl of
Sacraments, impossibility of agree-

ment on the theory of, cxiii. 23
Sacred Heart, “Devotion of the,

cxxxix. 246 ; recent pilgrimages
to Paray-le-Monial, 250; early
history of, 251 ; the signal of the
Vendeans, ib.; worship of, falsely
ascribed to Louis XVI., ib. ; M.
Lemontey's account, ib., 252 ;


alleged Puritan mysticism, ib.;
life of the Nun, 253; early allu-
sions to the worship, 254 (see
Alacoque, Marie); M. Lemontey's
theory of, 268; conclusions as to

its origin, 270
Sadducees, origin and tenets of,

cxxxviii. 45
Sadleir (Capt.), his negotiations with

Ibrahim Pasha respecting the

Wahabees, cxxv. 9
Sadowa, battle of (1866), decisive
character of, cxxiv, 293

casualties at, cxxv. 385
Sæmund (Sigfusson, about 1056-

1133), his collection of Scandina-

vian literature, cxiv. 429
Sagas, Icelandic, cxl. 257
Sahara, the, French explorations of,

cxii. 320; value of Dr. Barth's
discoveries, 221

recent geological evidence
respecting, cxxxiv. 226
Sailer (John Michael, 1751-1832),

his career and religious teaching,

cxxxvii. 559
St. Augustine, his alleged cure of a

blind man denied by Dean Hook,

cxxvii. 421, 422
St. Bartholomew, Convent of, in

London, cxxxi. 166
St. Bartholomew, Massacre of (1572),

description of, by a Jesuit eyewit-
ness, cxxiv. 93

premonitory signs of, cxl. 221
St. Benedict, his peculiar asceticism,

cxxvii. 429
St. Bernard (1091-1153), contrasts

in his character, cxiv. 324; slan-
ders William of York, 342

his influence on monachism,
cxxvii. 430
Sainte Beuve (Charles Augustine,

1804-1869), his sketch of M. de
Bonstetten, cxix. 413

list of his works, cxxxii.
126 ; his recent funeral, ib.; per-
sonal appearance, 127 ; birth and
early life, 128; intimacy with

Victor Hugo, 129 ; joins the
· Cénacle, ib.; his · Tableau de la
Poésie Française,' ib.; early poems,
130; acquaintance with English
poets, 131; his Joseph Delorme,'
ib.; Consolations,' 133 ; moral
crisis' in his life, ib.; ' Portraits
littéraires,' 135 ; articles
Boileau, etc., ib. ; influence of
revolution of 1830, 136 ; ad-
miration for Lamennais, 137 ;
anecdote, ib.; separates from the
Romantic School, 138; his early
enthusiasm, 139 ; his Volupté,'
ib.; History of Port Royal,' 140;
his mournful farewell therein,
142 ; climax of his life, 143 ;
Lectures at Liége University,
144 ; his masterly work on Châ-
teaubriand, ib., journalism at Paris,
ib.; his Causeries de Lundi,' in
the Constitutionnel,' 145 ; ac-
quiesces in the coup d'état, 147;
his article · Les Regrets,' ib.; re-
signs his professorship of poetry,
148; his subsequent popularity,
149; sympathy with Liberalism,
150; his critical method examined,
ib.; on the moral characters of
authors, ib.; compared with M.
Taine, 152 ; his excellence as a
biographer, ib. ; fine faculty of
criticism, ib.; his natural taste,
153; an epitome of modern cul-

St. Bride's Ring, supposed Druidical

remains so called, cxx. 315
St. Christopher's, Island of, circum-

stances of its occupation, cxv. 10
St. Columba (d. 597), his romantic
history, cxiv. 334, 337

character of his monastic
system, cxxvii. 401 ; legends of
his birth and childhood, 406; his
appetite for books, 407; his quar-
rel with King Dermot, 408 ;
battle of Cul-Dreimhne, ib.; his
voyage to Iona, 409; bis predic-
tions and miracles, 410, 414 ;


legends of his glorification, 415;
his death, 416; credibility of his
history examined, ib. ; credulity
of Montalembert, 418; Mr. Bur-
ton's masterly analysis of his
story, 426 ; altered accounts of
his system, 428 ; his followers
distinguished from the Benedic-

tines, ib.
St. Cuthbert, miracles ascribed to

him, cxxvii. 422
St. Cyr (Gouvion, Marshal), his re-

organisation of the French army

in 1818, cxxvi. 278
St. Denis, battle of (1567), cxxx.

St. Germain (Comte de, d. 1784),

the wonder-monger, cxxiii. 521
St. Germain - en -Laye, Peace of

(1570), cxxxiii. 492
St. Germains, the Château described,

as the abode of the Stuarts, cxxxvi.

47, 52
Saint-Hilaire (Barthélemy) on the

study of Buddhism, cxv. 380 ; his
knowledge of Eastern languages,
382; the first historian of Bud-
dhism, 389; tripartite division of
his work, 390; his story of Bud-
dha's life, 398; ascribes his meta-
physical doctrines to Brahmanism,
403 ; accuses him of Nihilism,

St. James, Scottish monastery of,

at Ratisbon, cxix. 169; its early
history, ib.; Irishmen introduced
to fill vacancies, 178; interference
of Leo. X., 179; abbots after the
Reformation, 180; visit of the poet
Campbell to, 183 note; exempted
from secularisation by Napoleon,
ib.; alienated by the Bavarian

Government, 184
St. John (Henry). See Bolingbroke
St. John (Mr. Spenser), his visit to

Sarāwak in 1857, cxvi. 409 ; his
Life in the Forests of the Far

East,' 414
St. Julien, Peace of (1603), cxi. 540

St. Kilian, monastery of, at Wurz-

burg, cxix. 173
St. Lawrence river, movement of the

ice on, cxiji. 76
St. Leger (Sir Anthony), his house

at Southwark, cxxxi. 181
St. Leonards (Edward Sugden, Lord,

b. 1781-1875), his quarrels and re-
conciliation with Lord Brougham,
cxxix. 590, 591 ; his admiration of

Lyndhurst and Brougham, 592
St. Margaret, metrical life of, cxxv.

Saint-Mars, his custody of the Iron

Mask, cxxxviii. 301 sqq. See Mask,

Saint Martin (L. Vivien de), on the

geography of India in the time

of Buddha, cxv. 395
St. Maur, Benedictine monastery of,

cxxvii. 89; its foundation, 16.
St. Paul, his mode of dealing with

Gentile converts, cxix. 165
St. Paul's Cathedral, original design

of, by Wren, cxviii. 85; the dome
of, 87

Dean Milman's Annals of,
cxxix. 170; early reverence for,
176; condition of, under Elizabeth,
178; secular ceremonials in, ib.;
Paul's Walk, 180; instances of
desecration, ib. note ; Inigo's re-
storations, 185; Paul's Cross, 188,
190; architectural defects of Old
St. Paul's, 191; report of Wren,
ib.; general features of Wren's
structure, 192; mediocrity of later
Deans, 193; Wren's Latin cross,
195 ; admirable adaptation of, to
sound, ib.; excessive length of
nave, 196; prejudice against mu-

ral monuments in, 198
St. Paul's, the “Three Cathedrals'

of, by Mr. Longman, cxxxviii.
452; Wren's original design for
the surroundings, 453; Dean Mil-
man’s censure of the old building,
454; its cost, when patched by
Inigo Jones, 455; the church of
Ethelbert, 456; Bishop Maurice's fabric described, ib. 460 ; its unrivalled beauty, ib.; the spire struck by lightning, 461; work of restoration, ib.; faults of Inigo Jones, 462; the Great Fire, ib.; strength of the ruined walls, 463; Wren's drawings and work, ib. 471; other designs, ib.; Wren's mode of supporting the dome, 472; Sir J. Thorpbill's disfigurements, 473; need of light and colour, 474; question of Munich glass, ib. 475; Wren's general achievements, ib.; the Duke of York's alterations, ib.; Mr. Fergusson's criticisms, 476; question of Wren's intended adornments, 478; chilling aspect of interior, 479; fund for completing the work, 480; use of gilding, 481; grandeur of the

building when completed, 482 St. Peter, Scottish monastery of, at

Ratisbon, cxix. 171 St. Peter's (Rome), the basilica

stripped by the Saracens, cxviii.

366 ; its precincts fortified, ib. St. Philip Neri, his remark on In

dulgences, cxxx. 325 St. Quentin, battle of (1557), de

scribed by the Duc d'Aumale,

cxxx. 361 St. Simon (Louis de Rouvroy, Duke

of, 1675–1755), his account of Leopold of Lorraine rendering homage to Louis XIV., cxii. 80

bis Memoirs edited by M. Chéruel, cxix. 61; his manuscript additions to Dangeau's 'Journal,' 62 ; his hostility to Louis XIV., 69; compilation and date of his memoirs, 72; probably a lifelong work, 77; he induces the Duke of Orleans to

Madame d'Argenton, 78; anecdote of the Duc de Chartres and the Duc du Maine on their marriage, 79; he succeeds to the dukedom, 80; his memoirs an expansion of Dangeau's

narrative, 81; period comprised in his writings, 82; his story of the supposed poisoning of Henrietta of England, 84; his character underrated by Frenchmen, 86; his championship of aristocracy in France, 87; his aversion to dissolute pleasures, 89; reproached as a Jansenist, ib.; his unaffected piety,

90; he quits the army in disgust, 92 St. Simon (Louis de Rouvroy, Duke

of), his plan for teaching history

to Louis XV., cxxiv. 376 St. Simon (Claudius Henry, Count

de, 1760-1825); his association with Comte, 'cxxvii. 309; their

estrangement, 310 St. Sophia, the Church and Mosque

of, incongruity of Moslem worship in, cxxi. 456 ; ancient writers on, 457 ; restorations by Chevalier Fossati, 458; discovery of ancient mosaics, ib. ; origin of the name, 460; original church of Constantine, ib.; rebuilt by Constantius, 461; the third basilica of Theodosius, ib.; burnt during the Nika Sedition, 462; Justinian's basilica begun, ib. ; claims of adjacent proprietors, 463; enthusiasm of Justinian, 465; building operations, ib.; enormous cost of, 467, 468; date of its dedication, 469 ; dome ruined by an earthquake, ib.; completion by Isidorus, ib.; primitive form of the building, 470; present cruciform appearance, 471 ; the porches, 472; divisions of the interior, 473; the ambo, ib.; the bema, 474; restoration of the mosaics, 475; graceful grouping of pillars, ib.; Byzantine ceremonials at, 476; later addition of buttresses, 477 ; erection of a tower, ib.; restorations by later Greek emperors, ib. 478; Moslem minarets, ib. ; evidences of neglect, 479; repairs by Abdul Medjid, ib.; the type of Greek nationality, 480;


Salique law, the, cxl. 215; reasons


ing the Latin occupation, 484;
united Greek and Latin worship
in, 485, 486; massacre by Maho-
met, 487; legend connected there-
with, 488; Moslem thanksgiving,
ib. 489; investiture of Patriarchs
by Mahomet, ib.; military triumphs
in, 491; slaughter of the Janissaries,

ib.; architectural influence of, 492
St. Vitus' Dance, supposed cause of

the disease, cxii. 538; described as

the 'insanity of the muscles,' ib.
St. Wilfrid, his triumph in the

Easter controversy, cxxvii. 424
Salamanca, Gothic cathedrals at,
cxxii. 153

battle of, Marmont's account
of, cxl. 541
Salamander, specimen of, at Amster-

dam, cxi. 187
Salem (U.S.), early history of,

cxxviii. 1; Mr. Upham's work on
witchcraft at, 3; popular super-
stitions at, 5; origin of the settle-
ment, 6; hatred of Indians, 9;
Sabbath patrols, ib.; state of social
life in, ib.; religious disputes with
the Farmers, 11 ; Mr. Burroughes
executed for sorcery, 13; the min-
ister Mr. Lawson, ib. ; ministry of
Mr. Parris, ib.; belief in Satanic
agency, 14 ; Mrs. Higgins hanged,
15; story of Cotton Mather, 17;
Mr. Parris's meetings of afflicted
children,' ib.; public examination
of witches in 1691, 18; execution
of Sarah Good, 19; tragedy of the
Towne family, 20–30; John Proc-
ter and wife, 31 ; the Jacobs
family, ib. ; Goodman Corey, 32;
confessions of the accused, 34; end
of Mr. Parris, 37; and of Cotton
Mather, ib.; Ann Putnam's case,
38; reforms of Rev. Joseph Green,
39; causes of the Witch Tragedy
of 1692, 41; superstition at the
present day, 42

Salisbury, Earls of, early residence

of, in London, cxxxi. 178
Salisbury (Marquess of, the present,

b. 1830), his secession, when Lord
Cranborne, from the Cabinet,
cxxv. 586

his unworthy scepticism as
to native appreciation of British
rule in India, cxxxiv. 383

his supposed language in
1874 on the Public Worship
Regulation Bill and the Commons,
cxl. 571; Mr. Disraeli's allusions
thereto, ib.; his vigorous Indian

administration, 580
Sallust (Caius Crispus Sallustius,

B.C. 85–35), his villa at Rome

destroyed by Alaric, cxviii. 347
Salmon, habits of, in British Colum-

bin, cxix. 463; quantities of, used

there for manuring, 464
Salmon Fisheries, cxxxvii. 153;

value of the Commission of 1860,
ib.; fanciful statistics, 154; pros-
pects of cheapness, ib. ; the fisher-
man, ib. 157; past legislation, ib.;
salmon in a state of nature, 158;
breeding seasons, 159; migrations
between fresh and salt water, ib.;
theory of upper riparians,' 160;
and of estuary fishermen, 161 ;
difficulties caused to the Legisla-
ture, 162 ; disputes of ownership,
165; artificial obstructions, 168;
fishing-weirs, ib. ; usurpations of
mill-owners, 170 ; Scotch and
English statutes thereon, 171;
Mr. Smith's invention of the “fish-
pass,' 172; later imitations, 174 ;
obstructive powers of mill-owners,
175; the Committee of 1869-70,
176; want of efficient fish-passes,
ib. ; the Act of 1861, 177; a court
needed to arrange disputes, 178:
expense of passes,' ib. ; results of
Commissioners' labours, 180: re-
cent improvements, 181; Bills of

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