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Name, though it was the name of an invisible thing, the very Name, I say, was obeyed, did pass current, was received and did carry on the ‘Public ’ Justice of the Nation. I remember very well, my Lords the Judges were somewhat startled: yet upon consideration,—if I mistake not,--I believe so,—they, there being among them (without reflection) as able and as learned as have sat there,—though they did, I confess, at first, demur a little,—they did receive satisfaction, and did act as I said before. [Untwist this extraordinary wrrnn of a sentence; you will find it not inextricable, and very characteristic of Oliver!] And as for my own part [My own Protectorate], I profess I think I may say : Since the beginning of that change,—though I should be loath to speak anything vainly,—but since the beginning of that change to this day,I do not think there hath been a freer procedure of the Laws, not even in those years called, and not nnworthily, the “ Halcyon Days of Peace,”—from the Twentieth of Elizabeth to King James’s and King Charles’s time. I do not think but the Laws have proceeded with as much freedom and justice, and with less of private solicitation, since I came to the Goveru- ' ment, as they did in those years so named,——‘ Halcyon.’ I do not think, under favor—[His Highness gets more cmphatic]—that the laws had a freer exercise, more uninterrupted by any hand of Power, in those years than now; or that the Judge has been less solicited by letters or private interpositions either of my own or other men’s in double so many years in all those times ‘ named ’ “ of Peace !” [Sentence involving an incurable Irish-bull; the head of it eating the tail of it, like a Serpent-zf-Eternity; but the meaning shining very clear through its contorlions nevertheless !] And if more of my Lords the Judges were here than now are, they could tell us perhaps somewhat farther.*- —- And therefore I say, under favor: These two Experiences do manifestly show that it is not a Title, though never so interwoven with our Laws, that makes the Law to have its free passage and to do its oflice without interruption (as we venture to think it is now doing) : ‘not a Title, no ;’ and if a Parliament shall determine that another Name run through the Laws, I believe it will run with as free a passage as this ‘ of King ever did.’ Which is all I have to say upon that head.

And if this be so, then truly other things may fall under a more indifi'erent consideration :1- and so I shall arrive ‘ at the Second thing I had in view,’ at some issue of answering for myself in this great matter. And all this while, nothing that I say doth any way determine as to my final resolution, or ‘intimate any ’ thought against the Parliament‘s

‘ Reform of Chancery ; improvements made in Law. 1’ ‘Other things,’ your other arguments, may lose a great d‘eal of their formidable air of cogency, as if Necessity herself were backing them

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wisdom in this matter; but ‘ endeavoreth ’ really and honestly and plainly towards such an answer as may be fit for me to give. The Parliament desires to have this Title. It hath stuck with me, and doth yet stick. And truly, as I hinted the other day,* it seemed as if your arguments to me did partly give positive grounds for what was to he done, and partly comparative grounds; stating the matter as you were then pleased to do,-for which I gave no cause that I know'of, that is, for comparing the efi'ects of Kingship with those of such a Name as I at present bear, with ‘ those of’ the Protectorship ‘to wit.’ I say I hope it will not be understood that I contend for the name; or for any name, or anything

of a merely extraneous nature ;’ but truly and plainly‘ for the substance of the business,’;-if I speak as in the Lord’s presence ; ay, in all right things, as a person under the disposal of the Providence of God,—neither “naming” one thing nor other; but only endeavoring to give fit answer as to this proposed Name or Titles} For I hope I do not desire to give a rule to anybody—‘ much less tothe Parliament.’ I professed I had not been able,—and I truly profess I have not yet been able,--to give a rule to myself ‘in regard to your Proposal.’ I would be understood iu this. [Yes, your Highness. “ That it is not doubt of the Parliament’s wisdom; that it is not rain preference or postponeme of one‘name ’ to another; but doubt as to the substantial expediency of the thing proposed, uncertainty as to God’s will and monition in regard to it, -—that has made and still makes me speak in this uncomfortable, haggling, struggling and wriggling manner. It is no easy thing forcing one’s way through a jungle of such depth! An aflair of Courtship moreover, which grows and has to grow by the rery handling of it! I would not be misunderstood in this.”]

I am a man standing in the Place I am in [Clearly, your Highness] ; which Place I undertook not so much out of hope of doing any good, a: out of a desire to prevent mischief and evil [Note this],—which I did see was imminent on the Nation. I say, we were running headlong into confusion and disorder, and would necessarily ‘ have ’ run into blood; and Iwas passive to those that desired me to undertake the Place which I now have. [With tones, with a look of sorrow, solemnity and nobleness ; the brave Oliver .'] A Place, I say, not so much of doing good,— which a man lawfully may, if he deal deliberately with God and his own conscience,-—a man may (I say) lawfully, if he deal deliberately with God and his own conscience; a man may lawfully, as the case

‘ ' Saturday last, day before Yesterday.

f The original (Somers, vi., 368) unintelligible, illegible except with the powerfullest lenses, yields at last,—with some slight changes of the points and so forth,-—-this sense as struggling at the bottom of it.

may be (though it is a very tickle case), desire a Place to do good in 2 'Window once more into his IIighfless! “ Tickle” is the old form q] TXCKLISH: “ a tickle case indeed,” his Highness candidly allows : yet a case which does occur,-—shame and we to him, the poor cowardly Pedant, tied up in cobwebs and lapethrums, that neglects it when it does I] I profess I had not that apprehension, when I undertook the Place, that I could so much do good; but I did think I might prevent imminent evil.—And therefore I am not contending for one “ name ” compared with another; —-and therefore have nothing to answer to any arguments that were used for preferring ‘ the name ’ Kingship to Protectorship. For I should almost think any “ name ” were better than my “ Name ;” and I should altogether think any person fitter than I am for such business [Your Highness ?—But St. Paul too pnfessed himself “the chief of sinners,”— and has not been altogether thought to “cant ” in doing so !]-—and I compliment not, God knows it! But this I should say, That I do think, you, in the settling of the peace and liberties of this Nation, which cries as loud upon you as ever Nation did for somewhat that may beget a consistence, ‘ ought to attend to that ;’ otherwise the Nation will fall in pieces! And in that, so far as I can, I am ready to serve not. as a King but as Constable ‘ if you like !’ For truly I have, as before God, often thought that I could not tell what my business was, nor what I was in the place I stood in, save comparing myself to a good Constable set to keep the peace of the Parish. [Hear his Highness !] And truly this hath been my content and satisfaction in the troubles I have undergone, That you yet have peace.

Why now, truly,—if I may advise,--I wish to God you may but be so happy as to keep the peace still !* If you cannot attain to such perfection as to accomplish this ‘ that we are now upon,’ I wish to God we may still have peace,—that I do ! But “the fruits of righteousness" are shown in “ meekness ;” a better thing than we are aware of !-—I say therefore, I do judge for myself there is no such necessity of this Name of King; for the other Names may do as well. I judge for myself. I must say a little (I think I have somewhat of conscience to answer as to the matter), why I cannot undertake this Name. [We are now fairly entered upon. the Second head of method] And truly I must needs go a little out of the way, to come to my reasons. And you will be able to judge of them when I have told you them. And I shall deal seriously, as before God.

If you do not all of you, I am sure some of you do, and it behoves me to say that I do, “ know my calling from the first to this day.” I was a

' If I may advise, I should say the purport and soul of our whole inquiry at present ought to be that of. keeping the peace.

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person who, from my first employment, was suddenly preferred and lifted up from lesser trusts to greater; from my first being a Captain of a Troop of Horse; and did labor as well as I could to discharge my trust; and God blessed me ‘therein’ as it pleased Him. And] did truly and plainly,——and in a way of foolish simplicity, as it was judged by very great and wise men, and good men too,—desire to make my instruments help me in that work. And I will deal plainly with you: I had a very worthy Friend then; and he was a very noble person, and I know his memory is very grateful to all,—Mr. John Hampden. [Hear, hear ;—a notable piece Qf History I] At my first going out into this engagement,* Isaw our men were beaten at every hand. I did indeed; and desired him that he would make some additions to my Lord Essex’s Army, of some new regiments; and I told him I would be serviceable to him in bringing such men in as I thought had a spirit that would do something in the work. This is very true thatI tell you; God knows I lie notxf “Your troops,” said I, “ are most of them old decayed serving-men, and tapsters, and such kind of fellows; and,” said I, “their troops are Gentlemen’s sons, younger sons and persons of quality: do you think that the spirits of such base and mean fellows will ever be able to encounter gentlemen, that have honor and courage and resolution in them '1’” Truly I did represent to him in this manner conscientiously; and truly I did tell him: “ You must get men of a spirit: and take it not ill what I say,—I know you will not,—of a spirit that is likely to go on as far as gentlemen will go :—or else you will be beaten still.” I told him so; I did truly. He was a wise and worthy person; and he did think that I talked a good notion, but an impracticable one. [Very natural in 1111‘. Hampden, if I recollect him well, your Highness ! With his close thin lips, and very vigilant eyes; with his clear oflicial understanding; lively sensibilities to “ unspoiled character,” “safe courses,” (#0.; (fa. A very brave man; but formidabe thick-quilted, and with pincer-lips, and eyes very vigilant.—Alas, there is no possibility for poor Columbus at any 0] the Public Oflices, till once he become an Actuality, and say, “ Here IS the America 1 was telling you of !”] Truly I told him I could do somewhat in it. I did so—‘ did this somewhat :’ and truly I must needs say this to you, ‘ The result was,’——impute it to what you please,-—I raised such men as had the fear of God before them, as made some conscience of what they did; [The Ironsides; yea !] and from that day forward, I must

' enterprise.

f A notable clause of a sentence, this latter too : physiognomic enough, -and perhaps very liable to be misunderstood by a modern reader. The old phrase, still current in remote quarters, “It’s no lie,” which signifies an emphatic and even courteous assent and afl‘irmation, must be borne in mind

say to you, they were never beaten, and wherever they were engaged against the enemy, they beat continually. [Yea I] And truly this is matter of praise to God :--and it hath some instruction in it, To own men who are religious and godly. And so many of them as are peaceably and honestly and quietly disposed to live within ‘ rules of’ Government, and will be subject to those Gospel rules of obeying Magistrates and living under Authority—[Sentence catches fire abruptly, and explodes here] -——I reckon no Godliness without that circle! Without that spirit, let it pretend what it will, it is diabolical, it is devilish, it is from diabolical spirits, from the depth of Satan’s wickedness*—-[ Checks himself]—Why truly I need not say more than to apply all this-[- ‘to the business we have in hand.’

I will be bold to apply this to our present purpose, because it is my all! I could say as all the world says, and run headily upon anything; but I must tender this ‘ my present answer ’ to you as a thing that sways upon my conscience; or else I were a knave and a deceiver. ‘ Well 3’ I tell you there are such men in this Nation; godly men of 'the same spirit, men that will not be beaten down by a worldly or carnal spirit while they keep their integrity. And I deal plainly and faithfully with you, ‘ when I say :’ I cannot think that God would bless an undertaking of anything, ‘Kingship or whatever else,’ which would, justly and with cause, grieve them. True, they may be troubled without cause ;—and I must be a slave if I should comply with any such humor as that. [Leaves the matter open still !] But I say there are honest men and faith ful men, true to 'the great things of the Government, namely the Liberty of the People, giving them ‘what is due to them, and protecting this Interest (and I think verily God will bless you for what you have done in that)—[Sentence broken; try it another way]—But if I know, as indeed I do, that very generally good men do not swallow this Title,—though really it is no part of their goodness to be unwilling to submit to what a Parliament shall settle over them, yet I must say, it is my duty and my conscience to beg of you that there may be no hard things put upon me: things, I mean, hard to them, which they cannot swallow. [The Young Lady will and she will not 1] If the Nation may be as Well provided for without these things we have been speaking of [Kings/tips, as, according to my apprehension, it may,—‘ then ’ truly I think it

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