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rior advantages derived from others subsequently explored in Matto Grossoand Cuiba, caused it to be abandoned, and its site is not now known with certainty. The little river Cabaral, also auriferous, enters the Paraguay on the w. side three leagues below the mouth of the Sypotuba. On the banks of the latter lives a nation of Indians, called Barbados, from the distinction peculiar to themselves, among all the Indian nations, of having large beards.
The Boriras Araviras inhabit the banks of the Cabaral: they are a mixture of two different nations, who in the year 1797 sent four chiefs of their tribe, accompanied by their mother, to Villa Bella, in order to solicit the friendship of the Portuguese. The nation called Pararione lives in their neighbourhood, close by the Sypotuba. A league below the mouth of the Cabaral, on the e. bank of the Paraguay, is Villa Maria, a small and useful establishment, founded in 1778. Seven leagues s. of Villa Maria, and on the to. bank of the Paraguay, the river Jauru disembogues into it in lat. 16° 24'. This river is remarkable for the boundary-mark erected at its mouth in 1754, as well as for being entirely Portuguese, together with lands on its s. bank, and bordering on the Spanish possessions. It rises in the plains of the Parexis in lat. 13° 54', and long. 58° 14', and running s. to lat. 15° 43', the situation of the Register of the same name, it there turns to the s. e. for 60 miles, till, by an entire course it reaches its junction with the Paraguay. There are salt-water-pits, which in part have supplied Matto Grosso ever since its foundation with salt: they are in the interior of the country, seven leagues from the Register, and extend to a place called Salina de Almeida, from the name of the person who first employed himself in these works.
These salt-pits are situated along the margins of broad marshy bottoms, in which are found fish of the same kind with those in the Paraguay. The Salina de Almeida is not far distant from the bank of the Jauru, andthe great quantity of saline liquid found in it continues three leagues further to the J. where a junction is formed with another from the w. called Pitas, w. of which are high and dry plains, where are found numerous large circles, formed by a species of palm called Carandas. These plains terminate nine leagues w. of the Salina de Almeida, in a large pool of marsh, called Paopique, which runs to the s.
The confluence of the Jauru with the Paraguay is a point of much importance: it guards and covers the great road between Villa Bella Cuia-] [ba, and their intermediate establishments, and in the same manner commands the navigation of both the rivers, and defends the entrance into the interior of the latter captainship. The Paraguay from this place has a free navigation upwards, almost to its sources, which are scarcely 70 leagues distant, with no other impediment than a large fall. These sources are said to contain diamonds.
The mark placed at the mouth of the Jauru is a pyramid of beautiful marble, brought to this distant point from Lisbon. It bears inscriptions commemorative of the treaty between the courts of Spain and Portugal, by which the respective territories, of which it stands as the boundary, were defined.
The lofty chain of mountains, which extends from the sources of the Paraguay near its e. bank, border the river opposite the mouth of the Jauru, and are terminated seven leagues below it by the Morro Excalvado in lat. 16° 43'. E. of this mount or point, all is marsh, and nine leagues below it there flows into the e. side of the Paraguay a deep stream or river, called Rio Novo, discovered in 1786, which may hereafter afford a navigation to near St. Pedro del Rey, when the aquatic plants that obstruct its channel are removed. The most distant sources of this river are the rivulets of Sta. Anna, Bento Gomez, and others which cross the great road of Cuiaba to the w. of Cocaes. In lat. 17° 33', the w. banks of the Paraguay become mountainous at the n. point of the Serra da Insua, which, three leagues to the s. makes a deep break to form the mouth of the lake Gaiba. This lake extends w. and there is a broad canal of four leagues in extent, which comes from the n. communicating from the above lake to that of Uberava, somewhat larger than the Gaiba, situated exactly contiguous to the Serra da Insua, on its n. side. Six leagues and a half below the mouth of the Gaiba, and opposite this mountainous bank of the Paraguay, is the mouth of the St. Lourenco, formerly called Porrudos. Twenty-six leagues above this the river Cuiaba enters its w. bank in lat. 17° 20', and long. 56° 50': these two rivers are of great extent; that of Lourenco has its sources in lat 15°, 40 leagues e. of the town of Cuaiba, receiving (besides the branches crossed by the road from Goiaz) other great streams on its e. side, such as the Paraiba or Piquiri, which receives the Jaquari and the Itiquira, all of moderate size, and navi
fable. The Itiquira has been navigated to its eads, from whence the canoes were dragged over land to the Sucuriu, which falls into the
Parana four leagues below the mouth of the river Tiete on the opposite side. The rivers Itiquira and Sucuriu were found to have fewer and smaller falls than the Taquari, and the land passage is much shorter and more convenient than that of the Camapuao, so that this navigation is preferable to that by the two last-mentioned rivers: it is attended by only two obstacles—many Indians, and a want ofprovisions.
The navigation to the town of Cuiaba by the river of that name, from its above-mentioned confluence, is short and easy: in the first 10 leagues, after passing the two small islands on Ariacuni and Tarumas, occurs a large plantation of bananas, formed on an embankment on the e. side of the river. Three leagues above this place the Guacho-uassu enters the Cuiaba by its e. bank, and on the same side, seven leagues farther, the Guacho-mirim. From this point the river winds in a n. n. e. direction, 11 leagues to the island of Pirahim, and from thence makes a large bend to the e. receiving numerous streams, and passes the town of Cuiaba, which is situated a mile to the e. of it. This town is 96 leagues to the e. of Villa Bella, and the same distance by water from the confluence of its river with the Paraguay. It is large, and, together with its dependencies, may at present contain 30,000 souls. It is well provided with meat, fish, fruits, and all sorts of vegetables, at a much cheaper rate than at the sea-ports. The country is well adapted for cultivation, and has rich mines, but in some places little water to work them in dry weather. They were discovered in 1718, and have been estimated to produce annually above 20 arrobas of gold of extremely fine quality.
Twenty leagues s. w. of the town of Cuiaba is the settlement of St. Pedro del Rey, the largest of all the adjacent settlements, and contains full 2,000 inhabitants. It is situate near the w. side of the rivulet Bento Gomez, which, at the distance of a league and a half s. of the settlement, forms a large bay, called Rio de Janeiro. The river Cuiaba has its sources 190 miles above the town, and its banks are cultivated through the greater part of its extent, including 14 leagues below the town, down the stream. Four leagues below the principal mouth of the river Porrudos, the Paraguay is bordered by the mountains that separate it from Gaiba on its w. bank, and in this place they obtain the appellation of Serra das Pedras de Amolar, from being composed of a stone of which whet-stones are made. This is the only spot which is not inundated by the floods of the river, and is therefore much visited by the canoes] [from the town of Cuiaba. The place seems very proper for a Register, to prevent the smuggling of gold in this route, and to fix the duties on goods passing to Cuiaba and Motta Grosso. The canoes and cargoes are transported from the Fazenda de Camapuao by land about a mile to the river Sanguixuga, the principal source of the Rio Pardo. From the end of the land passages the navigation continues down the Sanguixuga, and, in the interval of three leagues, they lit',',' four falls to the Rio Vermelho (so called rom the colour of its waters), which enters the Pardo. Half a league from the mouth of the Vermelho the Pardo has the fall of the Pedras de A molar, and a league below receives on its s. side the river Claro, from which, after proceeding two leagues of level stream, there occur nine falls in the space of two leagues more. The passage of them occupies 12 or 14 days in going up the river, though only one returning. Below the last of these, called the Bangue, the river Sucuriu enters the Pardo on its s. side. Three leagues below the mouth of the Sucuriu, is the cataract of Curare, about eight yards high, to avoid which the canoes are hauled over-land through a passage of 100 yards. From this cataract, in the space of 10 leagues, there occur to falls, which occupy 15 or 20 days, in ascending the river, though only one in descending. The breadth of the Rio Pardo in this part is 22 fathoms. Two leagues below the last of these falls is a deep inlet of 390 fathoms; half a league lower the canoes are hauled over a space of land of 150 yards. Haifa league further is the fall of Sirga Kegra; one league further, that of Sirga Matto; and a little more than a league from thence, the great cataract, or Salto da Cajuru, ten yards in height, to avoid which, the canoes are hauled through a narrow channel here formed by the river. At a distance equal to the preceding is the Cajurumirim, and immediately after is found the fall of Da Ilha, the thirty-third and last on this river. Six leagues below this fall, the Rio Pardo receives on its «. side the river Orelha da Anta, (so called from abounding with ants); and four leagues lower down, on the same side, the Orelha da Ouca, from the mouth of which, after 11 leagues of navigation, is found the junction which the river Anhandery-uassu makes from the s. with the Pardo, which, from the passage of Cama
fmao to this point, completes a s. e. course of 45 eagues in extent. The Anhandery and the Pardo from their confluence, run 16 leagues of navigation w. in one channel, and disembogue in the w. bank of the Parana in lat. about 21°. The
velocity of the current of the Rio Pardo is very irregular; it may be navigated downward in five or six days, but cannot be ascended in less than 20 or 30, and that by hauling, for the force of the the stream in some places is too great for oars.
The river Parana is of great breadth and weight of water, and is navigated against its current up to the mouth of the Tiete\ In the first three leagues occurs the island of Manuel Homem. Five leagues above this island the Rio Verde falls into the Parana, by a mouth of 42 fathoms, on its w. bank, and at an equal distance above, on the opposite c. side, the river Aguapehy enters, by a mouth apparently above 20 yards wide. Fight leagues above this river, and on the w. side of the Parana, the large river Sucuriu has its mouth, at least 53 fathoms wide, and, after four leagues of navigation further, on the Parana, is found the mouth of the large and interesting river, the Tiete\ The distance between the rivers Tiete" and Pardo, according to the windings of the Parana, may be estimated at thirty-five leagues; the direction n. inclining to the e. Passing up the Tiet6, in the first three leagues is found the great Salto de Itapura (a great cascade), to avoid which the canoes are dragged 60 fathoms over land. A league above is the difficult fall of Itapura-mirim; another league upwards are the three falls, called Tres Irmaos, and little more than that distance onward, that of Itapuru, half a league long; two leagues further is the fall of U-aicurituba-mirim, and in the upper part of it the small river Sucury enters the Tiete upon its n. bank. One league above it is the fall of Utupiba, a quarter of a league in length. The same distance above if the fall of Araracangua-uassu, which is passed with unloaded canoes. Five leagues above this is found the Araracangua-mirim; one league further, the Arassatuba, and at the same distance, the U-aicurituba, from which, in the space of nine leagues, occur seven fells. Three and a half leagues above the last of them is that of the Escaramunca, so called from the abrupt windings of the river among a thousand rocks and stoppages. Two leagues above this is the large tail of Avanhandava, where the canoes are unloaded, and their cargoes carried half a mile over land, and the canoes hauled the greatest part of the war, to avoid a cataract 16 yards perpendicular. A league and a half above this is the fell of Avatihandava-mirim, and very near it, that of the Campo, from which there are 14 leagues of clear navigation to those of the Camboyu-voca, and next to the Tambau-mirim and Uassu, both]