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church, and repeat the same at night-fall. The rest of the day they are employed in assisting their mothers, whilst the men are employed in different handicraft works, as carpentering, sculpture, musical instrument making, weaving, and other mechanical arts and employments, for which they have excellent masters. Every night the cabildo comes to the curate to inform him of what has happened in the course of the day, and the people, after saying the rosary, betake themselves to rest.

These Indians cannot be said to pay any other tribute than personal service to those under whom they live, notwithstanding it has been attempted by the king to introduce a different sys

tem. In the settlement of Itape, for instance, there is no vassalage, but the Indians there assist with their persons and rafts all those who pass in the time of the floods a large arm of the river Tibiquari, by which lies the road to Villarica.

This province has suffered, from its first formation, various convulsions and alterations, from being divided into parties, formed from vain ideas of honour or interest, and has been the scene of great bloodshed. To its bishopric, which was erected in 1547, belong also the settlements of Parana, situate to the s. e. and of which we speak in their proper place. [See Pa Raguay River.]

Table of the Population of the Government of Paraguay, according to Azara's Work,

published in 1809.


The letter c. indicates city; t. town ; p. parish; «. settlement of Indians ; m. settlement of Mulattoes or

people of colour.

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Years of



1536 1536 1538 1538 1538 1538 1538 1538 1673 1607 1610 1592 1592 1555 1609 1698 1634 1614 1627 1633 1622 1706 1685 1746 1749 1760 1536

Latitndc south.

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25 30 30

25 33 20

25 27 44

25 29 48

25 18 1

25 16

25 16 45 16

0 18

26 36 56

26 48 12

27 8 40 27 14 52 26 54 36

26 53 19

27 18 55 27 20 16 27 26 46 27 23 45

Longitude west from London.

25 16

25 52

26 11

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Number of souls.

Carried forward





























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Bishops who have presided in Paraguay.

1. Don Fr. Juan de los Barrios y Toledo, of the order of San Francisco, native of the town of Pedroche in Estremadura: he was one of the first of the religious who passed over to Peru, was elected first bishop of Paraguay in 1547, and after passing to his church, was promoted to that of Santa Marta in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada in 1550.

2. Don Fr. Tomas de la Torre, of the order of S. Domingo, whom the father Pedro Xavier de Charlevoix wrongly denominates, Fr. Pedro de la Torre; he was of the order of S. Francisco: elected in 1552, and took possession in 1555.

3. Don Fr. Fernan Gonzalez de la Cuesta: elected in 1559.

4. Don Fr. Juan del Campo, of the order of San Francisco, presented in 1575: he lived but a short time.

5. Don Fr. Alonso Guerra, of the order of S. Domingo; presented in 1577, and promoted to the bishopric of Mechoacan.

6. Don Fr. Juan de Almaraz, of the order of San Agustin, native of Salamanca, master in his religion, calijicador of the holy office, professor of writing, prior various times in his convent of Lima, preacher of great repute, and provincial: elected bishop of Paraguay in 1591, but he died before he received the notice, in the following year.

7. Don Tomas Vazquez del Capo, magisterialcanon of the holy church of Valladolid; presented to the bishopric of Paraguay in 1596: he died before he was consecrated.

8. Don Fr. Baltasar deCovarrubias, of the order of San Agustin, native of Mexico; presented to the bishopric of Paraguay in 1601, and promoted to Nueva Carceres in the Philippines the same year.

9. Don Fr. Martin Ignacio de Loyola, of the barefooted order of S. Francisco: he took the habit in the convent of Alaejos, passed to America with the title of commissary of twenty religious persons, returned to Spain, and was lecturer in theology in the convents of Cadahalso and Segovia, and presented by his majesty Philip III, to the bishopric of Paraguay in 1601; afterwards promoted to the archbishopric of Charcas in 1607.

10. Don Fr. Rcginaldo de Lizarraga, of the order of S. Domingo, native of Lima: he was presented to a degree in his religion, and promoted from the church of Imperial in Chile, to this of Paraguay in 1607.

11. Don Lorenzo de Grado, native of Sala

manca, where he studied and graduated as licentiate: he passed over to Peru, and was there made archdeacon of Cuzco, and elected bishop of Paraguay in 1607; promoted to that church in 1618.

12. Don Fr. Tomas de Torres, of the order of S. Domingo, native of Madrid, collegiate in the college of San Gregorio de Valladolid; presented to a mastership in his religion, destined as its general in Flanders; and after having read theology in many convents, and studied in the university of Lobaina for eight years and an half; he returned to Spain, was prior of the convents of S. Domingo de Zamora and de Nuestra Senora de Atocha in Madrid, and was presented by king Philip III, to the bishopric of Paraguay in 1619, and in 1625 promoted to that of Tu cuman.

13. Dou. Fr. Agustin de Vega, of the same order as the former, native of Lima, provincial of his religion, calijicador of the holy office, presented to this bishopric in 1625: he died the same year, before he took possession.

14. Don Fr. Christoval de Aresti, of the order of San Benito, native of Valladolid: he took the habit in the royal monastery of San Julian of Samos in Galicia, was lecturer of arts in San Vincenti of Oviedo, abbot of Corneliana, professor of writing, twice abbot of Samos, and difinidor general; elected to the bishopric of Paraguay in 1626, and to that of the church of Buenos Ayres in 1635.

15. Don Fr. Francisco de la Serna, of the order of San Agustin, native of the city of Guanuco in Peru : he studied and read arts and theology in the convent of Lima, was noon and evening lecturer in its university, twice provincial calijicador of the holy office, presented to the bishopric of Paraguay in 1635, and promoted to that of La Paz in 1640.

16. Don Fr. Bernardeno de Cardenas, of the order of San Francisco, native of the city of Chuquiavo in Peru, lecturer of theology, difinidor, vicar, guardian, and visitor of his religion, preacher apostolic, a true father to the needy and to the Indians, in the conversion of whom he laboured much; presented to the bishopric of Paraguay in 1638, and settled in his commission in 1640. In his time there was great disputes and contentions with the Jesuits: he was promoted to the church of Popayaan in 1637, but renounced' the offer from his advanced age, though he was at last prevailed to accept that of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in 1666.

17. Don Fr. Gabriel de Guillistegui, of the order of San Francisco, commissary-general of his religion ; elected bishop of Paraguay in 1666, and promoted in the same year to that of La Paz, which he renounced: ne made the visitation of the missions of the Jesuits in that province by a special commission from the king, and was promoted to the bishopric of La Paz in 1671.

18. Don Fernando de Balcazar, native of Lima, chanter of the holy church of Truxillo, theological canon, treasurer and archdeacon in the church of his native place, elected bishop of Paraguay in 1672: he died before he was consecrated.

19. Don Fr. Faustino de las Casas, of the order of La Merced; elected bishop of this church in 1672, where he governed till 1683.

20. Don Fr. Sebastian de Pastrana, of the order of La Merced, native of Lima, provincial and professor of Santo Tomas in its university, and bishop of Paraguay.

21. Don Juan de Durana, archdeacon of Arequipa, his native place, bishop elect of Paraguay, but he never took possession; so that the court were induced to confer upon him the appointment of coadjutor for upwards of 20 years after, to the end of his life.

22. Don Fr. Joseph de Palos, of the order of San Francisco, native of Morella in the kingdom of Valencia, guardian in many convents of S. and N. America, where he was charged with various important commissions which he fulfilled with ability: he was living retired in the settlement of La Sal, when he was nominated as titular bishop and coadjutor of the bishopric of Paraguay during the sickness of the proprietor in 1724: he died with universal regret in 1738; and his life was not only memorable for his own singular talents, but'through the tragical fate of Joseph de Antequera.

9.3. Don Fr. Joseph Cayetano Palavicini, of the order of San Francisco, a theologist, calip,cador of the holy office, preacher general, dip,nidor of his province of Charcas, and pro-minister of the same to vote in the general chapter: elected bishop of Paraguay in 1739 : he was promoted to Truxillo in 1748.

24. Don Fernando Perez de Oblitas, native of Lima; elected in 1748, and promoted to the church of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in 1756, without ever having passed to his diocese.

25. Don Manuel de la Torre, elected in the aforesaid year; promoted to the church of Buenos Ayres in 1763.

26. Don Manuel Lopez de Espinosa, elected in the above year: he died in 1772.


Mr. Don Fr. Juan Joseph Priego, of the order of San Francisco: he died in 1779.

28. Don Fr. Luis de Velasco, of the order of San Francisco, native of Madrid; elected in 1779.

Governors of the province of Paraguay.

1. Don Manuel de Frias, first governor of this province; nominated by the kiug, when it was separated from the jurisdiction of the province of the Rio de la Plata, and when the limits of both were settled in 1620: he had many disputes with the bishop, with respect to the rights of patronage; when this prelate thought proper to excommunicate him, and to take the adminstration of the settlements out of the hands of the missions of the Jesuits; a step which was condemned by the council of the Indies: he governed till 1630.

2. Don Luis de C6spedes, distinct from another of the same name who was governor of Buenos Ayres and the Rio de la Plata: he took possession of the government of Paraguay the aforesaid year, and exercised it till 1636.

3. Don Martin de Ledesma, nominated to succeed the former: he governed till 1639.

4. Don Pedro de Lugo y Navarro, knight of the order of Santiago : he had a commission from the king to visit the settlements of the missions of the Jesuits, and to give them redress and protection against the insults of the Mamelucos Indians: he succeeded in completely routing these, and thereby revenged the death of his friend and companion, father Romero, a Jesuit, who was killed by them : he governed till 1642.

5. Don Gregorio de Hinestrosa, native of Chile, in whose time occurred the disgraceful dissentions between the bishop Don Fr. Bernardino de Cardenas and the Jesuits, the which laid the foundation of the disorders which this province afterwards suffered, and which were not put a stop to till that the governor removed the bishop of its diocess, he being, in return, thrice excommunicated: this government lasted for five years, until 1648.

6. Don Diego de Escobar Osorio, oidor of the royal audience of Charcas, who, from the critical state in which affairs were left by his predecessor, reigned but a short time; for his death was hastened, and he died in 1649.

7. Don Fr. Bernardino de Cardenas, bishop of this diocese, who was tumultously proclaimed by his partizans as governor in the vacancy: he began his reign by exterminating the Jesuits from the city, as well as from the other settlements, and causing them to leave the country



and to embark, with great violence. This rave rise to fresh disputes, and the Jesuits, by virtue of the pontifical bull which they possessed, established a judge conservator. In the mean time the audience of Charcas disapproved this intrusive government, and nominated, provisionally,

8. Don Andres Garavito of Leon, knight of the order of Santiago, oidor of the aforesaid audience of Charcas, and whilst he was proceeding to his destination, Don Sebastian de Leon, a colonel, who was rejected by the bishop, who defended himself by some armed Indians; but these dissentions were soon put to an end on the arrival of the aforesaid governor Garavito; and he took possession of the government and held it till 1651, when he returned to the duties of his place.

9. Don Juan Vazquez of Valverde, oidor of the same royal audience as the former, and nominated by it as provisional governor, with a special commission of visiting the province, and of examining into the late occurrences: he entered the government in 1661 and held it till 1665.

10. Don Felipe Rege Corbulon, till 1679.

11. Don Juan Diaz de Andino, till 1685, when he died.

12. Don Antonio de Vera Moxica, nominated provisionally by the viceroy of Peru.

13. Don Balta&ar Garcia Ros, serjeant-major of the plaza of Buenos Ayres, appointed here as a recompense by the king, for his services performed in the conquest of the colony of Sacramento, established by the Portuguese on the shore of the river La Plata of Buenos Ayres: he entered the government in 1705, with a particular charge to make the visit of the settlements of the missions of the Jesuits, which he did, rendering an accurate account of his discoveries to his majesty.

14. Don Juan Gregorio Basin de Pedraza.

15. Don Diego de los Reyes Balmaseda, native of the port of Santa Maria: he entered in 1717, but the constant complaints made against him, and particularly of his partiality towards the Jesuits, obliged the audience of Charcas to nominate a provisional judge visitor, the same being made also provisional governor by the viceroy of Peru, in 1721, and the person so appointed was,

16. Don Joseph de Antequera y Castro, knight of the order of Alcantara, fiscal-protector of the Indians of the audience of Charcas. His unlucky stars had brought him hither to meet his death on a scaffold, in the city of Lima, through

some riots which had lately arisen by certain misunderstandings between the bishop Don Ft: Joseph de Palos and the Jesuits.

17. Don Martin de Barua, nominated provisionally by the field-marshal Don Bruno Mauricio de Zavala, by special commission of the viceroy, the marquis del Castelfuerte, to pacify the province, the administration of which underwent some changes from some representations which he made to the king concerning the Jesuits: he governed five years.

18. Don Bartolome de Aldunate, captain of horse of the garrison of Buenos Ayres: who did not arrive to take possession, although nominated by the king.

19. Don Iquacio de Soroeta, who had been corregidor of Cuzco: accredited for his skill and justice, and nominated by the viceroy of Peru in 1730: his entry was disputed by the inhabitants, who took up arms against him, and obliged him to fly.

M. Don Isedro Mirones y Benavente, oidor of the audience of Charcas, whose prudence and talents, testified by his pacification of the disturbances of the province of Cochabamba, led to his election to Paraguay by the viceroy, that he might call his talent into action on similar circumstances; but, whilst on his journey, he received intelligence that the proper successor appointed by H. M. had arrived; and upon this he returned to his former office.

21. Don Manuel Augustin de Ruiloba, who was general of Callao, and general of the armies of Peru, when he entered Asuncion, 1733; but being out with a troop, and some Indians of the missions, for the purpose of quelling some disturbances, and being deserted by his party, he fell a sacrifice at the hands of the insurgents in the same year.

22. Don Fr. Juan de Arregui, of the order of San Francisco, bishop of this diocess, and proclaimed governor by the insurgents; and, although he was endeavouring to escape secretly from the city, he was brought back ana forced to reign till the arrival of the judge Don Juan Vazquez de Aguero, as visitor, nominated by the king.

23. Don Bruno Mauricio de Zavola, fieldmarshal and governor of Buenos Ayres; promoted to the presidency of Chile, and ordered by the viceroy, the Marquis de Castelfuerte, to proceed with a force to Paraguay, to quell the disturbances there; accordingly causing himself to be acknowledged governor, in 1735 he dispersed the insurgents, inflicted punishment on the chief

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