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[poor, probably from want of commerce; for although the great rivers Tocantines and Amazonas have their source, the latter in Peru, and the former in the captainship of Goyaz, though they receive almost millions of inferior streams in their course through immense tracks of territory, yet they are notproductive of any commerce of consequence. The few exports from Para consist of a little rice and cocoa, a few drugs, &c. to Maranan, from whence they are embarked for Europe. A few small brigs were sent hither from Barbadoes, after the taking of Cayenne: but the trade must be a bad one, as the inhabitants are in general too poor to purchase English manufactures, except those of necessity; nor could the produce of Para be an object of interest, as a cargo is at all times very precarious, and difficult to be obtained.

The climate is hot, as may well be supposed, from its lying so near the equinoctial. Thunder, with lightning and rain, occur generally every afternoon, which cool the air very much, and render the heat less disagreeable.

To the s. of Para is the captainship of Goyaz, bounded chiefly by Miuas Geraes on the e. and Matto Grosso on the w. Its greatest extent in length is from lat. 6° to 21° 30' *. Villa Boa, its principal town, is situate in lat. 16° 22 s. about 270 miles to the w. of Paracatu, from whence there is a good road. Here is a permutationhouse, where all the gold found in the captainship is permuted. The governor is elected for three years, after which he is generally appointed to Bahia or Minas Geraes. In the captainship are many gold-mines, some of which produce gold of R very fine quality. Diamonds have been found in some parts, which are different in their appearance from those found in Cerro do Frio, having more brilliancy on their exterior; but they are in general not of so pure a water, though of a very desirable size. As this fine district is so distant from the coast, it has very little commerce in any of its productions, except the valuable substances above-mentioned, and cattle, which are bred on the frontiers ; also some cotton, and occasionally a few peculiar articles, Which are sent to Rio de Janeyro. The mules on the return-journey are all loaded with salt, iron, cheap cotton-prints, woollens (particularly baizes), hats, fire-arms, powder and shot, and a variety of artificers' tools. When any of the inhabitants have any thing peculiarly precious to dispose of, they generally take it to Rio de Janeyro, and lay out the proceeds chiefly in the purchase of Negroes {they being at all times the first object), iron, «alt, and other commodities.


The population is very small in comparison to the extent of the district, but is likely to be increased by new settlers; although the indigent in Villa Rica, Tejuco, and other places in the mining country, are little inclined to remove out of society, even for the chance of riches; in fact, having no Negroes fit to work, and being totally destitute of exertion themselves, all situations are to them indifferent. These are by no means the class of people who can be styled, adventurers. The poorer class of inhabitants who have obtained a small portion of gold, sometimes make a journey to Paracatu or Villa Rica to purchase what Negroes they want. This captainship has been very little explored, and scarcely any thing is known of its productions beyond what is above stated, nor are any others sought after, though it cannot be doubted that there are many substances in all departments of natural history which might form the basis of a considerable commerce; indeed, it is not unreasonable to presume that the soil contains the same variety of metals as the district of Minas Geraes. Many

Eersons from thence speak of it with delight as being a fine country, having numerous rivers well stored with fish, and woods abounding with fine birds, which afford excellent diversion to the sportsman : also a great variety of animals.

Para, together with Matto Grosso, and St. Paul's, communicates with the captainship of Goyas, by rivers which are navigable, though frequently interrupted by falls. The capital of Para is 60 miles from the mouth of the river, in lat. 1° 30's. and Ion. 48° 33'a>.]

Para, a river of the above province and kingdom, on the e. side of which the capital of this kingdom is situate. It is, properly speaking, one of the mouths of the Amazonas, formed by the island of Joanes, about 40 miles wide at its mouth. [This river is about 200 miles long.]

Para, another,a small riverof the province and captainship of Espiritu Santo in the same kingdom, rising in the mountains near the coast, running n. and forming various lakes. It then turns n. e. and enters the Paranauna with the name of Paracatus, opposite the settlement of Rosario.

Para, another. See Paranaiba.

Para, a small island, near the coast of the province and captainship of its name, between the island of Sipatubaand the bay of Cabelo de Velha.

Para, a settlement of the province and corregimicnto of Carrabaya in Peru.

Para, another, of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in the same kingdom, annexed to the curacy of Paraisancos.

PARACAHUIN, a river of the division and


district of Boroa in the kingdom of Chile, which runs n. n. w. and enters the Cauten: at its source the Spaniards had built a fort which was destroyed by the Araucanos Indians.

PAR AC AS, a port of the S. sea, on the coast of the kingdom of Chile. It is small and of little security, and frequented by the vessels coming to this kingdom from Callao, in lat 29° if s.

[Ships receive shelter here, when driven out of the harbour of Cangallan or Sangallan, which is three leagues s. e. of Carette Island, and n. n. w. of the island of Lobos.J

PARACASSA, a river of the province and government of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdom of Quito: it rises in the mountains of Santiago de Los Jorocos, and runs n. e. to enter the Maranon by its w. shore, in lat. 4° 42 s.

[PARACATU,is the principal village or town of a district of the same name, which lies about 90 leagues n. w. of Teiuco, bordering on the captainship of Goyas in Brazil, from which it is separated by a chain of high mountains that take a n. direction. The numerous rivers which rise on the e. side of the mountains, and flow into the great river St. Francisco, are rich in gold. The population of the village is estimated at above 1000 souls, and will shortly be very numerous, as the reputed richness of some late discoveries has tempted many families to migrate thither. It has all the advantages of a high and healthy situation, in the midst of a most fertile country, and has considerable intercourse with Sabora and Villa Rica, where the gold procured in its vicinity is permuted. It is governed by a captain Mor, who is subordinate to the governor of the latter place, to whom all disputes of consequence are referred. To the s. is the rich distacamento of Rio Plata, a river that yields fine diamonds, and has been much frequented by many adventurers, who, when discovered and seized, are called smugglers. A strong guard of soldiers is stationed here to prevent the precious stones from being sought for clandestine%

PARA CAT us, a small river of the province and captainship of Espiritu Santo in Brazil, which rises in the interior of the mountains, runs e. and enters with another small stream which it receives into the San Francisco.

PARACAUSA, a river of the province and government of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdom of Quito, which rises n. of its capital, and runs with various windings into the Maranon.

PARACAY, a settlement of the province and correeimiento of Nasca in Peru; in the vicinity of which are some pools of water called Las Lagunillas.

PARACAS, a port of the S. sea, on the coast of the province and corremmienlo of lea in Peru: little frequented by vessels, notwithstanding that it is convenient and sheltered.

PARACEVINI, a river of the province and country of Las Amazonas: it is small, runs n. and enters the Madera.

PARACHO, S. Pedro De, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Arantzan and alcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacan: it contains 78 families of Indians, and 11 of Spaniards, Mustees, and Mulattoes, dedicated to the cultivation of seeds, cutting of woods, making of earthen-ware, and saddles for riding: 12 leagues w. of its capital.

PARACUARl, a settlement of the province and captainship of Para in Brazil; situate in the island of Joanes or Marajo.

PARADISE, a township of Pennsylvania, in York county.

Paradise. See Plate Forme.]

PARADOS, Nuestra Senora De Los, a settlement of the province and government of Buenos Ayres; situate on the shore of the river Tandil, near the coast, which lies between the river Plata and the strait of Magellan. It is of Patagones Indians reduced to the faith.

PARAGOAN A, a point of land or cape, called also de San Roman, on the coast of the province and government of Venezuela, 13 leagues from the city of Coro. It runs into the sea for upwards of 11 leagues, and is very lofty and craggy, and forms with the point of Coquibacoa the gulf of Venezuela; in lat. 11° 52' n.

PAR AGUA, a river of the province and government of Maracaibo, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It rises at the foot of the Sierra Nevada, to the e. of the city of Pedraza, runs s. s. e. and enters the Apure.

PARAGUACA, a river of the province and captainship of Todos Santos in Brazil, which rises near the coast, runs e. and inclining to s. e. enters the bay.

PARAGUAIRI, a town of the province and government of Paraguay; situate to the c. of the city of Asuncion, on the opposite shore.

PARAGUAN, a settlement of the government of Maracaibo, in the province of Venezuela and Nuevo Reyno de Granada; situate in the peninsula formed by the cape San Roman on the s. opposite the coast.

PARAGUANA,apeninsulaofthe province and government of Venezuela, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is nearly of a square figure, and united to the rest of the coast merely by a very narrow isthmus, on which stands the city of Coro.

PARAGUARI, a settlement of the missions held by the Carmelite fathers of Portugal in the country of Las Amazonas; situate on the shore of this river, between that of Tefe and that of Yurba. Mr. Bellin calls it Paracari in his map and description of Guayana.

[PARAGUARY, a parish of the province and government of Paraguay: situate on a plain in the road from Asuncion to Villa Rica, and about 31 miles from the former, in lat. 25° 36" 51" *. and Ion. 57° 19'50'a).]

PARAGUAY, a province and government of Peru, belonging to the viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres; bounded by, or, more properly speaking, extending, on the n. as far as, the lake Los Xaray es, [which by the by is only the inundation of several rivers beginning in January and lasting three months] from whence issues the great river Paraguay, which gives its name to the country; extending e. as far as Brazil, and bounded s. by the missions of Parana, its jurisdiction ending at the river to the s. of the city of Asuncion, in lat. 26° 48' s. although it formerly extended as far as the embouchure of the river Parana, in lat. 27° 38'. It is bounded w. by the country of Gran Chaco, inhabited by many nations of infidel Indians, extending as far as the borders of the province of Tucuman, and divided from thence by the river Paraguay.

Its extent is about 200 Italian miles from e. to w. and more than 300 from n. to *. It was discovered by Sebastian Gaboto in 1526; is of a warm and moist temperature, from the number of woods, lakes, and rivers, with which it is covered, and from the various swamps, which are formed between the months of November and April, when the rains are most abundant. It is watered by an infinite number of rivers, the principal of which are, first that of its own name, and then those in the n. parts of Porrudos, Mboteley, Tobati, Ipane Piray, and others of less note; and in the s. part, those of Canab6 and Tibiquari, this dividing this province from that of the Rio de la Plata of Buenos Ayres.

The woods are many and impenetrable, and in them grow in abundance sour oranges, citrons, limes, and other wild fruits, of which conserves are made. There are also trees of very good timber, and fine wood, such as cedars,petoroques, urundais, tajibos, and others; of the first they make canoes and slabs, which they carry to Buenos Ayres for careening vessels and for other uses. In these woods are found a variety of birds and animals, such as rabbits, hares, partridges, wildboar, deer, and other species of creatures less known, such as quiriquinchos, mulitas, and ape

riades; but from the great quantity of neat cattle, the flesh of which is preferred to any other here, none of the above animals are ever hunted: sometimes, however, the inhabitants

will hunt


which abound in the lakes and

the shores of the river, and kill great numbers. Here also breed goldfinches, nightingales, larks, green parrots, long-tailed parrots, others of most beautiful plumage, and peacocks; nor are there wanting ostriches, and birds of prey; amongst which there is one called tuca, resembling the crow, but having a beak which is singular, from being the length of a hand, and beautifully variegated with a distribution of red, yellow, and black streaks. The water in which the tongue of this bird, which is a feather, has been steeped, is a sovereign remedy against the epilepsy, as has been proved by repeated experiments made in this country.

The most ferocious animal is the tiger, of

which there are


numbers, and which do

great havoc amongst the cattle and the people. Here are bears, which are ant-eaters, with very long tongues; and these they put into an ant s nest, and when they feel it covered with these insects they withdraw it, delighting in their food. Here is also found the great beast called the anta, and many monkies of various kinds, called in the language of the country caragas. What are here called lions have no resemblance to those of Africa either in shape or ferocity.

On the shores of the rivers breeds an animal called capihuara, which is amphibious, lives in the water, and breeds on land; it resembles the pig, and differs from it only in the snout, which is shorter and less pointed. Nothing abounds in this province more than insects, and of these the plague of mosquitoes is equally distressing on the waters as on the land. Here are snakes both small and large, vipers, scorpions, &c, and in some parts abound the murcielagos, which suck the blood of a person asleep, and endanger his life should he not awake in time Also, it is not uncommon to see a species of butterfly, called utas, which, in whatever part it bites, causes a humour to appear like gum, and then corrodes the part, forming a nidus for a little worm, which, although extracted, leaves behind an unseemly wound, which increases daily, and is only got rid of by a very particular and tedious method of cure.

The principal commerce of this province is in certain species of leaves of trees, which grow on some mountains about 100 leagues from the capital, known by the name of the herb of Pariffuay. In the gathering and preparing of this herb both natives and strangers are employed, and the operation consists in drying the leaves, which are scattered on shelves for the purpose over a fire, when they are crumbled into bits no bigger than sawdust; and then they are put up into packages of from seven to eight arrobas each. There are two sorts of this leaf; the first, and which is most esteemed, is that which is made of the tender part of the leaves, and is called herb camini; the other, the inferior sort, is made of the thick part of the leaves, and has the name of herb de Palos. The consumption of this article, not only in these provinces but in those of Peru and Chile, is incredible, since there is scarcely any person who does not take it two or three times in the course of the day, making an infusion of it like tea, with warm water and sugar, and calling it mate.

The second great article of commerce is the tobacco, although the exports of this have not been so great since that the king has established a manufactory of slack and twisted tobacco, on account of the royal warehouses.

They also make some sugar here, and gather a good quantity of cotton; and the product of these articles, which are carried to Buenos Ayres, returns in the shape of European goods. Its only communication with the' province of the Rio de la Plata is by the Paraguay, and the shipments from one place to the other are never less than 12,000 arrobas annually: not but that the journey is sometimes performed by land, but then it is along the coast of the river, and never undertaken but by the couriers, or some persons by way of express, who lay themselves open to the inconvenience and necessity of passing many rivers by wading or swimming, there being no ferries, and likewise to the continual risk of being surprised by the infidel Indians, who are constantly prowling along the river's banks: but it must be allowed that this latter objection is equally applicable to such as make the voyage; since the Payaguas Indians who dwell upon the shores of the river are terrible pirates, infesting the passage with their canoes, and joining 60 or 70 of them together, there being in each six or seven men armed with lances and clubs; so that it is necessary for vessels to go supplied with plenty of ammunition or under convoy.

A few years since a peace was made with these Indians, and although great insolence was at first manifested by them as barbarians, many of them have become domesticated and live in the vicinity of the capital, where they make them»elves useful by supplying fish. Nearly the whole of this province is sur

rounded by enemies, who have never ceased to invade it since its foundation. These enemies are, to the w. the barbarian Indians, the Lenguas, Tobas, and Moscobies; on the s. the Abipomp ; on the n. the tribe of Guaycurus, commonly called Mbayas, and the Panaguas ; and in the e. part alone is it free from any immediate host; not but that on the mountains of the Yerva dwell the Monteses, who although they do not infest the settlements, give great annoyance to the parties employed in procuring the herb paraguay, and have even, not unfrequently, attacked the Indians who have been reduced to the faith and have settled on the frontiers; and very lately the Portuguese of Brazil, when, having destroyed the various settlements on the e. and the city of Xerez on the n. which served as an outwork of defence against them, they pushed forward in that direction by the passage at which, at the present day, stand the settlements of Cubava and Matogroso, as far as the head settlements of the Moxos, to establish a commerce with Santa Cruz de la Sierra and La Paz; for these infidels, like ants, once con-" vinced of the existence of a booty, although turned a thousand times out of their course, will still keep travelling on in pursuit of their object.

All the aforesaid infidels have frequently invaded, and still continue to invade, this country in the most unseasonable and unexpected times, when they put' to death all they meet, plundering the women and children, and laying waste whatever comes in their way. They have at times made peace with different nations, but they break such alliances with the greatest impudence, and for this system of conduct the Guaycurus, a ferocious and intractable race, are peculiarly notorious.

In order to guard against these enemies which thus threaten the existence of the province, the inhabitants have found it necessary to enrol themselves in a volunteer militia, procuring arms and horses at their own expence, and forming themselves into garrisons in such parts as may be most required; and, although this duty is somewhat irksome, an arrangement has been lately made by which each individual is dispensed from actual service for 22 days in each month, whenever the steps taken by the enemy may not require it otherwise: but should these, as it frequently happens, lay hands on the cattle or other goods of the community, they are all obliged to come into the field to redeem their possessions, and the persons thus called into service are indemnified by a fund, called the Composition Fund, which arises from certain niulcts exacted from such as will not attend; the amount of these being 60 dollars for the federative part of the inhabitants, and 40 for the others. These dollars are not however of current coin, but their value is taken in the articles and merchandises of the country, seldom more than one-fourth being paid in specie; a system equally adhered to in the commercial intercourse with Buenos Ayres.

The presidios, or garrisons of this province, are 19 in number, without counting the capital, in which is a body of 350 guards-men, (as well of infantry as of horse), and of the following names:

San Miguel, on the shore of the river.

San Ildefonso, the same, and five leagues from the capital.

San Joseph, eight leagues within land.

Arecutacoa, 12 leagues on the coast.

La Emboscada, two leagues from the former.

Mandoviray, on the shore of the river Tobati, at 18 leagues.

Mainrimbi, eight leagues from the former.

Urunday-Yuru, three leagues from the former, in land.

San Geronimo, without the walls of the city, on the coast.

Lambare, two leagues from the city.

San Marcos, four leagues off.

La Villeta, 10 leagues off.

El Reducto, 12 leagues off.

Santa Rosa, a league from the former, removed from the coast.

San Fernando, two leagues from the river Tibiquari, and 40 from the city.

That of Villa-rica.

That of Curuguati.

Besides these there are some boats to run along the coasts to impede the passes to the infidels, or to surprise and cut off their retreats.

The aforesaid garrisons are not only a check to the Indians, but they can exclude from the navigation of the river any foreign vessel, independently that it requires great skill in any navigator unexperienced with these parts not to take a wrong course, from the number of mouths and creeks which present themselves, and which have often misled.

The population of this province consists of two towns, called Espiritu Santo, and Villa-rica; and of the following settlements of Indians. Ipan6, Tobati,

Guarambare, Los Altos,

Ita, Rape,

Yaguarin, Caazapa,


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In which are 6000 inhabitants of all ages, men, women, and children; and these united to the number contained in the town and vallics give a total of 56,000.

The greater part are of the Guarani nation, descendants of those who were converted by San Francisco Solano and his companions, with the exception of some families of the Monteses, Canguias, and other nations since reduced. Here are also four new reductions made, which were under the charge of the Jesuits, called San Estanislao, San Joaquin, Nuestra Senora de Belen, and El Santo Corazon. In each of these settlements is an Indian corregidor without jurisdiction, and appointed only to regard the proceedings of the other corregidors, and to cause to be fulfilled the orders of the curate and of the administrator of the goods of the settlement. Each of them has two alcaldes, and the other officers of the cubildo, and these, as well as the corregidor, are elected by the influence of the curate, who knows the abilities of his Indians; but these elections are afterwards confirmed by the governor of the province; and to the curate is assigned 10 per cent, of the profits of his settlement. Ever since the first establishment of these settlements, there is allotted to each the territory thought necessary for sowing of seeds and the breeding of cattle, and when the harvest is gathered in, it is put into one common granary, to the end that it may be divided equally amongst all, as their necessities may require, by the administrator; the same practice being observed with regard to the rations of meat. With the excess of the corn and cattle a means is procured of adorning the churches, of assisting the sick, and of promoting public works. Neither Spaniards, M u lid toes, nor Negroes are admitted into these settlements except as traders.

The ecclesiastical government is well organized under the religious order of San Francisco, and amongst the first converters are enumerated Fr. Alonso de Buenaventura, and Fr. Juan de San Bernardo, a lay-brother, who suffered martyrdom under the Caazapas Indians. At day-break mass is said every morning, with fine music, and on festival days somewhat later, with a discourse regularly by the curate. This finished, the cubildo goes to receive its orders for the day, and the same are imparted to the whole settlement, that every one may know his occupation. The matrons have their tasks assigned to them proportionate to their strength and capacity, and the unmarried and girls remain singing and reciting prayers for the morning, after the mass is finished, in the court-yard of the

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