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PAPAGUAI, a mountain of Cayenne, on the Fé, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It runs -skirts of which the French have an establish through the llanos of San Juan and enters the ment.
Meta, and in its vicinity dwell the nations of the PAPALLACTA, a settlement, formerly large Guipis or Guaypis and Macos Indians. and commercial, in the province and government [PAPANAŽES, Indians of Brazil. See adof Quixos and Macas, of the kingdom of Quito, ditional matter respecting the history, &c. of to the w., and at present reduced to a miserable this kingdom.] village. It has for its parochial curate a re PAPANTLA, an alcaldía mayor and jurisdicligious of the order of S. Domingo, who is sup- tion of Nueva España; for the most part of an ported by the synod from the royal treasury of hot and moist temperature, extending 15 leagues Quito. The inhabitants live by cutting wood along the sea-coast to the leeward of Vera Cruz, and planks on the mountains, and by making of beginning at the bar of the renowned river of them vaulted roofs, which they call bateas. It is Nantla, where it is divided from that governsituate at the foot of the cordillera of the Andes, ment, and running as far as the bar of Coraon the n. shore of the river of its name, and in zones, which serves as limits to the jurisdiction : the road leading from Quito to Archidona, in of Guauchinango, and as an impediment to even lat. 22' 19's.
the smallest vessels to enter; this however not PAPALLACTA, the aforesaid river, flows down being the case with the bar of Nantla; for alfrom the mountain of Pambamarca, and enters though over this the water is less deep by three the Marañon.
or four yards, yet it is navigable for bilanders (PAPALOAPAIN, a large river of Vera Cruz and small craft as far as the river of Los Barin New Spain, called also Alvarada. It rises in riles. the province of Oaxaca, and being enlarged by This alcaldía has several other rivers, all the accession of lesser rivers, falls into the bay abounding in various kinds of fish, and affording of Mexico, 35 miles s. e. of the city of Vera thereby a commerce to the natives. The shores Cruz.]
of these rivers are lined with cedars, mulberries, PAPALOTIPAC, the principal or head settle and other trees for ship-building. Of these was
OTII ment of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Cui- the frigate called the Tecoluteña built, and since catlán in Nueva España ; of a cold and dry tem that various others. This jurisdiction produces perature. Its population is composed of 142 fa. also much wax, which the Indians collect from milies of Cuicatecos Indians, and it is five leagues the bee-hives abounding in the woods ; pitae. of its capital.
trees, which they call here magueyes de lechugilla, PAPALOTIPAN, a ward of the alcaldía mayor and from the milk of which is distilled from the of Guauchinango in Nueva España; annexed to trees of Zapota, a kind of resin called chicle, the curacy of Tlacuilotepec.
serving as a medicine. On the mountains are PAPALOTLA, SANTO TORIBIO DE, a settle- found also fine baynilla, which is bought by ment of the head settlement of the district and traders to carry to Europe. The cultivation of alcaldía mayor of Tezcoco in Nueva España ; si- tobacco, to which the soil is peculiarly adapted, tuate in a valley which produces wheat, maize, was once the chief article of trade here, but its French beans, fruits, and garden herbs, the trade
rden herbs, the trade demand has diminished in proportion as its culand support of the inhabitants. These are com tivation in the other provinces has become composed of 189 families of Indians, and 32 of Spa- mon. But the sugar cane is still cultivated to niards, Mustees, and Mulattoes. One league n. great profit, and of it loaf-sugar is made : also of its capital
is cultivated maize, which yields two abundant PAPALOTLA, another settlement, with the de- crops annually, one in October, the other in dicatory title of S. Miguel, in the head settle- April; the only labour required in agriculture ment of the district of Santa Isabel, and alcaldía being the scratching up the ground with the mayor of Cholula, in the same kingdom. It con- point of a stake. Here is likewise grown a contains 44 Indian families, and is half a league siderable portion of Chile pepper, fruit, gardennearly n. of its head settlement.
herbs, and common pepper, like that of Tabasco, PAPALOTLA, a river of the same kingdom, despised by the Indians from the smallness of its which rises in the mountains e. of the city of worth. In the llanos are some ranchos, in which Mexico, and enters the lake of this capital. are bred some neat cattle and horses.
PAPAMENE, a rapid river which Aows down PAPANTLA, the capital, is the settlement of from the mountains of Fosca, to the e. of Santa the same name.
It contains 595 families of
Mexican Indians, 15 of Spaniards, and 200 of PAPIMOVAGANE, a lake of Canada in N. Mulattoes, divided into two companies of militia. America ; of the district and country of the Pa. In its church is venerated an image of Nuestra pinachois Indians. Señora de la Concepcion, of beautiful sculpture, PAPINACHOIS, a bay on the n. shore of the which 140 years back was found by a mariner the river S. Lawrence, between cape Pidgeon on the sea-shore in a closed chest, with a direc- and the island of Oziers. [It is five leagues s.w. tion on the top, signifying Para Papantla, (for of St. Margaret's river. An Indian nation of the Papantla), and which, he having caused to be same name inhabit the country s. of Piretibb lake carried on the shoulders of Indians to the settle in Lower Canada.] ment, was opened in presence of many persons, PAPOSO, a settlement of the province and the said image being discovered within. A tem- corregimiento of Copiapó in the kingdom of Chile; ple was then built for it, and a devout brother situate near the coast in the s. part. It has a hood attached : 105 miles n.e. of Mexico, in large enclosure called the Chaco Baxo, in which lat. 20' 27' n. Long. 97° 36' 30" w.
the Indians catch the vicuñas. The other settlements of this province are, [PAPPA Ford, on Peleson or Clinches river, Espinal, Chumatlan,
lies five miles from Emery's river, and 18 from Quazintla, Metlatlan,
Campbell's station, near Holston.] Chiquaoloque, Santo Domingo, PÅPRES, a settlement of the province and Zozocolco, Cuahuytlan,
corregimiento of Quispicanchi in Peru. San Mateo, Coatlán.
PÅPUDO, a port of the kingdom of Chile, on PAPARE, a settlement of the province and the coast of the S. sea; being a small retired bay government of Santa Marta in the Nuevo Reyno frequented by the vessels from Peru, to lade with de Granada; near the coast, on the shore of the the tallow, hides, and rigging of the settlements Great Cienega, or swamp.
of Chicapa and Ligua ; a great preference being PAPARO, a river of the province and govern- given to the hemp of this valley, it being the ment of Cumaná.
best made in the kingdom, and attributed to the PAPAS, a lake of the province and govern waters here employed in its manufacture. The ment of Popayán in the kingdom of Quito, in the port is in lat. 32 36' s. páramo or mountain of Guanacas; and from it PAPUJA, SANTIAGO DE, a settlement of the rises the great river of Magdalena.
province and corregimiento of Asangaro in Peru. PAPASQUIARO, a settlement of the missions PAPULATLA, a settlement of the head settlewhich were held by the Jesuits, in the province ment of the district and alcaldía mayor of Chilapa of Tepeguana and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya; in Nueva España. It contains 71 families of Infounded on the shore of the river Las Nasas. dians, and is one league n. of its capital.
PAPATERUANAS, a settlement of the pro PAPUNACAS, a barbarous and ancient navince and country of Las Amazonas, in the part tion of Indians, dwelling in the woods and forests possessed by the
Portuguese, a reduccion of the s. of the Marañon, and near the e. shore of the missions of the Carmelite fathers of that nation; river Cayari. It is but little known. situate at the confluence of the rivers Paranaiba PAQUITANET, a small river of Louisiana and Topinambaranas.
in N. America. It runs s.w. between those of PAPAXTLA, a settlement of the head settle Vieux deserts and Quiovecovet, and enters the ment of the district and alcaldía mayor of Zo Mississippi. chicoatlán in Nueva España ; containing 16 fa PAQUTIGASTA, à settlement of the promilies of Indians.
vince and government of Tucumán, s. of the PAPEGWAY, a large island of the coast of settlement of Catamarca. the province and government of Guayana, in the PARA, GRAN, a province and captainship of part possessed by the Dutch; at the mouth or the kingdom of Brazil, bounded n. by the king. entrance of the river Demerary.
dom of Granada, the provinces of Guyanás, and PAPILLONS, a bay on the n.w. coast of the the great bay formed by the Atlantic sea at the island S. Christopher, one of the Antilles ; be entrance of the river of Las Amazonas, e. by the tween the bays of Louvet and Ovignes, in the captainship of Marañan, s. by the provinces of part possessed by the French before the island Goias and Matto Groso and the kingdom of Peru, was ceded to the English at the peace of and w. by the kingdoms of Peru and Granada. Utrecht.
It is watered by a river of the same name,
which traverses it and enters the sea in the this city, though an equal degree of luxury does aforesaid bay. It is very fertile in sugar canes, not prevail. here as in the capitals of the more s. of which sugar is made, as also in cotton, cacao, captainships. Another circumstance which has þaynilla, and coffee, of which productions ship- tended to modify the character of the Parabians ments were made annually to Lisbon. The cli- is, that Negro slavery was introduced among mate is extremely hot, and in the woods is a va them at a later period than in most of the other riety of timber, excellent for either colour or du- captainships. Too poor to purchase these der rability, and amongst the which is a tree much voted victims of injustice and tyranny, they esteemed, and called here umiri, the trunk of
were long forced to content themselves with which distils a very fragrant balsam. Besides what feeble assistance they derived from the the aforesaid river, there are five others very natives, who were longer kept in a state of sublarge which irrigate this province, the Negro, jection in the n. parts of Brazil than in the capTopajos, Cambeas, and Xingú, the which abound tainships towards the s. in fish, and in a particular sort, called the mana In 1755 an exclusive company was appointed ties. Their shores are covered with woods, in for Grand Para and Marañan, possessing a capital which are a variety of birds and quadrupeds. of about £125,000. Count d'Oyeras was at the All of them run into the Marañon. The islands head of this monopoly. It was permitted to of Joanes or Marajo, of Cahete and others, be- gain 15 per cent. exclusive of all expences, on long to this district.
articles of provisions, and to sell its merchandise [The trade (observes Mr. Andrew Grant) be at 45 per cent. more than they would have cost tween Brazil and Europe is chiefly carried on by even at Lisbon. This company was also emthree principal points, viz. Rio de Janeiro, Bahia, powered to make its own price for what proor the bay De Todos Santos, and Grand Para. visions were furnished by the districts subject to
The captainship of Grand Para is the most n. its jurisdiction. These unjust and extraordinary of any of the Portuguese settlements in Brazil. privileges were granted to this company for 20 Belen, the capital, is situated on the banks of years, after which period they could be renewed the river Para or Amazonas, and defended by a by application to the government of Portugal. strong fortress, named Notre Dame de las Mer- It is easy to conceive the tendency which such a ces, erected at the mouth of the river De Muja, company must have had in paralizing the efforts which forms the port of Para. This port is dif- of the colonists; and, in fact, it was not until ficult of access, from the currents which run in 1778, at which period they were relieved from different directions, and which are occasioned by the oppression necessarily attending these exclua multitude of small islands, rendering the navi sive privileges, that the colony began to exhibit gation of ships slow and uncertain. But when any signs of prosperity. once they get into the harbour, they anchor in a The principal commodities received from Para muddy bottom, with four, five, or six fathoms of are sugar, which is prepared in more than 30 in. water. The canal which leads up to it grows, genios, or sugar houses, in the interior of the however, more shallow every day, and in a short district; coffee, cocoa, and Brazil wood, particutime it will not be navigable, il, as it must be larly that species called by the Portuguese burasupposed, the waters continue to deposit as much pemina, which is beautifully veined, and from earth as they have done for the last century. which an odoriferous oil is extracted; the bark
The foundation of Belen, which is situated at is also burnt as a perfume. about 20 leagues from the sea, was laid in 1615 From the bark of a tree, called araribá, which by Francis Caldeira. It stands on a spot of is very common in the neighbourhood of Para, ground which rises about 13 feet above the level the inhabitants extract a fine purple colour, of the sea, and for a long time afforded only a which is said to be extremely permanent. A mart for the articles collected by the wandering new species of puchari, or precious fruit, is also Indians in the neighbourhood, such as the wild met with in this division of Brazil. It does not cocoa, vaynilla, tortoise and crab-shells, sarsapa attain to such a large size as the common kind; rilla, different kinds of balsąms, cotton, &c. but the fruit is more aromatic, and forms an ex
The population of Belen amounts to about cellent substitute for nutmegs. The real jalap10,000 souls. The same indolence, superstition, tree (convolvulus jalappa) abounds in Para ; as and ignorance which characterise the Portuguese well as various kinds of contrayerva (dorstenia in general, are evident among the inhabitants of contrayerva), and many other medicinal plants.]
[Brazil abounds with guns of different kinds, During war with any nation which may be in welt calculated to supply the place of gum ara possession of Guayana, this district would be bic: the jutuicisica of Para is well calculated for much exposed to invasion from that quarter. Its making sealing-wax. Several parts of Para great distance from Bahia, and even from Para abound with yellow ochres (ochra ferri), which is and Marañan, renders it next to impossible for frequently intermixed with a red ochre, of as these provinces to afford it the necessary aid to brilliant a colour as vermilion. White argilrepel an invading foe. (argilla bolus alba), called by the colonists taba The new colony of Rio Negro was extremely tinga ; and likewise red bole (argilla bolus rubra), ill-conducted by François Xavier de Mendoça, is very common in different parts of the province. Minister of Marine. Sufficient advantages, in
The animals in this province are similar to deed, have not yet been derived from this fine those in the other districts of Brazil. Formerly country, from the improper steps taken to colothe sale of the flocks which grazed in the island nize it. It is true that the population of this of Marajo was one of the principal resources of district has been augmented by many families this colony ; but at present the number of oxen who have been forced to abandon Guayana, from are greatly diminished.
the bad success of the establishments attempted A large species of silk-worm (phalena atlas), by France in the year 1764, along the banks of whose ball is three times the size of the common the Courou. It is a melancholy truth that colosilk-worm's, is found in great plenty in Para. nization which, if conducted with wisdom and It feeds on the leaves of the orange-trees, and benevolence, might prove a blessing to mankind, the silk produced by it is of a dark yellow colour. has in general proved most ruinous to those Were this species cultivated with care, the silk unfortunate individuals who, attracted by the obtained from them might prove a profitable ar love of gain, or driven from their country by ticle of commerce. The people of Minas Geraes the pressure of want, have sought an asylum in have already set them the example, so far as re those new establishments. gards the common silk-worm.
The government of Para is dependent upon Eighty-seven miles from Para, on descending that of Marañan, and this is separated from that the river of the Amazonas, is a large tongue of land of Para on the n.
of Para on the n, by the river Tocantines. formed into several islands, the largest of which, The Portuguese were driven upon this prothat of Joannes, is very populous, and defended vince by a storm in 1535, but did not form any by a small fort. These isles belong to different settlement till 1599. The French, who invaded Portuguese nobles, and have the title of baronies. this colony in 1612, kept possession of it from A league and a half from the city stands the that period till 1615, when it was wrested from town of St. Georges dos Alamos, with a regular them by the Dutch, from whom the Portuguese fortress. About 84 miles s. w. on the borders again recovered it in 1644. and on the w. side of the river Tocantines is Before it was visited by the Portuguese, the another town, named Camuta, or Cameta, with chief employment of the savages was collecting the
fort of Gurupa : along the river are the forts the ambergrease which abounds on this part of of Paru, which the French took and destroyed in the coast, and this likewise became the occupathe year 1698, of Tapergos, and Rio Negro. To tion of the first European settlers. For many the n. the province of Para is terminated by years after the re-settlement of the Portuguese, Cayenne ; on this side it is limited by the n. capė, Marañan continued in a very languishing state, where stands the fort of Cumanha, opposite that till some of the more enterprising colonists began of Camon and that of Dos Aragoariz. In this to cultivate cotton, which is said to be superior province are four cities or towns; viz. Para, St. to any other raised in the New World. For Georges dos Alamos, Camonta, and Cahete, and several years past, rice (oryza mutica), a species about fifty thousand inhabitants.
which is natural to Brazil, and differing from the The Portuguese formed new establishments aryza sativa, in not being furnished with awns, on the Rio Negro, where they discovered dia- has also been cultivated to a considerable extent, mond and gold mines : in 1766, four hundred though it is inferior to Levant rice, and even to soldiers and marines were sent from Lisbon, as that produced in N. America. well as workmen of all kinds; and several fami Several attempts were lately made to produce lies were tempted, by the great encouragement silk in this colony ; but either from the unfitness offered them, to join this expedition, with the of the climate, the improper methods employed view of settling in this part of Brazil.
in the management of the insects, or from some]
(other cause, the project has proved wholly abor- value 'has never been estimated at more than tive. The same want of success has not, how- £29,000 ; but since the suppression of the comever, attended the culture of indigo, as the nu pany already mentioned, it is to be presumed merous plantations of this valuable vegetable they must every year become more considerable. are in a flourishing condition, and promise am The ecclesiastical, the military, and civil estaply to renumerate the proprietors. The finest blishment of Marañan, are on the same footing Brazil arnotto is also brought from this district. as those in the other captainships of Brazil. In
The Island of St. Louis constitutes that part matters of consequence, however, this province, of the province of Marañan, which is by far the as well as that of Grand Para, is allowed to apmost populous. It is 26 leagues in circumference, peal directly to the mother-country, without extremely fertile, and only separated from the being obliged to appear before the two intercontinent by a small river. The capital, which mediate tribunals of Bahia and Rio de Janeiro.] is also named St. Louis, was built by the French PARA, GRAN, the capital of the above province in 1612. The only public building it contains wor and captainship of the same name, and with the thy of notice is the Episcopal Palace, the houses dedicatory title of Nuestra Señora de Belen. It is in general being ill-built and inconvenient. This commercial, handsome, and rich, and adorned with town is defended by a citadel and several forts, beautiful edifices ; amongst these the most conand is the residence of the governor-general of spicuous are two parish churches, the convents the three northern provinces. All the trade of of the monks of Nuestra Señora del Carmen, of the island is transacted here ; the harbour is ca La Merced, San Francisco, and $. Domingo, of pacious, but might be greatly improved by art. the Capuchins and of the chapel of Christo, which The population of the island is estimated at about belongs to the troops. It had a college of the 15 thousand souls. The plantations are not Jesuits, under whose charge was a seminary for here equally flourishing with those on the con- studies and the principal missions of the Naratinent, particularly on the banks of the rivers ñan. It has a citadel and a castle called Nuestra Ytapicorie, Mony, &c.
Señora de Las Mercedes, at the entrance of the Towards the eastern part of the interior of the bar upon the river, both of them being furnished province, the natives have not yet been reduced with plenty of good artillery of brass and iron, to complete subjection. This part of the country, and garrisoned with four companies with a comwhich is elevated and of a sandy soil, is princi- mandant and serjeant-major. It is the head of pally inhabited by shepherds. The surface of a bishopric erected by pope Clement XI. at the ground, which is covered with saltpetre, is the instance of king D. Juan V. in 1720; Don Fr. altogether appropriated to rearing horses and Bartolomé del Pilas, a Carmelite monk, being horned cattle, which are sold to considerable nominated as its first bishop. It had, indeed, been advantage in the neighbouring countries ; but made a bishop's see by pope Innocent XI. at the sheep degenerate there as well as in the other the desire of king Peter II. and D. Fr. Manuel parts of Brazil, except about Coritibe. Un- de la Natividad, provincial of the Capuchins of fortunately, the too frequent droughts, and the Corral, had been appointed to its functions, when excessive heats, often destroy whole flocks, when D. Fr. Gregorio de Los Angeles, who had sufficient attention is not paid to lead them in hitherto presided over it as belonging to the time to distant pastures.
bishopric of Marañan, disputed the claims of the Mines of sulphur, alum, copperas, iron, lead, new-comer, and had litigations with the court of and antimony. are extremely common, though Rome, which were only put an end to by the very superficial in these mountains, and yet none death of the two rivals. of them have been opened. In 1572, permis The population of this city amounts to 4000 sion was indeed granted to work a silver one, housekeepers. [Mr. Mawe, however, takes the which had been discovered three or four years present population at ten thousand inhabitants. before ; but the court soon after retracted this The town of Para, continues the same traveller, permission, for reasons that were never fully is situated on the river of its name, called by explained.
some Tocantines, the navigation of which is difThis government consists of 8993 white men, ficult, and is seldom attempted, except by small 17,844 negroes, or free Mulattoes, and slaves ; craft : the Confiance sloop of war with great and of 38,937 Indians, either scattered or assem care sailed up it, and anchored near the town, bled in 10 villages. The exports have not as yet several days previous to the expedition against been equal to this degree of population. Their Cayenne. The inhabitants are in general very]