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to the w. of the settlement of Los Desposorios, runs /I. and enters the Piray.

PALOMINO, a river of* the province and government of Santa Marta in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, which rises in the sierra of the Posegueicas Indians, runs n. and enters the sea between the cape San Juan de Guia and the river Hacha.

[PALOMINOS. Small islands on the coast of Peru, S. America; three miles w. of St. Lawrence island, or St. Lorenzo. They have from 13 to 14 fathoms water on them.]

PALOMOS, a barbarous nation of Indians, of the province of Gran Chaco in Peru. It extends from e. to to. from the river Bermejo, and the spacious llannras of Manso to the s. These barbarians are ferocious, and issue from the woods to infest the neighbouring provinces; and as a defence against them there is a fort called San Joseph, supplied by the Spaniards.

[PALONQUE, the cape e. of Nisao point, at the mouth of Nisao river, on the s. side of the island of St. Domingo, in lat. 18 13 n. and long. 732 a), of Paris.]

PALORA, a rapid river of the province and government of Macas in the kingdom of Quito, which rises in the province of Riobamba, to the n. of a lake of the mountain of Sangay, close to the settlement of Cebadas. It runs from w. to e. till it enters the Pastaza or Pastaca, and in the woods of its vicinity dwell some Indians of the nation of Los Xibaros. Its mouth is in lat. 47 s.

PALPA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of lea in Peru; situate on the shore ofthe Rio Grande, not far from the sea-coast.

PALPACACHI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cotabambas in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Huaillati.

PALPAL, a small river of the kingdom of Chile in the province and corregimiento of Itala. It runs n.n.w. and unites itself with the Temdco. to enter the Dinguilli.

PALPAS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Gorgor.

Palpas, another settlement, in the same province and kingdom as the former; annexed to the curacy of Churin.

[PALTZ, New, a township on the w. side of

Hudson's river in Ulster county, New York,

about 18 miles n. of Newburgh, and 30 n.e. of

Goshen. It contains 2309 inhabitants, including

302 slaves.]

PAMBAMARCA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru.

Pambamarca, a very lofty paramo or mountain, always covered with snow, of the kingdom of Quito; one of those chosen by the academicians ofthe sciences at Paris, who visited this kingdom to measure one of the degrees of the equator, on which to make their observations. On it are seen the ruins of four fortresses of the Incas, called pucares, consisting of concentrical ditches of three or four rows, and in the interior one a wall or parapet. The exterior one, which was in general about two toises wide and as many deep, is in some parts so wide as to be seen at a league's distance; and indeed it was altogether so ordered for the safety of the besieged, that the inner border should command the exterior ones. At the top of this mountain there blows a constant wind, so strong that people can scarcely live in it. It is 20 miles, with a slight inclination to the n. of Quito.

PAIMAUNKE. See York.

[PAMLICO Sound, on the e. coast of N. Carolina, is a kind of lake or inland sea, from 10 to 30 miles broad, and nearly 60 miles in length. It is separated from the Atlantic ocean, in its whole length, by a beach of land hardly a mile wide, generally covered with small trees or bushes. Through this bank are several small inlets by which boats may pass; but Ocrecok inlet is the only one that will admit vessels of burden into the districts of Edenton and Newbern. This inlet is in lat. 34 54' n. and opens between Ocrecok island and Core bank. This sound communicates with Core and Albemarle sounds, and receives Pamlico or Tar river, the river Neus, besides other small streams. See Ocrecok, Cape Hatteras, &c]

PAMPACHIRI, a settlement ofthe province and corregimiento of Andahuailas in Peru.

PAMPACOCHA, a settlement ofthe province and corregimiento of Canta, in the same kingdom as the former; annexed to the curacy of Arahuay.

PAMPACOLCA, a settlement ofthe province and corregimiento ofCondesuios de Arequipa in the same kingdom. «

PAMPACUCHO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chilqucs and Masques in the same kingdom.

PAMPADEQUES, San Pablo Db, a settlement of the missions which were held by the Jesuits, in the province and government of Mainas ofthe kingdom of Quito.

PAMPAHUACIS, a barbarous nation of warlike Indians, who dwell n. of Cuzco; subjected to the empire by HuaynaCapac, thirteenth emperor ofthe Incas.

PAMPAMARCA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Aimaraes in Peru.

Pampamarca, another settlement, in the province and corregimiento of Parinacochas, of the same kingdom.

Pampamarca, another, of the province and corregimiento of Tinta or Canes, and Candies, same kingdom.

PAMPANO, a small river of the province and government of Maracaibo in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada: it enters the lake Atole at a small space from its head.

PAMPAQUINCHIS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Yauyos in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Huanic.

PAMPAROMAS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Andahuailas in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Moro in the province of Santa.

PAMPAS, a barbarous nation of warlike Indians of the kingdom of Peru; extending n. and w. of the Paraguay, and bounded by Cordoba del Tucuman.

Pampas, some extensive llanuras of the province and government of Buenos Ayres, running s. for more than 300 leagues, as far as the province ofCuyoof the kingdom of Chile. In them there lives some wandering barbarous nations of Indians, the Huarcas or Pampas, the Aucaes, Pehuenches, Pulches and Uncas; who for the most part go about on horseback, robbing, plundering, and murdering the travellers which fall into their way: accordingly it is necessary, in passing from Peru to Chile, and vice-versd, that the carts (these being the vehicles used for the purpose) should go in large parties, so as to give a more effectual resistance to this race of banditti: nor is the same precaution unobserved by such as go to collect salt from the great saline grounds 200 leagues from liuenos Ayres; this salt being extremely white, and of excellent quality, and employing, in conveying it, no less than 300 carts, which, although in close company, are not unfrequently attacked in their journey. They start about November, and are two months away on their rout.

In these vast plains are found many tigers, leopards, ostriches, quiriquinchos or armadillos, partridges, hares, and other animals. In the pastures which are exceedingly fine, and in some Earts so lofty as to cover a man on horseback, reed a great number of bulls, horses, and mules, descendants of those brought from Spain at the time of the conquest. Many troops of these wild animals, in their rout from one place to an

other, will often meet and attack the unwary traveller, and even the aforesaid carts in their way from Buenos Ayres to Mendoza in the kingdom of Chile. Sometimes proceeding in multitudes to drink at one of the many rivers which irrigate these parts, they will rush with such violence into the water that the foremost will be driven so deep into the mud by the pressure of those behind, as to be unable to extricate themselves, and there perish; and this is the reason why there are constantly seen such heaps of bones on the banks of the abrevaderos or drinking places.

The Indians have an easy method of catching any of the above animals by a small cord of two yards long, with a ball of iron or stone at one end, at the other a piece of wood or some light substance: this they use as a sling, and such is their dexterity in throwing it that, without ever missing the animal aimed at amongst the vast herd, they cause it so to entwine its legs, that, in effort to escape, it immediately falls, and becomes an easy prey.

Here are also many asses, by which, in this province as well as that of Tucuman, they produce a fine and numerous breed of mules, which are carried for sale to Peru. There are likewise many dogs, so voracious and bold, that, in lack of cattle to feed on, they will fall upon the people; nor is it uncommon that, under such circumstances, travellers have been sacrificed to their greediness: these dogs will not merely attack cattle, but they will go in troops and fight the tiger, and although many of them, as is generally the case, will fall victims to their presumption, they never fail to be finally victorious, and glut themselves on its flesh: the same system of warfare they practise, but with less cost, upon the bulls. Those who have seen these engagements represent them as horrible though extremely fine and amusing; more so, perhaps, could they be witnessed in security.

In these Pampas blow several strong winds very similar to hurricanes, which they call pamperos; and so impetuous are they as to arrest the force and progress of the carts drawn by six oxen and with a load of upwards of 600 arrobas.

Pampas, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Yauyos in Peru, in the district of which is a road leading down to the settlement of Tupe, called de las cinco mil escalones (of the 5000 steps), since it is asserted that there are this number in its descent.

Pampas, another, of the province and corregimiento of Guailasci in the same kingdom.

Pampas, another, of the province and corregimiento of Conchucos in the same kingdom : annexed to the curacy of Pallasca.

Pampas, another, of the province and corregimiento of Gunata in the same kingdom.

Pampas, another, of the province and corregimiento of Canta in the same kingdom; annexed to the curacy of Arahuay.

Pampas, another, of the province and corregimiento of Guailasci in the same kingdom; distinct from that aforesaid, and annexed to the curacy of Marco

Pampas, a large river, of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in the same kingdom of Peru. It rises n. of the settlement of Sora, runs n. and enters the Apurimac, in the province of Guanta. It has a bridge of hurdles, of 30 yards long and one and an half wide, over which pass the goods on their way from Lima to Cuzco.

PAMPAYATA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Aimaraes in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Moro in the province of Santa.

PAMPICHI, a settlement of the province and kingdom of Guatemala, annexed to the curacy of Araatitan, to which it is very near.

PAMPLONA, a city of the province and corregimiento of Tunga in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada: founded by Captain Pedro de Ursua and Orlien de Velasco in 1549, according to the order of the Most Illustrious Piedrahita, and not Miguel Diez de Armendariz, as the Ex-Jesuit Coleti asserts, in 1558. He gave it the name in memory of his native place of Ursua, capital of Navarra. It is situate on a plain or llano called Del Espiritu Santo, surrounded on all sides by mountains, which make its temperature extremely cold. It is very fertile, and abounding in cattle, vegetable productions, sugar-engines, and cotton munufactures, with all of which it has a great commerce, as well as by gold and copper taken from some mines, the last of which and the best was discovered in 1765.

The parish church is one of the handsomest buildings in the whole kingdom. Here are beautifid houses, public edifices and squares, an hermitage which is a vice-parish, and in which is venerated an image of Christ crucified, with two of the thieves, all being fine pieces of sculpture; some convents of the religious orders of San Francisco, Santo Domingo, San Agustin, a college which belonged to the Jesuits, an hospital, and a monastery of nuns of Santa Clara; the which, together with the whole city, suffered much from an earthquake which happened in 1644.

Its jurisdiction extends as far as Tunja, 24 leagues further on the part towards Jiron, and the same distance to the e. and towards the town of San Christoval. It has, besides the governor, a corregidor of Indians, and an alcaldia mayor of the mines. It has been the native place of Jr. Francisco Vivar, of the order of San Francisco, a man of great virtue and science, 185 miles n. e. of Santa Fe, 124 n. e. of Velez, 156 w. s. w. of Truxillo, 110 w. s. w. of Merida, and 131 w. with a slight inclination to thes. of Varinas, in lat. 7° 1' SO" n. and Ion. 72' 21' w.

PAMTICOE, an abundant river of the province and colony of N. Carolina; which runs s. e. and enters the sea in the strait of its name.

This strait is formed by the coast of S. Carolina and the island of Hatteras.

[PAMUNKY, the ancient name of York river in V irginia; but this name is now confined to the s. branch, formed by the confluence of the N. and S. Anna. This and the ». branch, Mattapony, unite and form York river, just below the town of De La War.]

PAMURACOCHA, a lake of the province and corregimiento of Parinacochas in Peru. It is long and narrow.

PAN, Boca De, a creek of the coast of the S. sea, in the province and corregimiento ofPiura and kingdom of Peru; situate in the bay of Tumbcs.

Pan,de Azucar, a settlement of the province and government of Paraguay, situate near the strait of its name.

Pan, another settlement, of the missions which were held by the Jesuits in the Orinoco, and now under the charge of the order of the Capuehins.

Pan, a very lofty mountain, of a conical figure, on the shore of the river La Plata, at its entrance; in the province and government of Buenos Ayres, close to the river Solis Chico.

Pan, another, on the s. coast of the strait of Magellan, at the mouth of the river Jelouzelt.

Pan, another, on the «. e. coast of the island of' Martinique, between the bay of S. Jacques and that of Charpentier.

Pan, a strait or narrow pass formed by the river Paraguay, in the province of this name.

TAN A, an island on the coast of Peru, 35 miles s. s. w. of Guayaquil. At point Arena, which is the n. w. point, all ships bound farther into Guayaquil bay stop for pilots, as there is good anchorage over against the middle of the town, in five fathoms, and a soft oozy ground. It is also called Puna.l

[PANACA, a burning mountain on the w. coast of New Mexico, about three leagues from the volcano of Sansonate.]

PANACACHI, a settlement of the province and corregimienlo of Chayanta or Charcas in Peru.

[PAN A DO U, or Men A Do U, a bay on the coast of Cape Breton island, near the s. part of the gulf of St. Lawrence].

PANAMA, a city and capital of the kingdom and government of Tierra Firme; founded on the coast of the Pacific or S. sea, upon an isthmus to which it gives its name, at the foot of a lofty mountain called Ancon. It was founded by Pedrarias Davila in 1518, in a part now called Panama la vieja (the old) where it was sacked and burnt in 1670 by the English pirate John Morgan, when it was in the following year translated to a league's distance by the Major-general Don Antonio Fernandez de Cordoba; and was first fortified by Alonso Mercado de Villa-corta. It is irregularly and badly defended ; but has been one of the richest and most important towns of commerce in the whole world, as being the regular depot of all the goods going from Peru to Europe, before that the navigation of Buenos Ayres and of Cape Horn were so much practised.

It is the head of a bishopric, created in 1521; has besides the cathedral, two parishes, one with the title of S. Felipe in the city, and another of the title of Santo Ava, in the suburbs without the wall, which are larger than the city itself; likewise the convents of the orders of San Francisco, S. Domingo, La Merced, the barefooted Augustins with the title of S. Joseph, a college which belonged to the Jesuits, with a seminary for studies, and an university founded by the bishop Don Francisco Xavier de Luna y Victoria in 1571; an hospital of San Juan de Dios and a monastery of the nuns of Nuestra Seiiora de la Concepcion.

In its early times it had a mint, which lasted but a short time. It was governed by a president and a tribunal of the royal audience, erected in 1535, which was abolished in 1752, only a military governor and viceroy being left. This city, from being once great and opulent, is reduced to a poor and miserable state from the decay of its commerce since that the galleons have ceased to go to Tierra Firme, and since that it had endured two dreadful conflagrations in 1737 and 1756. To the latter evil it was very liable, most of its houses being built of finely carved wood; the cathedral, however, is of stone, and of magnificent architecture.

The temperature of this city is burning hot, though the nights are fresh and agreeable. The territory is fertile but little cultivated, as the city is supplied with necessaries from the provinces and settlements of its jurisdiction, as well as from those of Peru by the S. sea, and from those of Europe and the foreign colonies by the N. sea, from whence it lies 11 leagues. It is celebrated for the meeting held in it by the Triumvirate, who deliberated in 1525 concerning the discovery and conquest of Peru, who were Franciso Pizarro, Diego de Almagro, and Hernando de Luque.

The port is formed by some islands at the distance of two leagues and an half from the town, where vessels may lie sheltered from the winds. The tides are regular, and the high water is every three hours, when it runs to a great height, and tails with such rapidity as to leave three quarters of a league dry when down.

The city of Panama has the arms which were granted it in 1521, by the emperor Charles V. with the title of very noble and very loyal; a shield divided into a pale and gold field, having in the middle of the right side a yoke and a bundle of brown-coloured arrows, with blue

Joints and silver feathers, this having been the evice of the catholic kings: then in the other half, or the left side, two carvels, one above the other, and above them a star, which denoted the arctic pole, and in the orle of the shield castles and lions. It is the native place of father Agustin Hurtado, of the Jesuits; put to death in the settlement of Gayes of the missions of Mainas, at .the hands of the Indians, whilst instructing them in the faith in 1688; also of father Ignacio de Caceres, his companion. In lat. 9° 0 30' n. long. 79° 19 w.

Catalogue of the Bishops who have presided in Panama.

1. Don Fr. Vicente de Valverde, a monk of the order of S. Domingo; elected bishop of Santa Maria del Darien, the first church of the kingdom of Tierra Firme, in 1533.

2. Don Fr. Juan de Quevedo; a monk of the order of San Francisco, native of Bejori in the mountains of Burgos. He passed over to the church and returned to Spain, and had many disputes with Fr. Bartolome de los Casas, in presence of the emperor Charles V. on the subject of the liberty of the Indians, in which he was convinced and conquered by the bishop Casas; he died at Barcelona.

3. Don Fr. Juan de la Guardia, of the order of San Francisco, of whom we know no more than that his name is mentioned in the catalogue of the bishops of that holy church.

[graphic]

4. Don Fr. Martin de Bejar, of the order of San Francisco, native of Sevilla; presented by the emperor Charles V. to be bishop of Santa Maria del Darien. In his time the See was translated to the city of Panama.

5. Don Fi. Tomas de Berlaiiga, of the order of S. Domingo, native of the town of his name; he passed to America, where he was provincial of his order, and elected bishop of Panama in 1530. He renounced the bishopric in 1537; and died in his native place in 1551.

6. Don Fr. Vicente de Peraza, of the order of S. Domingo, collegiate in the college of S. Gregoriode Valladolid. According to Fr. Alonso Fernandez, he was bishop in 1510.

7. Don Fr. Pablo de Torres, of the order of S. Domingo, and not of San Geronimo, as Gil Gonzalez Davila wrongly asserts: he Was bishop in 1560.

8. Don Fr, Juan Vaca, of the order of S. Benito, abbot of the monasteries of Sahogun and Carrion: presented by Philip II. to the bishopric of Panama, and died on his passage.'

9. Don Francisco Abrego, elected bishop of Panama in 15b'9: he governed 15 years, and died in 1574.

10. Don Fr. Manuel de Mercado, of the order of San Geronimo: he entered Panama, and took possession of his bishopric in 1578, and died in 1580.

11. Don Bartolome Martinez Menacho, native of Almendralejo in Estaremadura, archdeacon of the holy church of Lima in 1587: he was the first who made the visitation; and passing to Santa Fe in 1593, he died at Cartagena.

12. Don Pedro Duque de Ribera, collegiate of the college of Santa Maria de Jesus of Sevilla, and dean of the church of S. Domingo: elected bishop of Panama in 1594: he also died at Cartagena, when about to take possession.

13. Don Antonio Calderon, dean of the holy church of Santa Fe, bishop of Puerto-rico; promoted to the church of Panama in 1594: he founded there a mass of the Virgin for every Saturday, and another on Fridays, of Christ's passion; he was promoted to the bishopric of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in 1605.

14. Don Fr. Agustin de Carvajal, native of Mexico, of the order of S. Agustin, assistant general of the same. When prior of his convent at Valladolid, he was elected to the bishopric of Panama, of which he took possession in 1608: he consecrated the bells of its church, founded

VOL. IV.

the college of San Agustin with six collegiates, according to the Tridentine council, for the service of the cathedral, and was promoted to the bishopric of Guamanga in 1612. •

15. Don Fr. Francisco de la Camera, of the order of S. Domingo: he passed to America as visitor of the provinces of Quito and Chile; and, having finished the visitation, was presented to the bishopric of Panama, of which he took possession in 1614; he endowed funds for two additional collegiates in the college of San Agustin, and gave a prize of 300 dollars in the college of the Jesuits for promoting the study of the cases of conscience; he also gave 4000 dollars for the finishing of the cathedral, which had been begun, endowed two chaplains of the choir, and died in 1624.

16. Don Fr. Christoval Martinez de Salas, Premonstratensian canon, native of Medina del Campo, definidor of his order, abbot of the convent of Segovia, rector of the college of Santa Susana in Salamanca, and visitor-general of his order: presented by the king Don Philip IV. to the bishopric of Panama in 1625; endowed two masses sung to the Virgin on Wednesdays and Saturdays, gave 2000 dollars for building a collateral chapel, and died blind and full of infirmities in 1640.

i 17. Don Fr. Hernando Ramirez, a monk of the order of la Santisima Trinidad,'native of the Arroyo del Puerco in the bishopric of Coria: he studied arts and theology in Salamanca, was vicar and preacher of the convent of Nuestra Senora de las Virtudes, procurator-general of his order at court, minister of the convents of Toledo, Fuente Santa, Alcala, and Talavera, commissary and visitor of the provinces of Aragon, Cataluiia, and Valencia, provincial and vicar-general in that of Castilla; elected bishop of Panama in 1640, he entered to take possession in 1643. In his time, when the city was on fire, he, abandoning his house to the flames, ran to save the sacred vases of the altar: he died in 1652.

18. Don Bernardo de Izaguivre, native of Toledo, fiscal of the inquisition of Cartagena of the Indies and of Lima, also inquisitor in the latter; elected bishop of Panama in 1655: he was promoted to the bishopric of Cuzco in 1660.

19. Don Diego de Vergara, native of Lima, professor of sacred writings in its royal university, penitentiary canon of its holy church, elected bishop of Panama in 1663: he died before he could be consecrated.

20. Don Sancho Pardo de Figueroa, native of

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