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scholar's acquaintance with Athenian literature and history may convince him.*

But the picture is not without its bright lights. The prospect of the religious Undergraduate is not altogether gloomy. He is not deprived of that great support and consolation, the presence of co-workers in a good cause. There are some places of education at which it is next to impossible (humanly speaking) that a young man should live without being corrupted by the universal example of those around him. He can only preserve himself by turning recluse and living in a state of negative if not positive hostility to his natural companions. Now Cambridge is not such a place. A young man who enters there and is disposed to find a truly “good set,” can find one, or indeed have his choice among several sets of really virtuous and religious men.


It was

to represent it in a ridiculous light; yet I am convinced it is one worthy of deep consideration. Solomon prayed for understanding, and his prayer

as approved. * One immediate consequence of intellect worship is that it makes men under-estimate women. The depreciating spirit to which I refer may be observed in men of very pure and strict lives ; it does not, like the libertine’s, sneer at woman's virtue ; but while admitting her moral superiority, underrates its importance among the elements of society ; nor does it avoid her with monkish asceticism, but rather treats her with slightly contemptuous patronage as one might a child.

This topic seems irrelevant in a religious discussion, but there is one point of view where it has a direct bearing—the prejudice which men of strong intellect frequently conceive against evangelical doctrines, because these doctrines are especially popular with women.

my comfort to know many right worthy the name of Christians according to the highest standard that was ever lived up to ; men of no particular clique or theological school, but holding various opinions and coming from various places and teachers ; pupils of Arnold from Rugby ; Evangelicals from King's College, London ; other King's College London men of the Eclectic stamp, followers of Professor Maurice, who looked at from a Presbyterian point of view might be called High Churchmen; Eton men who were yet more eclectic and had trained themselves nullius jurare in verba magistri. Men who differed in many things but agreed in being sincere Christians whether you regarded their faith or their practice; and whose conduct strikingly exemplified that common sense of religion which is so conspicuous in the writings of Whateley, Arnold, and other liberal Churchmen, and of which a really good Englishman, when you find one, presents the very best

, specimen in his life. They seemed every day to solve that most difficult problem of “being in the world, not of it.” Their progress in human learning did not make them forget that the fear of the Lord is wisdom and to depart from evil is understanding ; nor did they deem that their pure lives and immovable principles gave them a license to be uncharitable and censorious. They made no parade of their religion on useless occasions, but when it was wanted it was never wanting. The recollection of some such men must have been present to Thackeray, when after scorching and withering with his sarcasm all classes of society in England, he suddenly stopped at the clergy and began to praise them. The remembrance


of what some few among that clergy were, disarmed the universal satirist.

Why such men have not more influence in reforming the evils about them is a question

sier to ask than answer. The existence of evil is the one great theological difficulty, as Whateley well says, and the apparent non-success of good men in overcoming evil is but one branch of this difficulty. After all, they may do much that does not appear on the surface. It is so in their after life. Many of their good deeds survive them, it is true, but are not heard of in their time so as to redound to their credit. A clerical hypocrite is detected in some wickedness; he is brought into court; the newspapers are full of it ; the enemies of the church, or of religion, or of both, exult. A pious clergyman devotes every spare minute of his time not occupied in parochial duty to the drudgery of taking pupils, that he may support schools for the advancement of knowledge and true religion, and may combat the Papist influences that have pre-occupied his ground: no one knows anything about it, except a few of his parishioners and intimate friends.

In looking over this chapter (probably the worst written in the book, though it has cost me more trouble than any other) it occurs to me that among the many faults which may be found with it, there are two particularly likely to be dwelt upon : the occasional use of coarse language, and the treatment of the whole subject in a meagre and inadequate manner. To the first charge I reply : English vice is a coarse thing ; it is as well perhaps that it should be so; that men who will

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be vicious should be so in a coarse way, that they should get drunk on bad liquor, and keep company with the commonest harlots : for so they at least act the part of Helots, and enable a young man's taste to be a powerful auxiliary to his virtue. But this vice, being so coarse a thing in its nature, cannot be described without some coarseness ; yet, though my language may be rough and inelegant, I deny that it is anywhere indelicate or voluptuous. In answer to the second charge, I can only repeat my original plea of incapacity; the consciousness of which incapacity yielded only to the impossibility of omitting the subject entirely from a work like this.

But with regard to the theological disputes at Cambridge, which have a historical, rational, and common-sense point of view quite independent of their religious nature, I feel able to speak more in detail ; and these deserve to be the subject of a new chapter.






“ It is not hazarding too much to predict that a school which peremptorily rejects all evidences of religion except such as, when relied on exclusively, the logical canon irreversibly condemns, which denies to mankind the right to judge of religious doctrine * * * must, in the present state of the human mind, inevitably fail in its attempts to put itself at the head of the religious feelings and convictions of Great Britain ; by whatever learning, argumentative skill, and even, in many respects, comprehensive views of human affairs, its peculiar doctrines may be recommended to the acceptance of thinkers.”MILL'S Logic (1843).

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THE era of my residence in Cambridge was in one respect fortunate : it enabled me to witness a great struggle between reactionary and progressive principles. Anglo-Catholicism and Young England were in all their glory when I arrived there ; they were both pretty well on the wane when I left.

The aim of the Anglo-Catholics (more generally known as the Oxford School, or by the popular nickname of Puseyites) may be briefly characterized thus : it was to bring the Church of England continually nearer to the Church of Rome without actually going into it. But as constructions of this sort, though possible and familiar enough in Mathematics, are not always exactly feasible in real life, it turned out that

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