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formation of their talents and dispositions, or in the character of their parents and associates, seems already to have favoured; and on the other, as inflicting farther pain on those, whom, less fortunate, or less favourable circumstances have already formed into weak, vicious, or ignorant, or, in other words, into unhappy beings.

"And prejudicial, in rendering a strong, bold character, either proud and overbearing, or vindictive and deceitful; or in instilling into the young mind, if more timid and less decided, either an overweening opinion of its own abilities and endowments, or a dispiriting idea of its own incompetency,-such an idea as creates a sullen, hopeless despondency, and destroys that elasticity of spirit, from whence many of our best actions proceed, but which is lost as soon as the individual feels himself sunk, mentally or morally, below his companions, disgraced by punishment, and treated with neglect or contempt by those around him.”

The rewards of an affectionate teacher are only "supposed advantages and distinctions" to him who has never felt their soul-inspiring influence; and as cold must be the heart, and as hopeless the character, of that child who could not be moved by their effects, as Shakespeare's unmusical soul; and we should be ready prospectively to come to the same conclusion, "let no such man be trusted."

But what are these rewards and distinctions? Interesting books; silver pens and medals; or certain privileges of rank and honour.

Suitable books are real advantages, and it is impossible to trace their powerful influence, not only on the rewarded, in whose minds they must ever awaken impressive associa tions, but on all who may happen to look into them. We have been struck with this when we have accidentally taken up a book, and the eye has fastened on a passage, which has excited or awakened those feelings which have led to important results.

Pens and medals, privileges and distinctions of rank, are certainly not so intrinsically valuable, but they are nevertheless relative distinctions of much value; and, as in life we admire the man who is nobly determined to be first in his profession, or in the society to which he belongs, so we consider him a hopeful youth who cannot rest until he is first in his class, or who is determined to be first in the school. If this be wrong, then are all academical distinctions, all collegiate honours, supposed distinctions too. They are, however, distinctions which the wisest and best of men have sought, obtained, and employed; they are honours which even St. Paul did not think it beneath him to boast. Worldly 'distinctions are even employed feebly to illustrate the nature, and also to excite our zeal and perseverance in the attainment,

of distinctions in the future state. Surely there are honours which are virtuous, and if it be a sin to covet such,


Are we the most offending souls alive."

But the most objectionable part of this last-quoted passage, to us, is the reflection which, we presume undesignedly, it casts on Providence for the distinctions of talent, disposition, and circumstances, which prevail in the world. We would only reply in the well known words of a popular poet,—

"Go wiser thou, and in thy scale of sense,

Weigh thy opinion against Providence."

To us, there are mysteries in Providence, as well as philosophy, on which we would not even indirectly insinuate a reflection; and for this very reason,-because we do not understand


It must not be forgotten, that Mr. Owen has allowed that his natural rewards do operate in all other systems; the prejudicial effects, therefore, here mentioned, even if, for the sake of argument, we were to allow their prevalence, would be counteracted by the more powerful and certain rewards of nature, of which he says so much; otherwise the rewards of art would be more powerful than those of nature.

Punishments are, at all events, as old as the days of Solomon, and they had his sanction. He even exhorts us, in inflicting them, not to withhold for the offender's crying. They have wisely formed a part of almost every system of education from that period to the present; but, at New Lanark, these old fashioned and certainly painful methods are laid aside. It has often been a subject of discussion, whether severity or indulgence be the safer extreme in education? Our forefathers verged towards the former,—their descendants are trying the latter. To reply, that it depended on the disposition of the youth, would be correct; but, as a general system, it may be truly said, "in medio tutissimus ibis."

Prohibitions have always formed a part of every code of laws, and even the Deity found it necessary to enforce prohibitions by punishments in his government of the Jewish people; and it has been so in every civilized state ;—no inconsiderable proof of man's depravity.

"It may be a question," says our author, "which of these two motives-reward or punishment, is, in its ultimate effects upon the human character, the more prejudicial, and produces the greater unhappiness." Reward and punishment are founded on two powerful passions of our nature, hope and fear. "Fear," remarks Dr. Cogan, "is the lowest and least respectable of all the motives to action;" but, in very de

praved minds, it has often operated when other motives could not be excited; and, although we do not agree with him as to the cause of existing depravity, yet the progress of motive in education is so finely described by him in his "Origin and Progress of the Social Affections," and is so adapted to our present inquiry, that we cannot resist the inducement, in an abridged form, to employ it.

It is obvious that nothing can be done with any certainty in the formation of character, until the teacher has discovered the motives which most ordinarily influence his pupil's conduct. Obedience must be yielded, improvement must be made; and, as fear is a powerful motive to action, the teacher, in the first instance, is glad that he can operate even by addressing himself to this principle. "When actuated by the hope of reward, they have advanced a step in the path of mental culture. As barbarians are said to count but few units before their contracted intellects are lost in confusion, thus, in morals, children cannot easily anticipate distant benefits, though great and manifold. The recompence must be immediate, in order to encourage exertion."

The promise of reward kindles desire; and, in proportion as the latter is excited, fear is diminished. The encouraging word of the watchful tutor feeds this awakened desire, which is happily succeeded by a ray of hope, and then succeeds exertion. During this delightful mental change, the pleasurable feelings of free agency are excited, and the temper and disposition are somewhat improved. The countenance, the index of the soul, brightens; the smile of satisfaction ensues; and some confidence in the native powers succeeds successful exertion, which has been well observed to be in itself no small reward. "Difficulties surmounted, prepare and dispose for future exertions; and advantages obtained, inspire satisfaction. Obedience becomes facile, and facility communicates the pleasures of habit. Habit becomes delightful, because accompanied with a perception of excellence; and now looking beyond the immediate good which first excited desire, and which has been attained, a taste for intellectual and moral improvement is imperceptibly formed. The consciousness of having achieved something meritorious inspires self-complacency, and obedience becomes more vigorous and accurate, and love to the benevolent teacher succeeds. "The infant mind feels the force of an argument without the aid of syllogisms, and quickly learns to infer, there must be something good in the person who is always doing good to me.' Love prompts to reciprocation,—to a thousand grateful attentions


* Cogan's Treatise on the Passions, vol. iii. chap. iii.

and services to the benefactor in return; and a solicitude succeeds, not merely to obey injunctions, but to anticipate wishes, and to surprise by unexpected tokens of affection. To these feelings, as the benefactor is of a superior age, understanding and attainments, respect, veneration, awe, and reverence, are added; and sorrow, and regret, and selfcondemnation, will follow offences against such a benefactor.

Love thus commencing towards those whose benevolence won the heart, will ultimately "expand towards those who are within the sphere of social intercourse; unless it be checked by something peculiarly forbidding in their appearance or conduct." The circle may enlarge in a similar manner, until it embraces the neighbourhood. The discovery of other's excellencies succeeding, the prejudices of ignorance are moved, and a more correct view of human nature is progressively formed.


If it be objected, that this is the process of natural rewards, let it be recollected, it is the description of a frequentlywitnessed moral process, which commenced with, and is accompanied by prohibition, enforced by artificial punishment, which was followed by promise, and attended by artificial reward.

The remaining general principle to be noticed, is the substitution of kindness for severity in the modes of government and methods of teaching.

This kindness seems to consist, not only in the rejection of all corporal punishment, but even in the substitution of pity for blame, and in the employment of pleasing modes of communicating interesting information.

Corporal punishments, however, do not necessarily imply unkindness, but often argue kindness in the most extended and important sense; as it is real kindness which prompts the parent to force the medicinal draught. Christianity represents to us, that afflictions and painful occurrences are parts of Heaven's wise and merciful discipline towards its favourites, to prepare them for its joys. Punishments may be inflicted with all the kindness of an affectionate father, accompanied by the tears of a fond mother, and with the evident solicitude of an anxious teacher.

But "a child who acts improperly," at New Lanark, "is not considered an object of blame, but of pity," and that because he knew no better. If children act up to the knowledge they possess in this new place, it is more than they do in any other. They must, moreover, possess more sensibility than children ordinarily do. This reminds us of a lad whom we once saw in the naughty boy's cradle at one of Mr. Lancaster's schools. We approached the offender with feelings of com

miseration; but, when we reached the side of the cradle, the lad looked us in the face and laughed, showing pity was too delicate a feeling to reach his mind, and the kind punishment ill adapted to his rough disposition. The fact is, that tempers and dispositions are as various as the human countenance, and he is a novice in education who would mechanically proceed with his pupils alike. There are hearts that pity will melt, there are tempers which nothing but force will tame. But is pity the just reward of vice? Are not children, even the best of children, guilty of faults for which even blame would be an inadequate return?

To kind methods of instruction we can have no objection. We admire the maxim "suaviter in modo, fortiter in re." But here more depends on the teacher than the system, and no man is qualified for a teacher of youth, who, to the necessary information, does not add the greatest self-command, and the sweetest disposition, His example should embody his precepts, or his precepts will be worse than useless. Very much depends on the mode of communicating instruction; for as we turn with disgust from him who addresses us in an angry tone, so the child pays but an apparent attention to the lesson which is given with laconic pride, and sullen ill-will, and feels no interest in the task which is heard with a frown; while the smile of good humour, the encouraging exhortation, the happy digression, the enlivening anecdote, will give a charm to the knowledge conveyed, and rivet the attention; and here appears to us the chief excellence of the New Lanark system,-not that we would insinuate that a pleasing method of teaching is peculiar to this system; far otherwise, there have been good and bad teachers of every system; but particular attention seems wisely paid to this point, by the founder of these schools. The fact is, it is requisite that those who undertake the instruction of youth, should be deeply imbued with the immense importance of their charge, and that they should be influenced by the warmest philanthropy, and moreover feel an interest in the society of the young.

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But we proceed to notice the details of the plan. It appears the premises are admirably adapted to the design.

"The New Institution' which is open for the instruction of children and young persons connected with the establishment, to the number of six hundred, consists of two stories. The upper story, which is furnished with a double range of windows, one above the other all round, is divided into two apartments: one, which is the principal schoolroom, fitted up with desks and forms, on the Lancasterian plan, having a free passage down the centre of the room; is about ninety feet long, forty feet broad, and twenty feet high. It is surrounded, except at one end, where a pulpit stands, with galleries, which are convenient,

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