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a written statement. All sentences must be given in public and in writing. If the parties are not satisfied with the sentence, they must immediately write down their intention to appeal on the brief.

"The first tribunals decide political, commercial, and criminal affairs, and also cases of appeal from the justices of the peace. In these courts all pleas and answers must be in writing: their sentences are not definitive, but are liable to revision by the Tribunals of Appeal.

"The Tribunals of Appeal judge all cases of appeal from the first tribunals. The sentences of these courts, on commercial and political affairs, not exceeding 4000 piastres, are final; but, when they exceed that sum, an appeal lies to the General Tribunal of Greece. In cri. minal cases, the sentences of the Tribunals of Appeal are not appealable, except sentence of decapitation be awarded, in which case, reference may be made to the General Tribunal.

"Each community has a notary, who must be approved by the government. All money-contracts must be made in his presence, and both parties must come before him for that purpose. He must also attend those who wish to make their wills, and notify the physical and moral state of the testators."

Of the manners of the Capitani, we have some information:

"The Capitani being the most powerful and influential men in Greece, I will give you a short account of one of them, named Stonari. This chief lives at a village called Kutchino, near the river Aspropo tamus, in Thrace, A portion of his property lies in the plain, and the rest in the mountains. He possesses about one hundred and twenty villages, and each of these contains, upon an average, about seventy families. The people of the mountains are chiefly occupied with their herds. Stonari himself has about 7 or 8000 head of cattle, and his family altogether own about 500,000. They consist of horses, oxen, cows, sheep, and goats, but chiefly of the two latter. The flocks remain seven months in the mountains, and the rest of the year in the plains. The Capitano lets out his cattle to herdsmen, who are bound to give him yearly, for each sheep, two pounds of butter, two pounds of cheese, two pounds of wool, and one piastre. Each family has from fifty to one hundred and fifty head of cattle, and they generally clear a small tract of ground and cultivate it. The plains are tolerably well cultivated. They do not belong to Stonari, but are held by the cultivators, who pay one-third of their rent to the Turks, one-third to the Capitano, and one-third for the maintenance of the soldiers.

"The peasantry live ill. They have eighty-nine fast-days in the year, in addition to the regular fasts, which are every Friday and Saturday. On other days they eat cheese, butter, and bread; and on Sundays and festivals, meat. The women are treated like slaves, and perform all the hard labour. The Capitani and Primates pay little more respect to their wives than to their vassals. When a stranger appears, the women kiss his hand, and bring him water. They do not appear at table with their lords.

"The inferior Capitani, under Stonari, each receive the dues of three or four families, and each commands a certain number of men.

"The regular soldiers under Stonari amount to 400. He could muster 3000 more from among his peasantry. They are paid only during three months in the year: the first class receive twenty piastres per month; the second, fifteen; and the third, twelve. They live well, and eat twice a day bread and meat. They receive their rations from the owners of the houses where they dwell. They are furnished with ammunition and hides to make shoes of from the Capitano, but they find their own arms and clothes. They are subjected to no military discipline or punishment, and can quit their chief at pleasure. When on a march, the officers of the villages through which they pass, must furnish them with quarters, and the owners of the houses where they lodge must provide them with food, and whatever they demand; if they do not, they are sure to be ill-treated. The troops cannot, however, remain above three or four days in the same village.

"There is a Primate in each village. These Primates are under the control of the Capitani, who are the Princes of the country..

"Each village is generally provided with two or three Priests, who receive from 100 to 600 piastres yearly. The people are very religious, and fear their pastors. There are several monasteries in Stonari's dis. trict, but no nunneries. In the Morea there are two nuuneries. The Priests are not generally rich.

The Priests, the Primates, or the Capitani,

"Justice there is none. decide arbitrarily in all cases.

"The wives of the soldiers remain in the villages during their husband's absence, to look after their families and flocks."

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The name of Byron induces us to make another extract, We had anticipated reaping a rich harvest of information, regarding that illustrious man; and we cannot refrain from expressing ourselves disappointed, that in a volume devoted to the cause of Greece, so little is said of HIM who acted so conspicuous and important a part in her liberation. Indeed, Lord Byron and Colonel Stanhope, seem almost constantly to have differed as to the best means of effecting the object which they both had in view; it is, however, but justice to the latter, to add, that he expresses himself after his Lordship's death, in the language of almost unmeasured eulogy. And this forgetfulness of his differences with a man whose "race was run," we regard as highly honourable to his feelings.

"His Lordship then began, according to custom, to attack Mr. Bentham. I said, it was highly illiberal to make personal attacks on Mr. Bentham, before a friend who held him in high estimation. He said, that he only attacked his public principles, which were mere theories, but dangerous; injurious to Spain, and calculated to do great mischief in Greece. I did not object to his Lordship's attacking Mr. B.'s principles; what I objected to were his personalities. His Lordship never reasoned on any of Mr. B.'s writings, but merely made sport of them. I would, therefore, ask him what it was that he objected

to. Lord Byron mentioned his Pañopticon as visionary. I said that experience in Pensylvania, at Milbank, &c. had proved it otherwise. I said that Benthani had a truly British heart; but that Lord Byron, after professing liberal principles from his boyhood, had, when called upon to act, proved himself a Turk.-Lord Byron asked, what proofs have you of this?-Your conduct in endeavouring to crush the press, by declaiming against it to Mavrocordato, and your general abuse of liberal principles.-Lord Byron said, that if he had held up his finger he could have crushed the press.-I replied, with all this power, which, by the way, you never possessed, you went to the Prince and poisoned his ear.--Lord Byron declaimed against the liberals whom he knew. But what liberals? I asked; did he borrow his notions of free-men from the Italians?-Lord Byron. No; from the Hunts, Cartwrights, &c.—And still, said 1, you presented Cartwright's Reform Bill, and aided Hunt by praising his poetry and giving him the sale of your works. Lord Byron exclaimed, you are worse than Wilson, and should quit the army. I replied, I am a mere soldier, but never will I abandon my principles. Our principles are diametrically opposite, so let us avoid the subject. If Lord Byron acts up to his professions, he will be the greatest,-if not, the meanest, of mankind.—He said he hoped his character did not depend on my assertions. No, said I, your genius has immortalized you. The worst could not deprive you of fame.-Lord Byron. Well; you shall see: judge me by my acts. When he wished me good night, I took up the light to conduct him to the passage, but he said, What! hold up a light to a Turk!

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We cannot enter into the merits of the question between Lord Byron and Colonel Stanhope. We leave every one to form his own opinion, both of the matter and style of Mr. Jeremy Bentham, having none of our own to offer, either as to his legislative theories, or his "long-tailed compounds. But that gentleman must have far more vanity than we believe him to possess, if he is not disgusted with meeting upon almost every page of the present volume with such expressions as the venerable Bentham; the immortal Bentham; Bentham, the wisest of jurists; Bentham, the great civilian and philanthropist; Bentham, the greatest civilian of this, or, perhaps, of any age; and so forth. Some regard should surely be paid to the feelings of the person who is he object of this absurd adulation. It is bad enough to damn with faint praise;" it is much worse to overwhelm with extravagant and ridiculous panegyric.

We are disposed to think, that those, who, in the pursuit of health or pleasure, are about to seek the advantages of a more genial climate than their own, might do well in proceeding to Greece. To such as are inclined to make the experiment, the following statement of the average price of land and provisions at Athens will not be unacceptable:

"Land should give a profit of from 10 per cent. to the purchaser. The land-tax amounts to 10 per cent. of the produce yearly.

"A good house costs, yearly, from 500 to 700 piastres.-A ridinghorse, from 150 to 200 piastres.-An ox, 150 piastres.-A cow, 100 piastres. A sheep, 10 piastres.-A goat, 8 piastres.-A man labourer, per diem, 60 paras=74d.-A woman, 40 paras-5d.-A boy, 20 paras 24d.-A man servant, with food and clothing, per month, 20 piastres. A maid-servant, ditto.-Wheat, per okr, 12 paras.-Bread, per okr, 10 paras. -Barley, per okr, 12 paras.-Oats, 6 paras.—A horse-load of wood, 20 paras.-Mutton, per okr, from 30 to 40 paras. -Goat, per okr, 25 to 30 paras. Beef, from 20 to 26 paras, per okr. A turkey, 6 piastres.-A goose, 4 piastres.-A duck, 2 piastres.-A chicken, 50 paras.-A partridge, 30 paras.-A woodcock, 25 paras.-A hare, 47 paras.-Butter, per okr, from 3 to 5 piastres. - Sugar, per okr, 6 piastres.-Honey, from 60 to 70 paras.Wine, per okr, from 12 to 18 paras.-Milk, 18 paras, per okr.-Oil, per okr, 60 paras.-Rum, per bottle, 100 paras,-Raki, per okr, 2 piastres.-Rice, from 26 to 40 paras, per okr.- New cheese, without salt, 20 paras, per okr. —Old cheese, without salt, 40 paras, per okr., -Eggs, per 100, 6 piastres.-Salt, 6 paras, per okr.

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"N. B.-An okr is equal to 25 pounds French. A piastre is equal to 5 pence; 40 paras make a piastre, and 10 piastres 1 dollar."

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The colonel closes his labours with what he terms 66 port on the state of Greece," from which we shall make a few extracts:


"ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE.-The Byzantine and parts of the Napoleon codes prevail in Greece. Neither are, however, much attended to, and the administration of justice is in its lowest


"POLICE.-The police is best supported by the military chiefs, especially at Athens. With the exception of the town of Missolonghi, personal security prevails to a much greater degree than under the Turkish government. Assassinations are extremely rare. Travellers move about with great safety.


"STATE OF THE GREEK CHURCH.-The ceremonies of the Greek church are tawdry and irrational. The priests, though they possess considerable influence, do not appear to have the same preponderating sway over their flocks that is exercised in some Catholic countries. This may be attributed to their poverty, and to the counteraction of the Mahommedan religion. Where toleration and a variety of religions prevail, there the power of the priests must be subdued, except within the pale of the established state creed. The Greek priests were greatly instrumental in bringing about the glorious revolution. They traversed the country, and enlisted their votaries in the honourable plot; they fought in the ranks of the noble insurgents, and many of them are permanently engaged as soldiers, and some as captains. During the period of their military service, they are suspended from the exercise of their ecclesiastical functions. This rule does not extend to peaceful employments. The vice-president of the

legislative body and the minister of the interior are of the clerical order. The priests are industrious. Most of them are engaged in agriculture and other useful labours. The dress of the pastors, when not on duty, in the country, is like that of the peasantry, and they are only dis tinguished from them by their beards. I everywhere found both the people and the clergy most anxious to receive the Scriptures in their native tongue. This I consider a matter of importance, because the first step towards the knowledge of any subject must be a right exposition and understanding of the same. By this means, the people will gradually become enlightened; the priests will lose the power of plotting, enslaving, and plundering; superstition will gave way, and the dictates of religion will coincide with those of utility."

Colonel Stanhope, as the last extract will shew, is not always consistent with himself. In one part of it, he tells us that "the Greek priests were greatly instrumental in bringing about the glorious revolution;" that "they traversed the country, and enlisted their votaries in the honourable plot," and that "they fought in the ranks of the noble insurgents:" about twenty lines afterwards, certain measures are recommended by which "the priests" are "to lose the power of plotting, enslaving, and plundering." Should his book arrive at another edition, we should feel really obliged by Colonel Stanhope's informing us whether he thinks the influence of the clergy in Greece has been productive of good or evil. Again, -we are here told, that "the ceremonies of the Greek church are tawdry and irrational." A similar opinion is advanced at page 76, after the colonel had attended the service of the church on Christmas-day; but, at page 202, he expresses a hope, "that, if Greece was doomed to have a foreign king, he would not change their venerable religion, and convert them into Catholics, Protestants, or Jews!" We should like to know what is Colonel Stanhope's real opinion as to this tawdry, irrational, venerable religion. At present, we dare not even guess at it.

"THE PEOPLE.-The peasantry of Greece possess a large share of rustic virtue. They were within the sphere of Turkey's oppression, but without the sphere of her corruption. Not so with the people of the towns, who, consequently, partake of her vices."




"AGRICULTURE is in Greece in its lowest state. Here and there the fields are well irrigated, but this is not generally the case. The best means of improving this most useful science would be through the medium of foreign settlers, and by the establishment of an agricultural society and branch farms, for the purpose of demonstrating the first principles of culture, of introducing fresh productions, such as vegetables, artificial grasses, &c., and of improving the breed of cattle, especially of sheep and goats. The vine and the olive, as also the silk-worm, require likewise particular attention."

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