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The Patriot mind, and philanthropic breast,
The Parent kind, so mild in his behest,
And many traits, of equal grace, appear,–
I pass them all, as of no moment here.
Anacænosis, or Communication,
153 Now we apply to those who round us wait, For their opinion, in the long debate; “ The Case your own,-say,—would you sign this bond, Whose purport you know not?” No !-you respond. Depotæposis, or Lively Description.
The language now is such, as represents
Things glowing with the touch of artists' tincts;
Descriptive this,—depict then Nature's face,
No action here,—to mimic would disgrace.
155 “ The country king, his peaceful realm enjoys, Unvex'd with quarrels, undisturb’d with noise; Cool grots and living lakes, the flowery pride Of meads, and streams, that through the valley glide."
In prose, the Simile clears-enforces thought;
And Poetry's with life and beauty fraught;
With lowly tone, oft plaintive and serene,
Inflections varied, to express the scene.
157 “ Thus, when a smooth expanse receives impress'a Calm Nature's image on its wat’ry breast, Doun bend the banks, the trees depending grow, And skies beneath with answ'ring colours glow;
But, if a stone the gentle lake divide,
Swift ruffling circles curl on ev'ry side;
And glimring fragments of a broken sun,
Banks, trees, and skies, in thick disorder run.”
159 Take first this maxim of important Truth, 'Tis good for age, ev'n as it is for youth, Good Sense, foundation is for writing well, This understood, your subject may excel.
An Argument, consists of Facts as shown,
Or Principles arrang'd, already known,
Which demonstrates the truth, or use of that
New PROPOSITION,—undertermin'd yet.
In Argument, a Subject is contain'd
Which must be stated, and sometimes explain'd,
Ere aught's denied, or any thing's affirm'd,
This explanation's DEFINITION term’d.
A Principle, or an Opinion may
Be oft the Subject where discussion lay,
When one, or other, doth to reasoning fall,
Logicians this, a PROPOSITION call.
If reasoning on the Subject, should not rise,
EXORDIUM then, a Preface well supplies :
In Argument, some point, an Object stands,
This point is call’d, the JUDGMENT of the man's.
The Judgment then, to be establish'd here,
Must unavoidably result appear
From what's advanc'd, in argument thereon,
Though stated first, or at the end 'tis done.
In Argument, observe to keep in mind
The Thing propos’d, the Judgment sought to find;
Nor fallacy or truth, merely to try,-
But to the subject,- doth what's salu apply?
When Subjects for discussion are propos'd,
A simple Subject,- let it be suppos'd,
Begin by Definition short and clear,
Just-as might in a Lexicon appear.
PRUD ENCE, - Wisdom apply'd to practise is;
IMP ROVEMENT, — Progress to perfection,—this ;
PTJNISAMENT, — Retributive suff'ring; when
CRIME, -' Wickedness of act; is done by men.
The Object of all reasoning, is to prove
The Truth of some Opinion,—then observe
Your own, -as good or bad, —desir'd, or not;
Nor the peculiar manner, be forgot.
SURJECT. GENERAL JUDGMENT. PARTICULAR JOUGMENT.
PRUDENCE, – is good, – to safety doth conduce;
IMPROVEMENT'S — good, — deserves reward from us,
PUNISHMENT'S — good, - restraining wickedness;
CRIME's, — always bad, — it surely brings distress.
170 1f Practical utility is sought, An INFERENCE, is from discussion brought; Rais'd from the judgment, this will ever have, A reference to the future, you'll perceive.
171 SUBJECT. PRACTICAL APPLICATION, PRUDENCE, – should be exercis'd we say; IMPROVEMENT, — be incited on its way; PUNISHMENT, should accord with the offence ; CRIME, - must not be excused on no pretence.
To ascertain the reason, whereby we
Opinion have, or Judgment, let us see
How, Prudence can to Safety, well conduce,
The Answers two,-for Propositions use.
DEF. PRUDENCE,—Wisdom apply'd to practice; how?
PROP. 1st. It forsees evil; the first Answer,—now.
PROP. 2nd. It then prepares, or hides; we next adduce,
JUDG. PRUDENCE, 'tis plain, to safety doth conduce.
For APPLICATION,—we must ascertain,
Our two chief reasons, which we thus may gain;
Ask, why should Prudence exercis'd thus be ?
The Answers two,-for Propositions see.
But, these observe must on the future bear. PROP. Ist. That it will lead to Virtue ;-we may dare, PROP. 2nd. That it may lead to peace and honour too : PRAC. APP. Then Prudence should be exercis'd by you.
In LATIN VERSE, of Rhyme or Blank, you'll find,
A certain set of Syllables combin'd;
The Long, are equal to accented words ;
The Short, to unaccented well accords.
The Feet, (so call’d,) of Syllables, contain
But Two, or Three, and these reduc'd, remain
To Four of each. IAMBUS, short v, and long ,
Has various forms, to suit our varied song.
From Two to Seven, lambuses extends,
Thèse Grāmmăr līnes, the English comprehands.
In all its forms, the accents always lie
On even Syllables,—This rule apply.
In Trochiac Measure, long -, and short v, we view,
More quick and lively, its expression too;
Six forms it has, and read this verse who will,
Should acceut lay, on the odd syllable.
The two remaining dissyllabic feet,
Are us'd to vary only, not in mete;
A Spondee - ., both accented, long import,
The Pyrrhic uu, unaccented, both are short.
In Anapæst vo-, Three Syllables are seen,
Two short, One long, as thus, in Contrăvēne;
Its second form, three Anapæst contains,
And oft 'tis us'd in grave, or cheerful strains.
The Three remaining, do but aid the rest;
The Dactyle - uuis, in possiblě express'd;
Amphibrach u-u, in dělīghtful is brought in;
The Tribach uuu, is, in comfortăbly seen.
We've Three main objects in Poetic lines,
The First, that Melody, one reading finds
From apt arrangement ;-HARMONY, thus brought,
Affords EXPRESSION, to illustrate thought.
From these examples giv'n, it will be found,
That Melody doth more or less, abound
In each; but their repeated stress we fear,
In long succession might offend the ear.
Whence the Cæsural pause is introduc'd,
A pleasing change, and mark, from hence its use,
In verse Heroic, Cæsura pause is laid
On fourth, or fifth word,—oft on sixth ’tis made.
The most melodious of Iambic lines,
The end of second foot, a pause it finds,
Oft at the third, or midst of third, may be,
Thus, pure lambic's have variety.