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The Comma (,) constitutes a part, or clause
Of Sentences connected, wanting pause;
To measure this by time, you may count one,
Of all the stops in use, we've shorter none.
The Semicolon (;) point, observe we take
In parting sentences Compound to make;
Connection shows, but not as Commas do,
To measure this, we pause while counting two.
The Colon [:] is a stop we must adduce,
Shows less connection, and not much in use;
Not so distinct in sense as periods be,
We pause at this, while counting one, two, three.
The Period [.] shows the sentence is complete ;
It may be simple, or complex we meet;
The subject known, we've nothing to add more,
A final pause, or count one, two, three, four.
121 This Mark [?] we use when we interrogate, Who's that?—who rings the bell ?-can he not wait? Pathetic point of Exclamation [ ! ] learn, “ Bound every heart! and every bosom burn!”
Parenthesis ( ) a sentence doth contain
Which we omit at pleasure, or retain;
It differs from its relative in tone,-
He's ill tehav'd,(I think) you're best alone.
123 Apostrophe, mark'd thus '], our words contract:
Tis, for it is; for wrecked, we write wreck'd. Caret , a note, when interlin'd 'tis seen,
read Where what's omitted should be between.
The Hyphen [-] is conjunctive, thus, to-day.
Diæresis [*] disjoins, at least it may
When words like this, create, thus mark'd, 'tis known
The vowels form two syllables,—thus shown.
The Section  means divided from the rest ;
By Paragraph  distinction is express'd;
Quotation [“ ” ] shows we cite as evidence,
Some Author of reputed competence.
The Hand[ ] or Index, and the little Star
Or Asterisk [ * ], "for marks of ref'rence are:
The Obelisk [ + ], and Parallel [ 1 ], likewiss,
Refer to margin, for authorities.
With Capitals remember to begin,
Poetic lines, and proper names of men ;
The names of Deity, the letter 0,
The pronoun I,—all words of import too.
Figures of Speech.
The rules preceding first digested well,
We here of Tropes and Figures next may tell;
Our language thus, is to perfection brought,
Enrich'd with all the varied shades of thought
Metaphor and allegory.
129 A Metaphor, in borrow'd words compares, Thus, for excess, we say a “ flood of tears." An Allegory, is a chain of tropes, “ I've pass'd the shoals, fair gales, now swelling hopes.
Metonymy and Syneedoche.
Metonymy, doth take some kinder name, shame “ Just Heaven,” (for God), confound their pride witb Synecdoche, expresses part for all, “ Instead of ships, a fleet of twenty sail.”
An Irony doth quite reverse intend
To that expressid," Well done, right-trusty friend."
An Hyperbole, exceeds the truth you'll know,
'Tis “ Swift as wind," and " whiter than the snow.”
Climaf and Antithesis.
A Climax, by gradation still ascends,—
My countrymen, my neighbours, avd my friends.
Antithesis, a contrast thus requires,-
Increase not wealth, but lessen your desires.
133 Apostrophe, is when the current thought Is turn'd aside, some other object's caught; Glad tidings these, that One is come to save! “Now where's thy sting, 0 Death? Thy victory, Grave ?
134 When we Personify, we do invest Dead things with life, the absent are address’d; “Ask for what end the heavenly bodies shine, Earth for whose use; Pride answers, 'Tis for mine
Empassion'd by our subject, we suppose
The Object present,-suddenly it rose ;
“ What beck’ning ghost, along the moonlight shade,
Invites my steps, and points to yonder glade ?”
Grotesis, or Enterrogation.
This Figure varies and improves the style,
Invites to converse,-passion's vehicle ;
What shall I call him? him a citizen?
Has he our nature? is he really man?
Bcphonesis, or Erclamation.
This figure to all Passions doth extend,
The tone of voice, will on the mind depend ;
Sorrow, or Joy extreme, take a high tone;
Reproach, Disdain, Contempt, a lower one.
Epanaphora, or Repetition.
Allied to Climax, its inflections take
With it a sameness,,but a diff'rence make,
Repeated words, increasing force demand,
And rising voice,-this figure must attend.
139 “ Thée, his lov'd wife, along the lonely shores; Thée, his lov'd wife, his mournful song deplores; Thée, when the rising morning gives the light, Thée, when the world was overspread with night.” Prolepsis, or Anticipation.
140 This, doth suggest, that some objection lies Against the speaker,—who to it replies; Before Prolepsis, mark, the Voice should fall,— . Object with candour,—coolly answer all.
141. “ But grant that others can with equal pride, Look down on pleasures, and her baits deride, Where shall we find the man, that bears with woes, Great and majestic still, as Cato does ? Synchoresis, or Concession.
Concession differs thus, from all before,
It grants some thing, intent to gain the more,
In low light voice, as no import we yield,
Then raise the tone and force, to take the field.
I grant them learning, genius, eloquence,
Yea, if they clainı some other excellence
I'll not dispute their title,—but forsooth,
They are not honest, nor regard the truth.
Epanorthosis, or Correction.
Here we recall, what we before have said,
To substitute a stronger word instead;
The current thought turn'd back upon its source,
Returns ubruptly, with redoubld force.
The friendship of the world, (delusive name,)
Springs oft from pleasure, oft from hope of gain ;
But lasting friendship, that no ills can move,
From kindred flows,-nay virtue,—this I prove.
Anastrophe, or Inversion,
This figure's us'd, when we the rule invert
Of Sentences,—the last part, first insert;
Milton's example see, where, “Heav'nly Muse,”
Is first in order,—here no pause we use.
Polysyndeton, or Reduxdance,
The Polysyndeton, redundance makes
Of Copulatives, see below it takes;
These weight and gravity, 'tis thought afford,
Allowing time, to think, on what is heard.
148 “ Not death, nor life, nor angels, no, nor pow'rs, Nor present things, nor things to come, (they're ours ;) Nor height, nor depth, nor creature, sever can The Love Divine, which flows through Christ to man." Asyndeton, or Omission.
We represent celerity in one
To act, or speak, by an Asyndeton ;
Omitting particle conjunctives, we
Give strength and vigour to delivery.
All those renew'd, in holy fruits abound,
In love, joy, peace,-long suff'ring, too they're found;
They're gentle, good, believing, meek,—and hence
They're not condemn'd; they've also temperance.
Paralepsis, or Omission,
Here we pretend to pass, or to conceal
What we intend to speak, or to reveal ;
With soft high tone, an air indifferent,
As if to wave advantages we meant.