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sisting of iron teeth and pullies, by and the cotton cleaned by it daily which the mill, with a little assis. may be from six to nine hundred tance, feeds itself. These mills are weight. worked by horses and oxen, or by " After the cotton be thus ginned, water. They were some time past by these different machines, a numintroduced into Beaufort district; ber of hands is employed in picking but not answering the expectations from it any dirt or bits of seed, which had been formed of them, which may remain in it: it is then they are but little used.
packed up in bags, weighing from « Barrel gins are either worked 250 to 300lbs. and is ready for marby oxen or water; and may be said ket. As the nicety of its prepara. to be nothing more than foot gins, tion more than its bulk, is the obto which greater power is applied ject with manufacturers, it is well by complicated mechanism. This worth the planter's attention to be consists of a large driving cog- careful in having it gathered clean wheel, working a small trundle from the field, and otherwise cleanswheel. This smaller wheel gives ed from all trash, broken seeds, motion to a large cylinder or bar- and stained wool, which may rerel, round which from eight totwen- main, after its having passed ty-four sets of bands are passed, through the gin. Cotton, prepared communicating with the pullies of in this way, will assuredly comas many cotton gins; which are mand a ready and good price; as, fixed in rows on each side of it. A in the extensive spinning machines negro is stationed at each of these which are established in Europe, the gins, to feed it with cotton; besides smallest particle of trash or seed one who superintends the whole; breaks the thread, and interrupts and the larger kind of these mills will the progress of the manufacture. gin out from six to eight hundred “Such is the growth of cotton in weight of clean cotton in a day. South Carolina, and the mode of
6. The saw gins are used particu- preparing it for market. But it is larly for extracting the cotton from not all of the same intrinsic value, the green seed, to which it closely as that raised on lands adjacent to adheres. This mill is worked ei. the sea and salt water, called island ther by oxen or water, and consists sea shore cotton, being black of an horizontal cog-wheel, or a seed, it is preferred to the green water wheel, working a band which seed cotton, which is raised in the puts the pullies of the saw-mill in interior of the country.” motion. One of these pullies turns a After discussing, very fully, the cylinder, round which is affixed from agriculture of the state, the author twenty to forty circular iron plates, proceeds to make some few reabout three-fourths of an inch dis- marks on negro slavery. On this tant from each other, serrated at delicate topic it is but justice to all the edge; which continually revolve parties to hear what a shrewd and between iron straps, into the com- candid judge has to say in defence partment where the cotton is plac- of negro servitude. ed; and thus tear the cotton from " In the pursuits of agriculture, the seeds, as the space through slaves were introduced into this which they revolve, is not suffici- state; and importations from Africa ently large to let the seeds pass soon supplied the planter with as through. Another puily moves a many negroes as he was able to cylinder with a set of brushes op- purchase. This gave a rapid inposite each saw; which takes the crease to the settlement, and riches clean cotton from the teeth of the of the lower country; when, othersaw, and discharge it from the gin. wise, its richest lands would not One person besides the packers, have been worth the cultivating. and those who drive the oxen is They, consequently, became a vestsufficient for attending this gin; ed property in their respective own
ers, by the laws of the land; and those who are not engaged in it, te however paradoxical it may appear, be safe from any of its future calatheir owners, on obtaining their in- mities. dependence, and a right by the con “Should we fora moment inquire, stitution and government of this what is the situation of negroes in state, and theseUnited States, thence Africa; we shall find them geneflowing, to be protected in their per- 'rally in a state of slavery; liable to sons and property, had an indefea- be sold for the luxury of their -sible right in them: without the princes, or, as following the chances reach of laws to alter, unless by of war. Some few are stolen from their own consent, or by suitable their parents, and others are taken compensation. Notwithstanding, by deception and fraud. But the however, this barrier, which has great mass, which have been brought been, and will continue to be placed to South Carolina, only exchanged against any innovations respecting one slavery for another; and that this property; many are the efforts too, with many advantages in fawhich are not only tried individu- vour of their present situation in ally, but collectively, to weaken this country. There, they are subthis right of property; and, ulti. ject to the uncontrouled pleasure of mately, to change its very nature, princes; and are sometimes even The impropriety appears greater; slaughtered for the ceremonies of as these attempts flow, not from their funerals. Neither life nor proour own citizens, for they know perty is secured to them. But their rights and interests better; force, oppression, and injustice, are but from those of the Northern the great engines of their governStates; who are less acquainted ment. Here, laws are passed for with them. With as much propri- their security and protection. They ety might we request them to dis- are worked by certain tasks, which miss their horses from the plough; are not unreasonable; and when as for us to dismiss these people they are diligent in performing them, from labour. For in both cases, they have some hours of the day to lands of excellent quality, which are themselves. Hence they are encultivated by them, would revert to couraged to plant for their own a state of nature. And with the emolument; raise poultry for their same reason might they be asked to own use, or for sale; and are progive the money out of their pockets, tected in the property which they in order to equalize the situation of thus acquire. With good masters, every person; as the people of the they are happy and contented; and southern states be requested to make instances are known, where they changes in this property, which have declined an offered freedom. would materially affect the fortunes It is prohibited by law to work them they possess. And notwithstand- more than certain hours of the day, ing this impropriety, societies have during different portions of the intruded so far, as to send addresses year; and their owners are liable to the different branches of our le- to a penalty, if they do not feed and gislature; recommending certain clothe them in a suitable manner. modes, which they deem most eli- Should they treat them cruelly, they gible for us to pursue in this respect; are amenable to a court of justice and all this for the good of the for the sanie. If a slave be killed whole family of mankind! The in the heat of passion, fifty pounds reception which these addresses sterling is forfeited to the state: have met withi, renders any further comment on them unnecessary.
* What a poor defence is this, if This much, however, may be said; it should appear that these laws are that, if it be an evil, it will sooner, never executed, these penaliies never or later, effect its own cure; and if levied, these forfeitures never it be a sin, it is the happiness of acted !
and if wilfully murdered, one hun- been rendered useless; while the dred pounds sterling is forfeited in pine lands, from their barren nalike manner by the person offend- tures, although they might'maintain ing, and he is rendered forever in- the farmer, would have done little capable of holding, exercising, en- towards raising the state to its prejoying, or receiving the profits of sent importance. At its first setany office, place, or emolument, tlement, the fertile lands in the upcivil or military, within this state. per country were not known; or if And in case such person shall not they were, surrounded by Indian be able to pay the said penalty, or nations, they offered no retreat to forfeiture, he is liable to be sent to the calm exertions of the farmer; any frontier garrison of the state; where wars interrupted navigation, or to be committed to prison, or a and unopened roads, would arrest work-house, for seven years'; and from him the profits of his industry. during that time be kept at hard But, should it be asked, why the labour. Their importation has been swamps and low lands in the lower prohibited since the year 1788 ; not, country, cannot be cultivated by however, without struggles in our whites, and without the labour of legislature, respecting it. But, ne- negroes? I would answer, these vertheless, numbers of them have situations are particularly unhealbeen introduced into this state, both thy, and unsuitable to the constituby land and water; and that smug- tions of white persons; whilst that gling, which Mr. Edwards, in his of a negro, is perfectly adapted to history of the West Indies saga- its cultivation. He can, uncovered, ciously predicted would happen in stand the sun's meridian heat; and such case, has actually taken place labour his appointed time, exposed in a great degree.* What the dif. to the continual steam, which arises ferent importations of negroes, into from the rice grounds; whilst a this state, from time to time, may white person could barely support be, is not in my power to relate. himself under the shade, surroundBut the census, which was taken ed by such a relaxing atmosphere. of the population of this state in He can work for hours in mud and 1801, by direction of the federal water, (which he is obliged to do in government, gives us the number the rice culture, in ditching and of them, about that time, amount- draining,) without injury to himing to 146,151; since which period, self; whilst to a white this kind of their numbers have no doubt in- labour would be almost certain creased, as well by births, as by death. Should these observations smuggling
be founded on fact, (which it is beHad not this agricultural strength lieved they are) they sufficiently been furnished South Carolina, it is justify the present condition of this probable, in the scale of commerce state, in the kind of property to and importance, she would have which we immediately refer. And, been numbered among the least re
while we lament the iniquitous passpectable states of the union. At sions, which originally introduced this moment, the extensive rice slavery into this state; it is with fields which are covered with grain, satisfaction we can assert, that their would present nothing but deep condition is far ameliorated to what swamps, and dreary forests; in- it formerly was. They have their habited by panthers, bears, wolves, houses, their gardens, their fields, and other wild beasts. Hence, the their dances, their holydays, and best lands of this state, would have their feasts. And, as far as is con
sistent with our government, they • See Edward's History of the West enjoy privileges and protections, in Indies, 4to. vol. II. pages 115, 116. some cases, superior to the poor And also page 503, et seq. of the ap- whites of many nations; and in pendix of the same volume.
others equal to the mildest slavery VOL. I....NO. I.
in any part of the world. It may cut down, and the lands on which be said, this is still slavery. True. they grew may be made to produce But, as was observed, it is prefer- grains, which nature never planted able to the condition of the peasantry there. But, withhold the hand of of some countries. How many tracts cultivation; and nature immediately of land are there on this globe, causes weeds and plants to spring whose inhabitants cannot boast as up again : and, in course of time, much good ? How many thousands covers them with her dark reare there, who labour from morn- treats, and stately forests." ing until night, and from season to We have marked in italics the season, for at best a beggarly sub- passages in this extract, on which sistence; whose tenure depends on the friend of negro liberty will be the will of a prince, at once master inclined to meditate. We should of their fortunes, and of their liber. have been much better pleased with ties? With them, the father may our author, if he had admitted the in vain attempt to raise up his son iniquity of the traffic, and urged for his support and comfort; but these considerations rather to acwhen the time arrives, and with count for and excuse, than to jusincreasing years, he comes to use- tify the practice. Had he insisted ful manhood; he is torn from the on the enormous evils which would presence of his parents, and the eri accrue even to the blacks themdearments of his relations; to swell selves, from general or partial the pageantry of a court....or to con- emancipation, rather than on the found the liberties of his country. abstract right of the planters, to
“ This is what may be seen on the persons of the blacks, as to the the theatre of human life; conti- persons of their hogs and sheep, nually chequered with good and he would have gained a favourable evil, happiness and misery. The audience, even with the greatest philanthropist may seek perfection enemies of slavery, and have taken and happiness among the human the strongest ground even with its race; but he will never find it com- friends. plete. The philosopher may plan We have next a very good acnew laws, and new systems of go- count of the manufactures, inland vernment; which practice too often navigation, and foreign commerce declares but the effervescence of of the state. For this purpose, he fancy, and unequal to the end pro. has consulted the public offices, and posed. Nature, governed by uner- procured the most ample and auring laws, which command the oak thentic documents. to be stronger than the willow, and Then follows a political view of the cypress to be taller than the the state, its constitution, laws and shrub; has at the same time im- revenue; and a topographical acposed on mankind certain restric- count of Charleston, and other tions, which can never be over- principal towns; and some particome. She has made some to be culars of the literature, and mane poor, and others to be rich; some ners of the people. to be happy, and others to be mi On the whole, this publication is serable; some to be slaves, and a valuable addition to our slender others to be free. The subjects, or stock of information, and we sinpeople, on which these principles cerely hope that Mr. Drayton's are enforced, may be changed by laudable example will be followed industry, intrigues, factions, or re- by other ingenious men. volutions; but the principles can never be altered; they will shew themselves again, with the same For the Literary Magazine. force on new subjects; unchange- Two Compends for the use of the able in their natures, and constant Philadelphia Academy.... 1. Of Elo in their effects. So woods may be cution; 2. Of Natural History. By
James Abercrombie, A. M. one of
CONCLUSION. the Assistant Ministers of Christ's « Thus have we endeavoured to Church and St. Peter's, and Di. delineate those outlines, which no. rector of the Academy.
thing but good sense and taste can Quicquid præcipies, esto brevis : ut citò dicta
“ These few hints, however, if Percipiant animi dociles, teneantque duly attended to, may suffice to aid fideles.
and direct your efforts for improve.
Hor. ment. Though, after all, it is im. Philadelphia, H. Maxwell, p. p. 254. possible to acquire a correct and
judicious pronunciation, a command MR. ABERCROMBIE has for some of the various modulations of the time past, been engaged as the in- voice, and strict propriety of ges, structor of youth. The Philadel. ture, merely from rules, without phia Academy under his care, has, practice and an imitation of the best we have no doubt, promoted the in- examples: which shews the wisterests of religion and literature in dom of the ancients, in training up this city. The duties of the teacher their youth to the study and pracin science, may be very properly tice of ELOCUTION, by the assist. united with those of the preacher ance of the most accomplished from the pulpit; and in both capa- teachers, who exemplified the rules cities Mr. A. deserves no small which were given to form the approbation. In prosecution of the speech and action of their pupils, plan of education which he has “ Yet, the more distinctly these adopted, the Compends now under outlines are marked and rememexamination were written. These bered, the easier will be the finish. are two.... The first on elocution... ing: and if, instead of leaving so the second on natural history. In much taste, as is generally done, the endeavour to reduce these to a we were to push, as far as possible, concise and systematic order, the our inquiries into those principles writer has availed himself of what of truth and beauty in delivery, has been written on these subjects which are immutable and eternal; by many excellent writers. Mr. A. if we were to mark carefully the has not however implicitly followed seemingly infinite variety of voice these authors, but has thought for and gesture in speaking and read. himself, and in several instances has ing, and compare this variety with discovered considerable originality, the various senses and passions, of His style is always neat and perspi- which they are expressive; from cuous, and occasionally elegant and the simplicity of Nature, in her elevated. The Compend of Elocu- other operations, we have reason tion, we think, is more successfully to hope, that they might be so executed, than the one of Natural classed and arranged, as to be of History. The former is divided in- much easier attainment, and pro. to two parts. The first part, on ductive of much certainty and imthe art of reading, includes the fol- provement, in the very difficult aclowing subdivisions: On the voice, quisition of a just and agreeable de. of reading, of accent, of emphasis, livery; which, when once acquired, of modulation, of expression, of gives a polish to the character pauses.... The second part, on the which irresistibly captivates and art of speaking, includes the fol- arrests the attention of the hearers lowing subdivisions: Of tones, of and beholders. The accomplished looks, of gesture. In treating these, speaker at once regales the eye Mr. A. has succeeded in conveying with a view of that most noble obinstruction in an easy and impres. ject the human form, in all its glory, sive manner to the young. He con- the ear, with the perfection and cludes the Compend with the fol. original of all music; the under wing sentences....
standing, with its proper and natin