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speaker in the present administra- nearly as I can recollect, the followtion. You are surprised, perhaps, ing words: “In reply to the honour. at my denying eloquence to Mr. able member who has just spoken, Erskine: I heard him speak for one I shall not consider what he has uthour in the House of Commons, and tered as either a very systematic or I found it impossible, I would have a very clear view of the subject defied any body else to tell on what which he proposed to investigate, side of the great question, peace or nor can I suppose that he himself war, he intended to vote, unless, in- considers his remarks in that light.” deed, it be always proper to judge I have also heard Mr. Erskine at from the place where a member the bar, and been almost as much seats himself, of what party he is. disappointed as in the house. In Mr. Pitt's great speech followed both places he is, in my opinion at Mr. Erskine's, and contained, as least, far surpassed by Mr. D
For the Literary Magazine.
CRITICISM. A View of South Carolina, as respects her natural and civil concerns...
by John Drayton. Charleston, W.P. Young, 1802, 8vo.boards. pp. 255.
We have great pleasure in meet- between one and two in the aftering with a work of this kind. At noon of the same day, was seen appresent, the geographical and sta- proaching us very fast in a direct tistical condition of the United States line, and not three miles from the is very little known; and it can on town. But when it had advanced ly be known by the compilation of to the distance of about half a mile works like the present. The Dis- from us, it was providentially optrict of Maine, the States of Ver- posed by another whirlwind, which mont and New Hampshire are the came from the north-east; and only portions of our country, which crossing the point of land on which have been made the subjects of par- Charleston stands, the shock of ticular histories or descriptions, be- their junction was so great as to alfore the present undertaking; and ter the direction of the former somewe now add the name of Drayton what more towards the south,whereto those of Williams and Belknap, by great part of this place was preas the literary benefactors of their served from inevitable destruction. country.
It then passed down Ashley river We are first presented with a ge- with such rapidity and violence, neral account of the discovery and that in a few minutes it reached settlement of this state. Then fol- Rebellion Road, where a large fleet lows a description of the face of the of loaded vessels with one of his country, its mineral and vegetable majesty's ships, their convoy, lay, productions, and its climate. The about four or five miles below the delineation of the face of the coun- town, ready to sail for England; try is accurate and scientifical. The three of which were overset and climate is illustrated by thermome- sunk so suddenly, that some people trical tables, by tables of diseases who happened to be in one of their compiled by a medical scciety at cabins had not time to come on Charleston, and by other valuable deck; and many of the other ships, documents and observations, which, luckily, did not lie so imme
The following account of a whirl. diately exposed to the greatest fury wind deserves to be extracted : of the tempest, would have shared
the same fate, had not their masts “ About ten o'clock in the morn- .given way; for all those it passed ing, on the 4th of May, 1764, a over, were laid down on their sides: dreadful whirlwind was said to be and the mizen-inast of the king's observed in the Indian country, ship was carried off close to the above three hundred miles to the quarter-deck, as smoothly as if it westward of Charleston; which, had been cut with a saw.
" As people sat at dinnerthat day, assured me, that had a thousand they were alarmed with an unusual negroes been employed for a whole sort of stunning noise, as of the ruf- day in cutting down his trees, they fing of many drums, intermixed could not have made such a waste with such a roaring, thundering, of them, as this whirlwind did in less churning or dashing sound, as the than half a minute. Such trees as sea makes, in breaking on a hollow were young and pliant, stooped to rocky shore, during a violent storm; its violence, and afterwards recowhen, on running out of doors, the vered themselves. But all those, tremendous cloud was seen advan- which were more inflexible, and cing at a great rate, with a quick firmly rooted, were broken off, and circular motion, its contents seem- hurled away: so that no part of ing in a violent agitation, from the many of them could afterwards be great tumult that appeared, not on- found; amongst which were some ly in the body of the column itself, live oaks of near two feet diameter, but, likewise from the contiguous the wood of which is known to be clouds which drove rapidly towards almost as ponderous and hard as it from all directions, as if the lignum vite; so that some of these whole contents of the atmosphere trees, must have weighed, perhaps flowed thither, and were instantly more than two tons. Yet heavy as absorbed by it. Hence it was, that they were, no remains of them this meteor every moment appear- could afterwards be found any ed so differently; some parts of it where, except the roots, which being black and dark at times; were fixed in the earth. These others of a flame colour; and again, whirlwinds more often proceed as if vast waves of the sea had risen through the upper country, someinto the air. But such was the per- times in a width of half a mile, turbation in the cloud, that these tearing up the largest oaks and phenomena varied continually; all other trees in their way; or twistparts of it rolling over each other ing and shivering them to pieces." in the most confused and rapid The following statement of the manner: and every now and then, nature and extent of estates is valarge branches vi trees might be luable: seen hurled about in it. Its diame. “ The incomes of the planters, ter was thought to be about three and farmers, are various; ranging hundred yards, and the height thir- from eighty to forty thousand dol. ty degrees; a thick vapour emitted lars. Very few, however, receive from it rising much higher. In incomes of the above magnitude. passing along, it carried the waters Many receive from twelve to twenof the river before it, in the form ty thousand dollars per annum; and of a mountainous wave; so that the the greatest part of the planters are bottom was seen in many places. only in the annual receipt of from Such foods of water fell on those three to six thousand dollars. The parts over which it passed, as if a estates of these latter may be worth whole sea had been discharged on from 20 to 40,000 dollars. The them at once; and for a mile or farmers are on a smaller scale; and two on each side of it, abundance their incomes may be said to range of rain fell. As the wind ceased between two thousand, and forty presently after the whirlwind pass- dollars. The best lands in this ed, the branches and leaves of va- state, which are tide swamps, rious sorts of trees, which had been cultivated, have sold for one huncarried into the air, continued to dred and seventy dollars an acre. fall for half an hour; and in their In general, however, they sell from descent, appeared like flocks of seventy to ninety dollars an acre; birds of different sizes. A gentle- on a credit of one or two years. man, over whose plantation the Uncultivated tide land sells proporskirt of this storm passed, not more tionably lower. Inland swamps, if than two miles from Charleston, cultivated, sell at prices betwixt
twenty and fifty dollars each acre. But, it is here, that health and Good cotton land has sold in Beau- independence dwell. And a crop fort district, as high as sixty dollars of an hogshead of tobacco, or a bag per acre.
In general, however, or two of cotton, forms an income its value, in different parts of the which pays the taxes and expenses state, is from six to forty dollars; of the farm, and makes a family the same depending much on its si- happy and contented.” tuation; as that nearest the sea is The most valuable part of this considered the most valuable, and performance, is the detail it conproduces the finest cotton. Other tains of the agriculture and rural high lands sell from one to six dol- economy of this state. We have lars an acre; according to their re-' here a more clear and satisfactory spective situations, and conveni- account of the culture of those imences to navigation. Hence, men portant articles, rice and cotton, possessing any capital whatever, than is elsewhere to be found. A may settle themselves independent- distinct view is given in an happily ly; upon lands which descend to conceived table, of the comparative their posterity; together with every modes of cultivating rice in South improvement made thereon, by Carolina, Spain, Egypt, Sumatra, their industrious labour.
and China. “ The buildings are also as va As cotton is growing very rapidly rious, as the values of estates; ran- into esteem, and its cultivation beging in value between thirty thou- gins to be attended to in the middle sand and twenty dollars. They are districts of the United States, we commonly built of wood; some, shall extract our author's account however, are constructed of brick; of the Carolinian culture: principally those in cities and “ Cotton is noticed as an article towns. And of late years, build- of export in South Carolina, as ings have been carried on with spi- early as the year 1754; and from rit throughout the state ; and houses that time to this, it has been grown of brick and wood erected, suitable in the state; but, without any parto the improvement of manners, and ticular attention, until of late years. comforts of society. The houses During the American war with are, for the most part, built of one Great Britain, it was raised through or two stories, according to the necessity; and with a mixture of taste and abilities of the owner. wool, or sometimes by itself, was One particularity, however, may woven into negro cloths: but, it beremarked respecting them,
which ceased with the cause which excited is, that piazzas are generally at- its culture; and again sunk to its tached to their southern front, as former level. As an article of exwell for the convenience of walk- port from the United States of Ame.
therein, during the day, as for rica, it originated in Georgia, since preventing the sun's too great in- the peace of 1783; and yielding exfluence on the interior part of the traordinary profits to the planter, house; and the out-offices are rare soon recommended itself to those ly connected with the principal of this state. And hence that bedwelling, being placed at a distance ginning, which has now surpassed from it, of thirty or forty yards. in value the greatest crops of rice The houses of the poorest sort of or indigo, which have ever been people, are made of logs, let into made in South Carolina. each other at the ends, their inter “ The cotton which is grown in stices being filled up with moss, this state, may be ranged in three straw, and clay; and are covered classes: viz. nankeen, green secd, with clap-boards. Their plans are and black seed, cotton. simple, as they consist only of one “ Nankeen cotton is principally or two rooms: and the manners of grown in the middle and upper their tenants are equally plain. country, for family use.
It is so
called from the wool, resembling a mould board adapted to that pur. the colour of nankeen or Namking pose. Or, in the first instance, cloth; which it retains as long as beds are made rather low and flat, it is worn. It is not in much de- and the cotton is sown therein. Bý mand, the white cotton having en some they are sown in holes, at grossed the public attention. Were about ten inches distance; but the it encouraged however, cloths might more general practice is to sow the be manufactured from it, perhaps cotton in a drill, along the length not inferior to those imported from of the bed; after which it may be the East Indies, it being probable thinned at leisure according to its the cotton is of the same kind; as growth. In rich high land soils, from experiments which have been not more than fifteen of these beds made, nankeens have been manu are made in a quarter of an acre; factured in this state, of good co. but in inferior lands, twenty-one lour and of very strong texture. beds are made in the same space of
“ Green seed cotton, produces a ground. When the plants are about good white wool, adhering much four or six leaves high, they reto the seed; and, of course, with quire a thinning; at which time, difficulty ginned. Its produce is only a very few plants are left at greater, and its maturity is sooner each distance, where it is intended than the black seed; for which rea- the cotton is to grow: and from son it is principally cultivated in the time to time these plants are thinmiddle and upper country; as the ned, until at length two plants, or seasons of those districts are shorter, only one, are left at each distance, by several weeks, than those of the Where the land is not rich, the lower country; and the frosts are plants remain within ten or twelve more severe.
inches of each other; but when a “ Black seed cotton is that which luxuriant growth is induced, they is grown in the lower country, and are thinned to eighteen inches, and on the sea islands; producing a fine two feet; and in rich swamp lands, white cotton, of silky appearance; to four feet distance in the rows. very strong, and of good staple. At the time of thinning also, the The mode of culture is the same first hoeing is generally given; and with all these species; and rich the rule is, not to draw the earth high land, is the soil, on which down, but constantly to draw up a they are generally planted. In the little earth, at each hoeing, to the middle country, however, the high plant; and to give the fields a hoe. swamp lands produce the green ing every two or three weeks. seed in great abundance; and some With some planters, the practice tide lands and salt water marshes of topping the main stalk has been (after being reclaimed) in the lower used, when the plants are too luxu. country, have also made excellent riant; but the plant throwing out crops of this valuable article.
abundance of suck« This plant is raised from the ers, and thereby increasing the toil seed, and is managed in nearly the of the negroes to pull them away, following manner: About the latter has induced its discontinuance. end of March, or beginning of Towards the middle of September, April, commences the season for however, it may be advantageous planting cotton. In strong soils the to top the cotton to the lowest blosland is broken up with ploughs, and soms; as from that time no blosthe cotton is sown in drills, about soms will produce cotton. By this five feet from each other, and at treatment, also, the sun has a greatthe rate of nearly a bushel of seed er influence on the plant, the pods to the acre; after which, when the sooner open, and the strer.gth of Gotton is a few leaves high, the dirt the plant is not drawn unnecessarily is thrown up in a ridge to the cot- froni those pods, which are likely ton, on each side, by a plough, with to come to maturity.
“ At the first hoeing, the grass or seventy pounds of cotton in the is carefully picked from amongst the seed in a day. The produce of plants, and a little earth is drawn cotton is various, according to around them. The second hoeing its different situations and kinds. is also done in the same manner, In the lower country, the black and those succeeding; with this ad- seed ranges between one hundred dition, that at every hoeing, the and three hundred pounds weight, beds are drawn up more and more of clean cotton, to the acre. In into an angular ridge, for the pur- the middle and upper country, pose of better throwing off the au green seed does the like. Upon tumnal rains from the roots of the indifferent lands, only from sixty to cotton. Some cotton-planters plant one hundred weight of clean cotton Indian corn at the intersections of is made to the acre; on better every twenty-four feet, throughout lands, from one hundred to two the cotton field; and by this mode hundred pounds weight are pronearly make their provisions. But duced; and on the best lands, with whether both the cotton and the happy seasons, three hundred corn would not do better by them- weight of clean black seed cotton selves, is for experience to deter- has been made in Beaufort district mine. Towards the middle of to the acre. This, however, is June, the plants begin to put forth rarely done; and the planter is satheir beautiful blossoms; and con- tisfied with from one hundred and tinue blossoming and forming the fifty to two hundred pounds of clean pods, until the frosts set in; at black seed cotton to the acre. „The which time all the pods that are green seed planter expects somenot well grown, are injured and what more. destroyed. Early in August, the “ The cotton, thus picked and harvest of cotton begins on the sea brought in, is next to be ginned; islands; and in September, it is for which purpose a suitable house general throughout the state, con- is necessary. "And various kinds of tinuing until December. The cot. gins are used for extricating this ton wool is contained in the pod in valuable staple from its seed. Those three or four different compart- at present in use, are foot gins, ments; which, bursting, when ripe, Evees's gins, barrel gins, and saro presents the cotton full blown to the gins. sight, surrounding its seeds. In “ Foot gins are worked with small bags of oznaburgs, which are cranks, by a foot board, or treadle, slung over the negroes' shoulders almost resembling a turner's lathe. for the purpose, the cotton is then They are composed of two small picked from the pods, and is car- rollers, about three-fourths of an ried home to the cotton house. inch diameter, which by pullies are From whence, for one or two days made to turn contrary ways. To thereafter, it is taken outand spread each of these gins a negro is placed, to dry on a platform adjacent to the with cotton for ginning; this he house, for that purpose; after which constantly applies to the rollers it is ready for ginning. For this on the side next to him, which, by purpose, a suitable house is neces- their inotion, draw the cotton from sary, sufficiently large to receive the seed. It then falls into a bag, both the cured cotton and that which and the seed is discharged on the has been lately brought in. To the ground. With one of these gins, a upper part of this house the scaf- negro will gin from twenty to twenfold is generally connected, for the ty-five pounds of clean black seed greater convenience of taking the cotton in a day; and can clean out cotton from the upper part of the about 1000lbs of clean cotton duhouse to dry, and of returning it ring the season. therein. When the cotton is well “Evecs's gins work similar rollers opened, a negro will gather sixty with additional mechanism; coul