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serters from Oran, and those cap- than of the fatigues of the day; tured by the cruisers. They are, filth, corrupted air, and vermin in in general, well kept, and not abundance, prevent the repose so overwhelmed with labour, or cruel necessary to them. To which may usage ; as every proprietor finds it be added jests, and discourse offenhis interest to preserve his slaves, sive to chaste ears, not to mention for the sake of the ransom he ex- the abominable vices so prevalent pects to receive for them. Those in this country: the society of aban. who belong to the dey, are kept as doned Oranites, in particular, attendants in his palace. There proves extremely disagreeable to are a great number of them, they many unfortunate men of worth. have little to do, and are well, and The condition of the slaves of even richly, clothed. Many of private persons is, with very few them live in abundance, as they exceptions, preferable to that of receive valuable presents from the those who belong to the state. In grandees who are applying for some the cities, they are employed as favour from the dey: but their situ- menial servants; in the country, ation is so far irksome that they they cultivate the gardens and must live quiet and retired, and vineyards. Every thing depends seldom receive permission to leave upon their being able to gain the the palace. The youngest and favour and confidence of their masmost beautiful among them are ters. The amorous intrigues, of likewise exposed to the seduction which so many of the ransomed of the corrupt courtiers. The slaves boast, may in general be other christian slaves who are the considered as fictions. Many priproperty of the state, are employ- vate persons, especially Jews, and ed in the dock-yards and maga- even the dev and his ministers, hire zines, and are under the command cut christian slaves as servants of Turkish taskmasters. At sun- to the free christians, on their givrise, they are conducted to their ing good security. Many of these labour; and receive three small slaves have then an opportunity to loaves for breakfast : those who accumulate some money for themhave money, may purchase fruit selves, in which case, they leave in acldition to their bread. Their la- their masters, take taverns in the bour never surpasses their strength, city, where they sell wine and spiAt mid-day they are called to din- rituous liquors, and often acquire ner by the sound of two French considerable property. horns; their dinner consists of a Those who had been captured by kind of grits, boiled in water, and the Algerine corsairs, frequently seasoned with some old butter or regain their liberty by being ranoil. The portions are large ; but somed: but the Oranite deserters the manner of cooking the mess is have little or no hopes of such good nauseous and disgusting. After fortune, and generally remain in dinner, their labour recommences, slavery to the end of their lives. and lasts till about sun-set ; when Sometimes however it happens, cach slave again receives three that a governnient, as, for instance, ccarse loaves, and a few olives, the French in 1784, ransomed all Their clothes are furnished at the their countrymen without excepexpense of the Tiey. After their tion. The number of christian daily labour is over, they are, for slaves was formerly much more the most port, shut up in the bag- considerable than in 1788. In 1785, nios. When the number of slaves though in the preceding year all the js considerable, those of a virtuous French had been ransemed, thcy disposition, and who have former- were computed to amount to about Jy been accustomed to better ac- two thousand. In 1786-7, five huncommodations and company, com- dred Spaniards and Neapolitanis plain more of this nightly lodging, were liberated; and about seven ACCOUNT OF ALGIERS.

301

.

hundred died of the plague: so that LIN, DRESDEN, WARSAW, AND not above 800 christian slaves were VIENNA, IN THE YEARS 1777,

left at that time; and the most of 1778, AND 1779. · these were deserters from Oran. We shall conclude with a few

Count Konigsmark. observations relative to the renega. Among the strangers of distinc. does. There are few of them in tion who visited the court of Hanothis country; and these may be di- ver, was count Konigsmark, a vided into two classes, viz. Jews man whose crimes, adventures, and and christians. With respect to tragical end, have rendered him the Jews, many zealous Mahome. too much known. He was by birth tans are of opinion, that it would a Saxon, though his family was oribe better if they adopted the chris- ginally from Sweden. Handsome tian religion previously to their be- in his person, captivating in his coming proselytes to Mahometism. manners and address, he was formOf the Jews, more women than ed to succeed with women. He had men renounce the faith of their an- been early known by, and peculia cestors. They are induced to em. arly acceptable to, the princess of brace the dominant religion of the Hanover, before her marriage, country, either for the purpose of when she resided at Zell in her fabeing revenged of their relations, ther's palace. It is even pretended or of escaping some punishment, that she had retained a deep imor from motives of ambition or in- pression of this partiality for the terest. If such a renegado be en- count, which naturally revived on dowed with superior talents, and seeing him again. Konigsmark, possess knowledge, address, and whatever personal or external courage, and have the good fortune graces he possessed, was unquesto render his services useful to the tionably a dissolute, unprincipleds government; he is esteemed equal enterprizing man of pleasure, cato the Coloris, and may be raised pable of the greatest crimes in the to honourable and lucrative offices. pursuit or attainment of his views. Thus, for instance, the present ad- He had travelled over Europe, had miral of the Algerine fleet is a re- seen service in various countries, negado, who was formerly a Jew. and distinguished himself by his Renegadoes who were christians, gallantry, magnificence and couare less numerous. Formerly they rage. In Spain he had displayed were eager to gain proselytes from his address on public occasions, and christianity ; but at present, such was honoured by as public testi.. conversions are very rarely encou- monies of attachment on the part raged, nay, in most instances, not of the ladies of the court of Maeven permitted, as the proprietors drid. When in England, he narof the slaves would be losers, and rowly escaped an ignominious exebe deprived of the expected ran- cution for the murder of Mr. som. On the whole, in this coun- Thynne, in 1682. His accomplices, try too they are of opinion, that it for it is impossible to doubt that he is best for every one to adhere to employed or suborned them, though the religion in which he was edu- the fact could not be judicially cated. They even despise and brought home to him, were all exdistrust renegadues : and that not ecuted at Tyburn for that atrocious without reason, for the greater act. He himself was reserved for part of them are in their hearts at- a destiny hardly less unfortunate, a tached to neither one religion nor few years later ; and his name is the other.

now inseparably connected with the princess of Hanover, Sophia Do

rothea. EXTRACTS FROM WRAXALL'S ME. The prince her husband, who

MOIRS OF THE COURTS OF BER- served during more than one camVOL. I....NO. Ty.

paign in the imperial army against Platen, mistress of Ernest Augus. tie Turks, was frequently absent tus. Whether, as it is pretended, from her, a circumstance which he had divulged the favours which naturally facilitated konigsmark's she had conferred on him, or wheaccess to the princess. It is un- ther he had returned her partiality questionable that she entertained with indifference and contempt, as for him sentiments of the most par- other persons assureus, it is certain rial nature, and that she indulged that she deeply resented his behathem in a manner, which, if not viour. Irritated at his preference crimirral, was at least imprudent. for the princess Sophia Dorothea, She was accustomed, two or three of which she was well apprised, times a week, to feign an indispo. and having set spies to watch his sition, under which pretence she motions, she soon discovered his seretired to her apartment. Konigs- cret interviews with her rival, of mark was then admitted ; they which she gave information to the supped together, and usually re- duke of Hanover. It was natural mained at table, or in conversation, to suppose that he would not tole. till two or three o'clock in the rate them; and the count soon aftermorning. When he retired, he wards received an indirect, but pedescended by a little private stair- remptory intimation, that his longer ease, near the great gate of the stay at Hanover would be displeasducal palace, which conducted him ing. As he delayed compliance into the town.

with the injunction on various preInterviews of such a nature, at tences, it was reiterated. He such hours, and in the princess's therefore made public preparations own apartment, imply great, and for his departure, fixed the day one may add, improper intimacy; and hour, ordered his post-horses, particularly if Konigsmark's profli- and having commanded his servants gate character be recollected. It to expect him at three o'clock in is even difficult at first sight, not the morning, he went privately to to connect with them the idea of a the ducal palace. The princess, criminal connection. But on the under pretence of indisposition, adother hand, there is neither any mitted him as before to her apartproof that they were so in effect, ment, where a supper was served, nor was any such proof ever at- and they remained for some hours tempted to be made out against together, but always in company her, though her enemies were with one or more of her ladies. deeply interested to establish the No sooner was the countess of fact, if it had been possible. In Platen apprised that Kopigsmark addition to this negative presump- was in the princess's chamber, tion in their favour, it is positively than she instantly carried the intelasserted that during the time when ligence to the duke, and represente Konigsmark was with her, they ed to him the insolence of thus never remained alone together; braving, if not dishonouring him one or more of her ladies of honour, in his own palace. Profiting of his and those of the most unimpeached indignation, she induced him to characters, being always present. give directions for punishing the The very imprudence of admitting count's temerity, by an act of im. him to such interviews, seems to mediate violence. It is doubtless prove that they were innocent, to be lamented that Erest Augussince it was impossible that they tus should have sanctioned ou aucould be altogether concealed or thorised an assassination; for such unknown.

it must be deemed: but, it should . Unfortunatoly, Konigsmark's likewise be remembered that he person and accomplishments had was a sovereign prince, and the made an impression, not only on provocation was great, if he really thic princess, but on Madame de believed Konigsmark's visits to his

daughter-in-law to have been cf a palace. The vault into which the criminal nature. No appeal could unfortunate Knigsmark was forced be made to his son, who was absent could at pleasure be filled with in Hungary, and the count was on water by means of a pipe. It was the point of leaving Hanover. in fact a reservoir, and no sooner How far these considerations may was he shut up, than they imme. seem to palliate the act, I leave diately let in the water and drowned others to determine.

him. His body on the ensuing A very general idea prevails morning was put into a heated oven, throughout Germany, that Ernest and the mouth of it bricked up, as Augustus having caused four of his the most efiectual mcans of conguards to put on masks, they, by cealing the whole transaction. his order, attacked Konigsmark as he came out of the princess's

Chevalier De Saxe. apartment, and killed him on the The chevalier de Saxe, third in spot. I saw this very morning, the order of birth, anong the natural place in the electoral palace, where sons of Augustus the second, king tradition says the count fell. It is of Poland, was only half brother to a passage almost destitutc of light, the famous narshal Saxe, as they not above nine or ten paces in length, were by different mothers. In A door at one extremity opens into right of his wife, who was a princess a large handsome apartment, the Lubomirska, af a very illustrious first of the range occupied by the Polish family, the chevalier inheritprincess of Hanover, and out of cd considerable property in that which Konigsmark passed when he country, as well as in Saxony. He quitted her on the night that he resided principally in Dresden, and perished. At the other end is ano- died only a few years ago at his pather door, near a staircase by which lace in this city ; which lis nephew he was to have left the palace. prince Charles, who was his prinThat this was the scene of his cipal heir, occupied after his deseizure, there is no doubt; but the cease. In addition to his maternal means used to put him out of life estatcs, the cheraiier possessed a were more secret, though not less vast income from his military and effectual, than open attack. Icther appointments in the electoral shall relate them from good autho- service; and as lie left no issuc, he rity.

was supposed to have amassed great Orders were issued on the part sums. Reports had been circulated of the duke of Hanover, to the that money was concealed in the soldier on guard at the palace gate, palace; but no one pretended to to stop Konigsmark as he came ascertain the precise place where down the private staircase before it was deposited. If luis spirit could jentioned; to force him by menaces be compelled to appear, that interof immediate death to follow, and esting secret mightbc extorted from then to shut him into a subterranean kim. Thus curiosity combining vault or cellar, which was indicated. with avarire, or at least with the The soldier punctually executed the hope of discovering a considerable commission, without knowing or treasure, prompted prince Charles suspecting the consequence. It to name his uncle, as the object of would seem that the count neither the experiment. made nor attempted resistance; On the appointed night,' fur a fact which proves cithcr his want Schrefert naturally preferred of courage, or of any means of de- darkness, as not only more private fence; unless we suppose that con- in it itselt, but better calculated for fiding in his innocence, he tock to the effect of incantations, the comprecaution for his Security, and was unsuspicious of an intention to Of raising : deceased person. interrupt his passage out of the $ The pre chied magician.

pany assembled. They were nine- sembling more the effect produced teen in number, of whom I person- by a number of wet fingers drawn ally know several, who are persons over the edge of glasses, than any of consideration, character, and thing else to which it could well be respectability. When they were compared. This sound announced, met in the great gallery of the pa- as he said, the arrival of his good lace, the first object of all present or protecting spirits, and seemed was to secure the windows and to encourage him to proceed. A doors, in order equally to prevent short time afterwards a yelling was intrusion or deception. As far as heard, of a frightful and unusual precaution could effect it, they did nature, which came, he declared, So, and were satisfied that nothing from the malignant spirits, whose except violence could procure ac- presence, as it seems, was necescess or entrance. Schrepfer then sary and indispensable to the comacquainted them, that the act which pletion of the catastrophe. he was about to perform, would de- The company were now, at least mand all their firmness, and advised the greater part, electrified with them to fortify their nerves by par. amazement, or petrified with hor. taking of a bowl of punch, which ror; and of course, fully prepa. was placed upon the table. Seve- red for every object which could be ral of them, indeed, as I believe, presented to them. Schrepfer conall except one or two, thinking the tinuing his invocations, the door exhortation judicious, very readily suddenly opened with violence, and followed it; but, the gentleman something that resembled a black from whom I received these parti- ball or globe, rolled into the room. culars, declined the advice. “I It was invested with smoke or cloud, am come here," said he to Schrep- in the midst of which appeared to fer, “ to be present at raising an be a human face, like the counte. apparition. Either I will see all nance of the chevalier de Saxe ; or nothing. My resolution is taken, much in the same way, it would and no inducement can make me seem, that Corregio or Hannibal put any thing within my lips." Carrache have represented Jupiter Another of the company, who pre- appearing to Semele. From this served his presence of mind, placed form issued a loud and angry voice, himself close to the principal door, which exclaimed in German, “ Cari in order to watch if any one at was wolte du mit mich ?" « Charles tempted to open or force it. These what wouldst thou with me? Why preparatory steps being taken, the dost thou disturb me?" great work began with the utmost Language, as may be supposed, solemnity.

can ill describe the consternation Schrepfer commenced it, by re- produced among the spectators at tiring into a corner of the gallery, such a sight. Either firmly perwhere, knecling down, with many suaded that the appearance which mysterious ceremonies, he invoked they beheld, was spiritual and inthe spirits to appear, or rather to tangible; or deprived of resolution come to his aid, for it is allowed to approach and attempt to seize that none were ever visible. A it, they appear to have made no very considerable time elapsed be. effort to satisfy themselves of its infore they obeyed; during which in- corporeal nature. The prince, terval he laboured apparently under whose impious curiosity had sumgreat agitation of body and mind, be- moned his uncle's ghost, and to ing covered with a violent sweat and whom, as the person principally almost in convulsions, like the Py- responsible, the spectre addressed thoness of antiquity. At length, a itself, far from manifesting cool. loud clatter was heard at all the ness, or attempting reply, betrayed windows on the outside ; which was the strongest marks of horror and Buon followed by another noise, re- ccntrition. Throwing himself on

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