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kind, unless we observe a capacity must be exclusively and positively for mastication ; without which we carnivorous. must declare it exclusively carnivo- Independently of the teeth, the rous.
under jaw of the mammoth differ's Some object to the carnivorous most essentially from that of the nature of the mammoth from its not elephant, which in its outline is having cutting or canine teeth. To semi-circular, from the condyle to this it may be replied, that if we the chin; whereas in the mammoth form our rule of judgment, as to the outline is distinctly angular, and what constitutes a graminivorous is much greater in the length than it animal, from the construction of an is in the height, which is the reverse ox's jaw, the elephant would cer- in the elephant; besides several other tainly be excluded, because it has striking distinctions in both jaws. not incisores at least in the lower When the skeleton was first erectjaw: the fact is, that all carnivorous ed, I was much at a loss how to disas well as graminivorous animals pose of the tusks; their sockets differ among themselves with re- showed that they grew out forwards, spect to the number and situation of but did not indicate whether they their teeth; and hence they afforded were cirved up or down. I chose, to the sagacious and celebrated Lin- therefore,first to turn them upwards, næus the most infallible method of not because they produced the same classification, which has since been effect as in the elephant, for it is adopted, either wholly or partially, evident they could not in any posiby all naturalists. The proboscis tion, owing to two circumstances. of the elephant answers the purpose In the elephant, taking the level of of incisores : he therefore requires the teeth for a horizontal base line, no others than grinders, which en- the condyle of the neck is at right tirely fill his jaws: hence he is com. angles with it; and the perpendicu. pletely graminivorous. And although lar, one third longer than the base the mammoth is deficient in cutting line: hence they are useful on every teeth, and has no other canine teeth occasion, the tusks themselves being than hisenormous tusks the deficien- nearly straight, and pointing down. cies of which may have been sup. wards; whereas in the mammoth, plied by a pair of large and powertaking the level of the teeth for a ful lips, indicated by the uncommon base line, the condyle of the neck is sinuosity on the front of the lower situated but a few inches above it: jaw ; yet I am decidedly of opinion, consequently the sockets for the since it cannot be contradicted by a tusks and the condyle of the neck single proof or fact, that the mam are in a horizontal direction : this moth was exclusively carnivorous; circumstance, together with the exby which I mean, that he made no traordinary curve of the tusks, use of vegetable food, but either would raise the points in the air, lived entirely on flesh or fish; and directed in some degree backward not improbably upon shell-fish, if, as over the head, twelve feet from the there are many reasons to suppose, ground, and never could have been he was of an amphibious nature. I brought lower than six or seven feet therefore only require assent to from it. This position was evidently these facts : 1st, The teeth are cer- absurd : I therefore resolved on re. tainly of the carnivorous kind: 2dly, versing them ; in which position, in They are not of the mixed kind, consequence of their twist or double because they have not the least curve, they appear infinitely more rotatory motion, and so completely serviceable. Jock together; 3dly, Since, there. Six miles from the spot where fore they are not graminivorous, this skeleton was discovered we since they cannot be of the mixt found two entire tusks, in form kind, from a dezect is motion, they exictly like those in the skeleton,
but very much worn at the extremi- ment can be formed from the quanties (the point of one I have with tity of vegetable soil which has acme), and worn in so peculiar a cumulated over their bones. Cermanner, considering their form, as tain we are, that they existed in could not have happened in an ele- great abundance, from the number vated position; unless on the absurd of their remains which are found in supposition, that the animal amused America: we are likewise sure that hiinself with wearing and rendering they must have been destroyed by them blunt, by rubbing them against some sudden and powerful cause : high and perpendicular rocks : this and nothing appears more probable in a state of nature can never be than one of those deluges or sudden supposed, whatever habits may be irruptions of the sea, which have acquired when in a narrow confine- left their traces in every part of the ment. There can be no doubt, then, globe, and which are in amazing of their having been used against abundance on the very spot where the ground, and not improbably in these bones are found: they consist tearing up shell-fish, if, as we have of petrifactions of sea productions, many reasons to suppose, he was of shells, corals, &c. It is extremely an amphibious nature : for this spe- probable that, whenever and by cies of food his teeth seem admira- whatever means the extirpation of bly adapted. All animals of similar this tremendous race of animals was habits have similar teeth: this ani- effected, the same cause must have mal has teeth unlike any other with operated in the destruction of all which we are acquainted : there is those inhabitants from whom we much reason, therefore, in suppos- might have received some satisfacing his food to have been different; tory account of them. especially when we consider the thickness of enamel which covers DIMENSIONS OF THE SKELETOX. the teeth, the peculiar manner in which they are worn, and the small
Fi. In. opening for the throat. But, whe- Height over the shoulders 11 0 ther amphibious or not, in the inverted position of the tusks he could
Ditto over the hips 9 0 have torn an animal to pieces held Length from the chin to beneath his foot, and could have the rump
15 0 struck down an animal of common From the point of the tusks size, without having his sight obe to the end of the tail, folstructed, as it certainly would have lowing the curve 31 0 been in the other position.
Length in a straight line 17 0 The tusks themselves are com- Width of the hips and posed of two very distinct sube
5 8 stances: the internal bony or ivory part, which we find in the greatest
Length of the under-jaw 2 10 state of decay ; and a thick, distinct Weight of the same owo. coating, doubtless having undergone Width of the head
3 2 some decay, yet at present abso. Length of the thigh-bone 3 lutely heavier and harder than the Smallest circumference of freshest ivory. No part of the shes the same
16 leton is petrified, but all in their Length of the tibia
2 0 present state of preservation from Length of the humeras, or having been surrounded by a calca.
luge bone of the forereous scil, compesed principally of decayed shells, and covered with water even in the driest seasons. Largest circumference of
How long since these animals the same lare existed, we shall perhaps ever Smallest ditto ditto remain in ignorance ; as no judg- Length of the radius 2 51
Circumference round the
With these they descend from the elbow
3 8 mountains into the plain country, Length of the scapula, or
whenever they think they can do shoulder blade
it with safety. To prevent their
being suddenly surprised by their Length of the longest ver
enemies, they place guards in every tebra, or back-bone 2 3 direction around them, and on the Longest rib, without carti
first appearance of danger, retire lage
again to their mountains. The Length of the first rib 2 0 number of these nomades decreases Ditto of the breast-bone 4 0 however, every year, especially in Length of the tusks, de
the province of Mascara, where fences, or horns 107
the present dey has made many Circumference of one tooth
conquests. The Arab tribes sub
jected to the Algerines, pay a or grinder
small tribute, and are treated with Weight of the same, four
great lenity, for fear of irritating pounds ten ounces
them to rebel and join the Cabyls The whole skeleton weighs
and independent Arabs. about 1000 pounds.
The number of Jews in the territory of Algiers is not great: but it is difficult exactly to determine
it, as it is kept secret by themACCOUNT OF THE INHABITANTS selves, for the purpose of prevent
OF ALGIERS, AND COUNTRY ing an augmentation of the tax, SUBJECT TO THE DEY, AND OF which is regulated according to the THEIR DIFFERENCE WITH RE- number of families settled in the SPECT TO ORIGIN, CHARACTER country. Jews cannot acquire AND CIVIL RELATIONS.
landed property in Algiers. They
are likewise oppressed and des ( Concluded from p. 124.) pised, being obliged to distinguish
themselves from the other inhabi. AMONG the Mahometan inhabi- tants by their dress, especially by tants of the Algerine dominions, wearing clothes of dark colours. may likewise be reckoned some In this respect the women enjoy Arabian tribes, who, without minggreater indulgence; even they, ling with the Moors, or most ancient however, are forbid to appear in possessors of the country, have to public , with a veil. Nor is any the present times, preserved them- Jew permitted to ride through tlie selves separate from all others, city gates, or in the city. A Chrispartly in a state of independence, tian slave may, in case he be at, and partly as tributaries to the dey. tacked by Moors, defend himself; They are distinguished from the a Jew, on the contrary, would not rest by their language, by their so easily escape with sound limbs, rude manners, a peculiar mode of if he should dare to put himself in living, and by their pride, deeming a posture of defence against the themselves better and nobler than mis-usage of the Turks and Moors. others. Not less characteristic is Rich Jews therefore, purchase the their love of liberty. They live protection of powerful Turks, and either in the desert, or in inacces- of the European consuls. The Alsible ridges of mountains, divided gerine Jews are, generally speakinto families and clan,, under the ing, ignorant, superstitious, and patriarchical government of a Shric fanatical in the highest degree: who may be considered as at the and, moreover, cowardly, basesame time judge, instructor, and minded, perfidious, avaricious, and leader of his tribe. Their wealth addicted to cheating : on their prcconsists in their flocks and herus, mise in pecuniary transactions, no one can place confidence ; and the or on the decease of his master, he greatest cheats are found among is esteemed equal to, and is entitled the most wealthy. In affairs which to the same privilege as the Moors. concern only themselves, they are They may then even intermarry judged by their own tribunals and among themselves, and with the an elder, who is known by the name Moors. The negresses are gene. of a king of the Jews. One of the rally the confidantes of the young nost pernicious customs prevalent ladies in their master's house, in among them is, that parents form which case their situation becomes marriage contracts for their yet in- very comfortable. They have fant children, who, in that case, likewise a great influence on the are even married at the age of four education of youth, as they are emor six years; and in their ninth or ployed as attendants on the chil. tenth year cohabit as man and dren, who, in their tender years, wife.
are with them more than with their The number of negroes annually parents. But they spoil the children imported as slaves into Algiers, by over-indulgence, as they are amounts to from 150 to 180. Their apt too much to give way to and price varies from 50 to 150 zechins. Aatter the desires of these their The female negro-slaves are in future masters. greater request, as attendants on We now come to the christians, the Moorish ladies, and as domes- but who, on account of their trantic servants, and therefore fetch a sitory residence, can hardly be higher price than the males. Many said to constitute part of the proof the negresses are likewise very per inhabitants. It is almost in frequently purchased and kept as the cities only that we meet with concubines by the wealthy Turks christians, but very rarely in the and Moors, and not seldom pre- open country. On the western ferred to the fair natives of the coast, the Spaniards occupy Oran country. It however happens very and Masalquivir : the citizens rerarely that a Turk actually marries sident there, for the most part fua negress: but such intermarriages gitives from their native land, deare more frequent arvong the rive their subsistence from the garMoors and Coloris. Although all' rison, and live in indolence, misery, the negroes came into the country and poverty, being destitute of as slaves, yet the greater part of trade, agriculture, and manufacthem are, either gratuitously, or in tures. The christians who are consideration of a large sum of met with in the other cities (a few money, manumitted by their mastravelling merchants and literati ters. Nor are they here, in gene. excepted) are all slaves : but treat. ral, so badly treated as in the West- ed with a great deal more lenity Indian colonies of the Europeans: than themselves and the missionathey enjoy, on the contrary, a con- ries pretend. There are two classiderable portion of liberty, are not ses of christian slaves. To the confined, or in a cruelmannerover- first belong all those who are cap. whelmed with excessive labour. tured by the Algerine corsairs : Any over-rigid or unjust treatment these are preferred to the others, of them is even punished by the and are truly worthy of commiseragovernment. Negro and christian tion. On their arrival at Algiers, slaves are, at Algiers, employed in they are separated into divisions, the same oihces as our domestic and conducted to the palace of the servants. But Jews and christians dey, that he may select whomsceare not permitted to keep negro ver he pleases from them; the reslaves who profess the Mahomedan mainder are taken to the marketreligioil. As soon as a negro ac, place, and sold to the highes.. birlquires his freedom, which is often der. The captains and chief offigranted on occasions of rejoicing, cers of ships, and all persons of distinction and of a better appear. or had been ruined by gaming, and ance, are placed in the first divi- thus incited to the commission of sion of prisoners, and treated with crimes, which obliged them to fly. greater mildness than the rest, be- Few of them had reformed. They cause it is expected that they will were almost without exception of a purchase their liberty. In the day volatile and daring disposition, time they must work in the sail. careless, lazy, and adepts in charmagazines belonging to the navy ; latanry and knavery. The greater and at night they are shut up with part of the Spanish Oranites were the other slaves in the bagnios. transported smugglers. Among The children and women are kept those from Italy were found the as servants in the palace of the dey: most abandoned wretches, and the or purchased by other grandees, to most atrocious criminals, and even attend on their wives. If among among these the Neapolitans and the female captives there happens Genoese distinguished themselves to be a lady of high rank, she re- by their superior wickedness. Most mains indeed the property of the of them had been banditti, highdey, but is permitted to reside in way robbers and muruerers, and the house of some of the free chris been forced to fly to Spain, where, tians. The remainder of the ship's even after their transportation to crew are publicly sold to the high- Oran, they pursued their old pracest bidder, and become the proper- tices, and on that account made ty either of the state or of private their escape to Algiers, to avoid individuals.
the punishment due to their crimes.
slaves at Algiers consits of (what concern and frankness all the deeds will appear strange to many of our of horror they had formerly perreaders) persons who of their own petrated: the oldest were the most accord enter into a state of slavery. hardened and shameless, probably They are, for the most part, de- because they had lost all hope of serters from the Spanish garrison ever returning to Europe. The in Oran and Masalquivir, who from younger among them were not so fear, despair, ignorance or preci- communicative; but sufficiently inpitancy, make their escape. Oran, dicated by their gestures that they then, is the nursery of this kind of were not much better than the christian slaves : and the number others. They believe that they of such runaways is reckoned to are now doing penance for their amount annually to about one hun. sins, disigently attend the confesdred. Ainong them are natives of sional, and are scrupulously ollalmost every country of Europe, servant of the fasts enjoined by the While the author', from whom this church. Among the Oranites there account of Algiers is extracted, re- were very few English, Portuguese, sided there, the German Oranites Swiss, Poles, and Prussians : but were for the most part men, who, no Dutch, Swedes, Russians, and in their native country, had been Danes; and only one Norwegian. forced or inveigled to enter into the All these descrters know before. arıny....wad deserted....been pick- hand what doom awaits them on ed up by Spanish or French re- their arrival: they, however, precruiting parties, and at last, after fer a state of slavery to that of a various intermediate adventures, Spanish soldier at Oran, as in Albeen sentenced to transportation to giers they are better treated, and Oran. They were almost all ad- fiatter themselves with the hope of dicted to drunkenness, but in other being ransomed, in which expecrespects faithful, good-natured, tation they very frequently find well-behaved, laborious, and not themselves deceived. so abandoned as the rest of their With respect to the treatment of companions. Those who were na- the christian slaves, no particular tives of France were adventurers, distinction is made between the de