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the Meuse, the Rhine, the Ems, the Weser, jesty made offers of peace, and without and the Elbe, with the Empire, the estab- considering whether it would be more adlislıment of an inland navigation with the vantageous than war: you looked, Sir, Baltic, have appeared to me to be the first only to the happiness of the present geneand most important.--I have ordered the ration, and you always shewed yourself plan of a Canal to be prepared, which ready to sacrifice to it the most flattering will be executed in the course of five prospects of the future—It was in this years, and will connect the Seine with spirit that the peace of Campo Formio, of the Baltic. Those Princes will be in- Luneville, and of Amiens, and subsedemnified who may find themselves cir- quently of Presburg, of Tilsit, and of cumscribed by this great measure, which Vienna, were concluded; it was in this is become absolutely necessary, and which spirit that your Majesty has five times will rest the right of my frontiers upon sacrificed to peace the greater part of the Baltic.—Before I came to this deter- your conquests. More anxious to adora mination, I apprised England of it. She your reign by the public happiness, than was acquainted that the only means for to extend the frontiers of your empire, preserving the independence of Holland your Majesty set bounds to your greatwas to retract her Orders in Council of ness; while England, keeping the torch 1800 and 1807, or to return at last to of war continually alive, seemed to conpacific sentiments. But this Power was spire against her allies as well as herself deaf to the voice of her interests, as well to create the greatest empire that has as to the cries of Europe.--I was in hopes existed for twenty centuries. - At the of being able to establish a cartel for the peace of 1783, the power of France was exchange of prisoners of war between strong in the Family Compact, which France and England, and to avail myself closely bound Spain and Naples with her in consequence of the residence of two political system. At the peace of Amiens, Commissioners at Paris and London, to the respective strength of the three great bring about an approximation between Powers was increased by the addition of the two countries. I have been disap- twelve millions of Polish inhabitants. pointed in my expectations. I could find The Houses of France and Spain were nothing in the mode in which the English essentially hostile to each other, and the Government negociated but craft and de- people of the two countries were removed ceit.-The junction of the Valais is an farther than ever from each other, by effect long intended of the immense works the difference of their manners. One of which I have had performed in the Alps the great Continental Powers had her within the last ten years. At the time of strength less diminished by the junction my act of mediation, I separated the of Belgium with France, than it was inVálais from the Helvetic League, fore creased by the acquisition of Venice; the sceing then a measure of such advantage secularizations also of the Germanic Body to France and Italy:-So long as the war added more to the power of our rivals.continues with England, the French peo. Thus, at the conclusion of the Treaty of ple must not lay down their arms.--My Amiens, the relative force of France was finances are in the most·flourishing state. less than al the peace of 1783, and mueh I can meet all the expences which this inferior to that to which the victories obimmense empire requires, without calling lained during the wars of the two first upon my people for fresh sacrifices.
coalitions gave her a right to expect.
This treaty, however, was scarcely conFRANCE.- Report, or Exposition, of the State cluded, when the jealousy of England
of the Empire, by the Duke of Cadore, alarm at the continually increasing prosMinister of Foreign Afairs, to the Em- perity and riches of the interior of France; peror, 8th Dec. 1810.
and she hoped that a third coalition Sir-Your Majesty has exalted France would wrest Belgium, the provinces of the to the highest point of greatness. The Rhine, and Italy, from your crown. Thc victories obtained over five successive peace of Amiens was broken; a third coalitions, all promoted by England, have coalition was formed, three months aster, produced these consequences; and it may it was dissolved by the treaty of Presburg. be said, that we are indebted to England - England saw all her hopes blasted; for the glory and power of the Great Venice, Dalmatia, Istria, the whose of the Empire.- At every opportunity, your Ma- Adriatic coast, and that of the kingdom of
Naples, fell into the power of France. I would have ended happily, when Fox The Germanic body, established upon died. From that time they languished. principles contrary to those upon which the The ministers were neither sufficiently enFrench empire was founded, dropped to lightened nor temperate to perceive the pieces; and the system of the Confedera- necessity of peace. Prussia, excited by Lion of the Rhine transformed to close and that spirit which England infused into all necessary allies the same nations, who in Europe, put her troops in march. The the first coalitions marched against France; Imperial Guard received orders to set out; and united them indissolubly to herself by Lord Lauderdale appeared terrified at the their common interests.—The peace of consequences of the new events that were Amiens then became in England the preparing. It was proposed to sign the object of every. Statesman. The new treaty; that Prussia shoold be included acquisitions by France, which there were in it, and that the Confederation of the no hopes of wresting from her at any fu- North of Germany should be recognized. ture time, rendered the fault that was com Your Majesty, with that spirit of moderamitted more evident, and shewed the full tion of which you have given such freextent of it. An enlightened man, who quent examples to Europe, consented. during the short interval of the peace of The departure of the Imperial Guard was Amiens, visited Paris, and had learned to delayed for some days, but Lord Lauderknow France and your Majesty, was put dale hesitated : he thought it necessary to at the head of affairs in England. This send a messenger to his Court, and that man of genius comprehended the situation messenger brought him an order to return. of the two countries. He perceived that In a few days after Prussia no longer exit was not in the power of any State to isted as a preponderating Power. Poscompel France to retrogade ; and that terity will consider that period as one of the true policy consisted in arresting her the most decisive in the histories of Engprogress. He perceived, that by the land and of France. The treaty of Tilsit success obtained over the third coalition, put an end to the fourth coalition.--[After the question was changed ; and that it some further uninteresting remarks, the most no longer be thought of contesting Report proceeds thus :]-The fifth coawith France the possessions that she ac- lition broke out, 'the new events of which quired by victory; but that it was neces- again turned out advantageous to France. sary, by a speedy peace, to prevent those The only ports by which England preserva Dew acquisitions which the continuation of ed an avowed communication with the Con. the war would render inevitable. This tinent, together with the Illyrian provinces minister did not conceal any of•the ad- passed under the power of your Majesty vantages which France derived from the by the treaty of Vienna, and the Allies of erroneous policy of England ; but he had the Empire beheld their power increased. in view those which she might still ac- --The British Orders in Council had overquire. He thought that England would thrown the laws of, the commerce of the gain much, if none of the Continental world; England, whose whole existence Powers Jost more. He directed his po- is attached to commerce, had thus thrown licy to disarm France, and to have the disorder into the commerce of other naConfederation of the North of Germany tions. She had contemned all its privirecognized in opposition to the Confede- leges. The decrees of Berlin and of Mi. ration of the Rhine. He perceived that • lan had repelled these monstrous novelPrussia could only be preserved by peace; ties. Holland found that her position was a and that on the fate of that power de- difficult one; her government had not an pended the system of Saxony, of Hessia, action sufficiently energetic; her customof Hanover, ihe fate of the mouths of the houses afforded too little security to permit Ems, of the Jade, of the Weser, of the that centre of continental commerce to reElbe, of the Oder, and of the Vistula, main much longer insulated from France. ports necessary for the commerce of Eng. Your Majesty, for the interests of your peoland. Like a great man, Fox did not de- ple,and to secure the execution of the sysliver himself up to useless sorrow for the tem which you had opposed to the tyrannirupture of the Treaty of Amiens, and cal act of England, saw yourself compelled Losses henceforth irreparable ; he wished to change the fate of Holland. Your Mato prevent greater, and he sent Lord Laud- jesty, nevertheless, constant in your syserdale to Paris. The negotiations began, tem, and in your desire of peace, gave and every thing led to hope that they England to understand that she could not
preserve the independence of Holland, , to commerce a deceitful security. In but by recalling her Orders in Council, or 1756, in February 1793, in 1801, in the adopting pacific views.The ministers of 9 instance of Spain, as in May 1803, the a commercial nation treated with levity period of the rupture of the treaty of overtures so greatly interesting to its com- Amiens, England commenced hostilities merce. They replied, that England had before she declared war. Vessels which no power over the fate of Holland. In navigated in the faith of peace, were taken the illusions of their pride, they miscon- by surprise, commerce was plundered, ceived the motives of that measure ; they peaceable citizens were deprived of their pretended to see in it an acknowledgment liberty, and the ports of England were of the efficacy of their Orders in Council, filled with these disgraceful trophies. and Holland was united. Since they should these examples be ever renewed, would have it so, Sire, I think it useful at the subjects of England, travelling either this moment, and I propose to your Ma- for pleasure or business, whose properties jesty to consolidate that union by a Se- and persons shall be secured in all our natus-Consulta. — The annexation of the ports froin' the Baltic sea to the Adriatic Hanseatic Towns, of Lan burg, and of gulf, will be answerable for these at, the whole coast from the Elbe to the Ems tempts; and if the English Government, is commanded by circumstances. That for the purpose of making the people of territory is already under the dominion of London forget the injustice of the war, will your Majesty –The immense warehouses gratify them with the sight of prizes taken at Heligoland would always threaten to in.contempt of the law of nations, they inundate the Continent, if a single point will also have it in their power to shew remained open to the English trade upon them the losses which most certainly rethe coasts of the North Sea; and if the sult from it.-Sire, your Majesty will per. mouths of the Jade, the Weser, and the severe in your decrees so long as England Elbe, were not for ever closed against her. persists in her Orders in Council. You
-The British Orders in Council have to- will oppose to the Maritime blockade, the tally destroyed the privileges of neutral Continental blockade, and to the plunder navigation; your Majesty can no longer on the seas, the confiscation of English supply your arsenals, and have a sure merchandize on the Continent. It is my channel for your commerce with the duty to acquaint your Majesty that you North, but by means of internal naviga. can have henceforth no bope to bring tion. The repairing and enlarging of the back your enemies to more moderate ideas Canal between Hamburg and Lubeck, and than by persevering in this system. The the construction of a new Canal, which result of it will be to place England in will unite the Elbe to the Weser, and the such a disagreeable situation, that she will Weser to the Ems, which will only re- be at length compelled to acknowledge quire four or five years labour, and an ex that she cannot violate the laws of neutrals penditure of fifteen or 'twenty millions, in on the sea, and claim their protection on the a country, the soil of which offers no phy. Continent; that the sole source of her mis. sical obstacles, will open to the French fortunes is in her Orders in Council; and merchants a cheap, easy, and safe route. that the increase of the power of France, •Your Empire can always trade with the which will long excite her spite and jea
Baltic, convey to the North the produce. lousy, is owing to the blind passion of of her soil and manufactures, and draw those who have broken the treaty of from thence the articles necessary for your Amiens, put an end to the negociation at Majesty's navy.-The flags of Hamburg, Paris, rejected the propositions from Tilsit of Bremen, and of Lubeck, which at pre- and Erfurth, disdained the overtures made sent wander on the seas, denationalized before the annexation of Holland, have by the British Orders in Council, will given the last blow to her trade and her share the fate of the French flag, and join power, and conducted your Empire to the with it, for the interest of the common fulfilment of its high destinies. cause, and in re-establishing the liberty of
CHAMPAGNY, Duke of Cadore. the seas.-Peace will take place at last; for, sooner or later, the great interests of nations, of justice, and of humanity, will France. - Document translated from the prevail over passion and batred. But the Moniteur, relating to the Negociations experience of sixty years has shewn us between France and England in 1800, that peace with England can only afford when Lord Laudę dale was at Paris.
The documents relating to the negocia- exalted, because England' would acquire - tions with England before the Prussian war by it the merit of having saved a power
have been already published. The last with whom she is actually at war, but of these publications, in October 1806, whose preservation is prescribed to her by was that relating to the negociation opened her interest. Lord Lauderdale appeared at Paris by Lord Yarmouth, and after sensible of the grandeur of this proposition, wards continued and broken off by Lord and of the great advantage that it would be Lauderdale. But this publication, con to his country. I added, that pot a motaining only the official notes inter- ment ivas to be lost; that if once the war changed beiween the respective Plenipo. began, both sides must run the chances of tentiaries, has not sufficiently explained it, and that neither he nor I could foresee the circumstances which produced the whither the fortune of France, and the rupture. The extract of the account of genius of her leader might carry our arms, the two last conferences between the our influence, and our glory.---After hav. French and English ·Plenipotentiaries, ing reflected upon this declaration, and which was sent at the time to the Minister | recalling to his memory my answer refor Foreign Affairs, who had then left specting the impossibility of restoring Paris in his Majesty's suite, will best at- Dalmatia, Lord Lauderdale informed me, tain this object. 'It will be there seen that that he would send a messenger to big England had it in her power to prevent Court; and he requested a second confethe war with Prussia, and that she would rence. This second conference took place not; and that it was in vain that the reto-day at two o'clock. Lord Lauderdale sult of that campaign, and the increase of had received a messenger from London, power which it must necessarily give to who brought him an account of the forFrance, were announced to ber Plenipo- mation of the new Ministry, and instructentiary. The English Government would lions relating to the negociation.. My run the risk of it.-Four years later she Lord appeared more persevering than ever might babe preserved Holland in the same in the propositions which he had before manner. It will be seen in the documents made, and in his determination of demandof a negociation, which the Dutch Minising his passports; he brought to my reters endeavoured to open with the British collection the declaration which I had Government, that England preferred the made to him respecting the impossibility continuation of the war to ihe independ- of arresting by peace the march of the ence of Holland, as she preferred it io the French army, when it was ready to begin safety of Prussia.-France, then, has been the campaign. “I would have asked for placed in the great situation which she that,” said he, "in the name of my Gooccupies, solely by the obstinacy of Eng-vernment, which you had declared io me; land in prolonging this war, which she I had received orders to that effect: but Í declares must be perpetual. Every epoch must, notwithstanding, render this justice at which she has rejected peace,' has to•the French Government, that it was it proved to France an epoch of glory, and which voluntarily made this declaration,
Increase of power.
HOLEAND.-Proceedings of the Dutch Negociation of Lord Lauderdale, -Extract Ministry with the English Government,
from the Account given in the Minister for relative to the preserving of the independa Foreign Affairs by the French Plenipoten ance of Hollund by the means of a Peace tiary. Paris, Sept. 26th 18069
with France.--1810. From No. I. te
No. IV. * No. I.
Communication of the King of In consequence of the
Holland to his Ministers. authority given to me by his Majesty the Gentlemen,-For the six weeks that I Emperor, I declared to Lord Lauderdale have been with the Emperor, my brother, that a peace, speedily signed and ratified, I have been constantly Occupied with the before the military operations had pro- affairs of the kingdom. If I have been ceeded to a certain length, could imme- able to efface some unfavourable impresdiately stop their progress; and that he sions, or at least to modify them, I must was in a situation to fill, and to make Eng- acknowledge that I have not succeeded in land the high character of Pacificator of reconciling in his mind, the existence and the Continent ; a character the more independence of the kingdom, with the
Success and prosperity of the Continental | thenticity, the destiny of Holland, that is, system; and in particular, that of France the maintenance or the loss of her political. . against England. I am assured that existence, depends on the dispositions enFrance is firmly resolved to annex Hol. tertained on the part of the English goland, in spite of all considerations; and vernment, with respect to arriving at a that she is convinced that its independence speedy peace with France; or at least can no longer be prolonged, if the mari. with respect to the making of a real change time war continues. In this cruel oer in the measures adopted by the above, tainty, there no longer remains to us but government, in relation to the commerce one hope, which is, that a maritime peace and navigation of neutrals. The said be negociated: that alone can avert the Sieur Labouchere must, in consequence, danger which threatens us; and without repair with all convenient speed to Lonthe success of these negociations, it is cer don, where, in the manner and way which tain, that the independence of Holland is he shall find most suitable, he shall seek no more; that no sacrifice can prevent the to communicate the above state of things blow. It is thus the clear and formal into the knowledge of the English-ministry, tention of France to sacrifice every thing and of every other person who may be in order to acquire Holland, and so to able to promote the object in view ; and augment, whatever it may cost her, her he shall be permitted to make known, means for opposing England. Doubtless, that he fills this mission with the consent England will have every thing to fear of the Dutch Government, who, in consefrom such an augmentation of her coasts quence of the authenticity of the above and marine on the part of France. It is information, bearing that, without the above therefore possible that their own interest change in the system of England, the loss may induce the English to ward off a blow of the independence of Holland is absowhich may prove so fatal to them.-I com- lutely inevitable, have thought proper to mit to you the care of developing this idea shut their eyes upon all considerations with all the energy which may be neces
and difficulties, to attempt every thing sary to make the English Government feel that may serve to maintain the political the importance of the measure which it existence of the country. He will then remains for it to take-impress upon it all endeavour to impress upon the English the arguments and all the considerations government, how much it would be for which shall present themselves to your the advantage of England that Holland minds_adopt this proceeding of your should not fall under the sovereign domiselves, without my name being at all men nion of the French empire, but remain al. tioned in it. But there is no time to be ways an independant power. To prove lost; send immediately some trusty and this assertion, he will use all the argudiscreet commercial gentleman to Eng. ments with which the business itself can land, and inform me of the result on his furnish him, and which shall occur to return. Let me know the period when him.-If he find this conviction in the that may be; for we have no time to lose: English government, or shall find means there remain to us only a few days. Two to inspire it, he will endeavour to engage corps of the grand army are on their it to contribute to the maintenance of the march to Holland ; Marshal Oudinot has political independance of this country, just set out to take the command of them. and in promptly applying himself to neLet me know what you have done in purgociations tending to attain a general suance of this letter, and on what day I peace; or at least, in case such negocia. may trave an answer from England. iions could not be promptly adopted and No. II.-Instructions given by the Dutch commenced, in giving satisfactory as
surances of its intention to make some Ministry to M. Labouchere, 1st Feb. 1810.
changes in the system adopted by the « The object of the commission with British Orders in Council of November which, by orders of the undersigned, M. 1807, and in the measures which have rePierre César Labouchere is entrusted, is sulted from them. Above all, he must to make known to the English govern- urge this latter object, for the purpose, he ment, that, in consequence of information will say, of making opposition to the which has reached the Dutch ministers, 1 eagerness of France to occupy Holland. and which has every appearance of au
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