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have the kingdom, yet that the Latins should be the prevailing power.

842. Interea, i. e. "and while thus changing her intention." Heyne prefers to omit the line altogether. Cœlo, i. e. the atmosphere, explained by nube epexegetically. From the outer portion of the upper world she retired to her θάλαμος.

843. Juturnam, &c.-Homer usually employs the goddess Iris to withdraw the deities from the field. Virgil attributes here that office to the Diræ.

844. Dimittere, "to withdraw."

845. Diras. The poet appears here to follow some ancient fable, which placed two of the three fell sisters as attendants beside the throne of Jove, but the third, Megæra, in Tartarus. General tradition assigns Tartarus as the abode of the three, or fixes them at the entrance of the infernal regions. See VII. 324., and, for the epithet Tartare, VII. 328. Geminæ pestes, i. e. Alecto and Tisiphone. Cognomine, here, the same as nomine. See Æn. III. 702.

846. Intempesta.-See Geor. I. 247. Æn. III. 587.

848. Ventosas alas, "tempest-raising wings;" their expansion is so great that by their motion a storm is raised.

849. Savi. Not the general epithet of the Furies; it has here peculiar reference to the stern order of Jove, which they were appointed to


850. Apparent, "attend on," a word of this peculiar import; whence the beadles, who attended Roman magistrates, were called apparitores. 853. Harum unam, either Alecto or Tisiphone. See, above, 1. 843. 854. Inque omen, "to serve as an omen," ominis causá. The preposition in frequently denotes the cause, motive, or object of any act. See Æn. VII. 13., &c.

856. Per nubem, i. e. per aëem.

858. Parthus... aut Cydon. Servius proves from Lucan. VIII. 304. that the Parthians used to poison the barbs of their arrows. Hemsterhusius appeals to Lucian. Nigrin. II. 79., to show that the Cydonians (i. e. Cretans) did the same. See note on Æn. IX. 773., X. 140. Fel veneni, "the venomous poison." Fel-xóλov, used of the bitter venom of serpents, &c. Fel veneni, the same as fel venenatum, as herba veneni, poculum veneni, &c. See Ecl. IV. 24., Æn. III. 67. Many commentators object to the avadinλwσis of Parthus, and insert an adjective agreeing with fel, as "patrii quam felle veneni Parthus;" but see Geor. I. 10., Æn. III. 334. Ruhnken supposes the word Parthus to be repeated, merely because their power was then formidable to, and dreaded by, the Romans.

859. Incognita, "unseen," her flight through the air was so rapid. Umbra, "the misty air." It is called çeleres, because it offers no opposition to the arrow's flight, q. d. quickly transmits it. Heyne remarks, that had Virgil lived to revise his work, he would not have allowed the same epithet to occur in 853., 855., 859.

860. Sata Nocte.-See Geor. I. 278.

862. Alitis, "the owl," which amongst all nations has been the object of superstitious dread. Parva, i. e. small in comparison with the natural size of the goddess; or, perhaps, he may allude to the smallest species of owl, called funerea; but the word collecta (i. e. contracta) favours the former explanation.

863. Subitam figuram, "the form, quickly assumed.”

864. Serum canit, "hoots her late note," será nocte canit. Heyne. 866. Everberat. The preposition è denotes the frequency of the flapping of her wings.

2 H

869. Stridorem, sc. of the wings. Servius interprets by "the sound of her hooting."

873. Dura, "wretched," durá sorte utenti. Heinrich. Heyne explains by immiti, quæ sustineam fratrem cernere in ultimum discrimen adductum, nec succurram; Thiel, by "firm of mind," constanti, propositi tenaci; but the first explanation is preferable.

875. Ne me terrete timentem, "inflict not new terrors on me, already fearful," sc. for my brother's life. Some explain the passage by a prolepsis. See, above, 1. 761.

876. Obscænæ volucres, i. e. "one of the class of ill-omened birds." For this use of the plural, see, above, 1. 799., and X. 79. For the meaning of obscanus, comp. Geor. I. 470., Æn. VI. 455.

878. Reponit, i. e. rependit.-See Ovid. Met. II. 503. 879. Quo, "to what advantage," ad quid? cui bono?


881. Nunc certè, "now at least," like vûv dn, or the similar phrase, nunc adeo. Per umbras, "throughout the realm of shadows." indicates that she will never abandon his side. Heyne prefers the reading, sub umbras.

882. Immortalis ego?—Heyne removes the interrogation and punctuates thus: immortalis ego! but aut couples here two interrogations. Heinrich reads immortalis ego? at, &c. Quidquam meorum, "what of mine," eorum, quæ mea sunt, rerum mearum. Heyne.

883. Quæ satis alta dehiscat terra, i. e. quæ sit terra, quæ satis altè mihi dehiscat.

Glauco amictu,

885. Caput contexit, sc. ex more lugentium. Forb. i. e. cæruleo, as being a water-nymph. See Geor. IV. 388., En. V. 819. 888. Arboreum, "huge as a tree." Thus, above, 1. 294. telum trabale. 889. Deinde, "what further delay;" "quum res ita se habeant ; quum omnia ad certamen te vocent tuque ensem recuperaveris." Heyne. Retractas, "refuse the combat."

893. Clausumque.-Heyne, in his larger edition, reads clausumve; but que has the same force as the repetition of opta.

894. Caput quassans.- A gesture indicative of strong indignation and deep feeling. Fervida dicta, "words of hot rage," superba, arrogantia. Heyne.

895. Hostis, i. e. inimicus, infestus.

896. Saxum.-Although Turnus had recovered his sword, yet he had lost his spear, and required a missile to hurl against his foe.

897. Saxum... ingens.-The repetition of ingens causes the mind to consider the enormous magnitude of the stone, an idea further carried out by limes agro positus, &c. Wagner, offended by the repetition, proposes either circumspicit amens, or, circumspicit inde. The common reading is qui forte jacebat, explained as attraction by Ruddiman, &c.; but limes agro positus is used in apposition to saxum, and, accordingly, quod forte jacebat is required.

898. Litem, sc. de finibus, ideoque fines ipsos. Forb. See similar instances in Hor. Ep. II. 2. 170., Tibull. I. 3. 43.

899. Vix illud, &c.-That ancient men were of gigantic form was believed by the ancients even in Homer's time. See II. V. 304., XII. 445. Wagner thinks that this portentous comparison is properly censured by Pope and Heinrich.

901. Manu... trepida, with anxious, and therefore unsteady hand. 907. Neque se... ...cognoscit.—Overcome by sudden torpor Turnus no longer recognizes his pristine power or speed. It has often been remarked, that sudden torpor and chill may take possession of the bravest, so that they become incapable of resistance. Genua labant.-See

V. 432.

906. Lapis viri, i. e. "the stone hurled by the hero." Inane, "the empty void," a Lucretian phrase.

908. Ac velut in somnis.-This comparison is borrowed from Hom. II. XII. 199.

909. Avidos extendere cursus, "to prolong our eager course." Wakefield explains avidos cursus by longos. Heinrich compares Anacr. VIII. 5. δρόμον ὠκὺν ἐκτανύειν.

910. Velle videmur.-Wagner thinks that the vain attempt is well depicted by the broken numbers-vu-u, and compares Geor. III. 519. atque opere in medio DEFIXA RELINQUIT ARatra.

912. Sequuntur, "second, obey his will."

913. Viam petivit, i. e. tentavit. Virtute. This is added by the poet, to show the power of the fury; all the valour of Turnus cannot oppose her might.

914. Pectore sensus vertuntur, i. e. Turnus varia consilia animo versat. 918. Aurigamque.-The common editions have aurigamne, but the chariot and charioteer form one idea.



an op

920. Sortitus, "having perceived," nactus. H. Fortunam, portune spot," a place favourable for his attempt." Corpore toto, "with all the vigour of his frame.' See Æn. IX. 410., X. 127.

921. Murali tormento, i. e. the balista, used in assaulting walls. 924. Hasta, &c.-The spear pierced through the extremity of the shield, then the rim of the coat of mail, and finally remained fixed in his thigh.

225. Septemplicis. Thus the shield of Ajax in Homer, is σákos éπταβόειον.

927. Conduplicato poplite, i. e. genu inflexo. H. See En. XI. 645. 931. Protendens. Applied both to oculos and manus by zeugma, for oculos convertens, manus protendens.

932. Utere sorte tua, i. e. sorte victoris. Heyne.

933. Fuit et tibi, &c.-See Hom. II. XXIV. 486. From the habit of suppliants, reminding the individual, whom they entreat, of similar circumstances in both, the grammarians have denominated a figure of rhetoric anacœnosis, or dμoloráleiα.

935. Et me seu corpus, "viro forti digna oratio: aperte mortem non deprecatur, vitæ tamen usum nec renuit." Heyne.

938. Stetit acer, &c.-Servius joins acer in armis. Forbiger, more poetically, joins stetit in armis, explaining acer by truculento vultu. In armis is the same as armatus.

941. Apparuit alto balteus.-Charisius quotes as if he had found in MSS. ingens balteus, which Wagner would almost adopt on account of immania pondera baltei. Æn. X. 496.

945. Monumenta doloris, "memorials which recalled his grief."

948. Indute, "decked as thou art," " 'quum sis indutus." Heyne. The nominative for the vocative, as in Æn. II. 283., IX. 485. Meorum, i. e. of one classed among my friends. See above, 876. Immolat, sc. diis inferis.


949. Scelerato, i. e. cruel, remorseless. Poëtis omne facinus atrox, audax, sævum, est SCELUS, ideoque Turnus sceleratus, qui cædem Pallantis commiserat." Heyne.

952. Vitaque, &c.-This line is repeated from XI. 831. The death of Turnus ends all opposition to the projects of Æneas; he gains La... vinia's hand, succeeds Latinus in his government, and establishes his sway both by civil and ritual polity. He receives sedem in Italia, intulitque deos Latio.


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