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steadily; and when, on the evening of the 27th July, 1830, after hostilities had already commenced, he arrived in Paris, his presence had an electrical effect. A few of the citizens had already appeared in the proscribed uniform of the National Guard, and the name of their former general was hailed with acclamations, and echoed, from mouth to mouth, among the thousands assembled for the defence of their liberties.
After the struggle was past, the gratitude and esteem of the people were still more forcibly exhibited in the offer made to Lafayette of the supreme authority. What greater homage could have been rendered to patriotism? To his prevailing influence must undoubtedly be ascribed the reception of Louis Philippe as king of the French, without any violent opposition. To him, the ministers of Charles X. owe their escape from an ignominious death, and the substitution of a punishment which, though severe, leaves them the chance of an ultimate restoration to the world. The influence which could secure such ends, at such a crisis, must have been unbounded.
It may be asked, did the popular veneration and affection for Lafayette continue undiminished until his death? As regards the nation, in general, we may answer-yes. With the lower orders of the people—the mob—of Paris, his popularity did, indeed, fluctuate, though we doubt whether it was ever, essentially, lessened. The unprincipled agitator, who courted revolution for its own sake, or the hot-headed republicans, sometimes stigmatize his course as weak and pusillanimous. Those who identified the cause of liberty with every émeute which raised the pavements of Paris into barricades, and considered Lafayette only as the personified spirit of agitations, would often exclaim against his "mauvaise tête,” though they never doubted his “bon cæur ;'' but if a rumour were raised of his intended co-operation in their mad schemes, the cries of “ Vive Lafayette !–Vive la liberté ! — Vive la patrie !" were as loud from the fickle mob, as at any moment of the Three Days' Revolution. Witness the transports of the populace, again offering a crown, at the funeral of Lamarque, as if the overthrow of the existing government were an after consideration of little moment, and the settlement of the intended succession to the throne the only matter of present concern. Even during the émeute of April, 1834, when the general was lying on his death bed, the absurd report, that he was about to appear, on horseback, among the combatants, and lead them on to the attack, was rife, among the populace, and, doubtless, increased their revolutionary manią.
Lafayette died at a good old age. Of his fellow actors in the scenes of the Revolution, few survived to bear the brunt of a second contest. Can we regret his death as untimely or
inauspicious? His best hopes and anticipations for France had been already grievously disappointed ; and well was it that he was not permitted to witness the revolting tragedy of the last anniversary of the Three Days, or to raise an unheeded voice in opposition to the recent proceedings against the liberty of the press. Happy was it, for him at least, that his life was not prolonged until he had realized the often expressed hope of again seeing the American shores ! If he were now amongst us, instead of rejoicing at the prosperity and happiness of our republic, at the unanimity and patriotism of its citizens, he might secretly mourn over much that is sadly changed since his departure. The honours, with which he was formerly welcomed by a grateful people, might, indeed, and would, doubtless, be renewed ; but after having been so often lavished upon others—after having become so common and unmeaning, they would have lost their primitive value. If he now looks down upon the things of earth, and views, with eyes unclouded by the mists of time, the scenes which are passing in both hemispheres, may it be from an abode where sorrow never enters, or where the full prospect of the final issue of the great struggle which now agitates the world may consummate the patriot's reward!
ART. VI. Narrative of the Arctic Land Expedition to the
Mouth of the Great Fish River, and along the shores of the Arctic Ocean, in the years 1833, 1834, and 1835. By Captain Back, R. N., Commander of the Expedition. Philadelphia, 1836.
It will be remembered by the reader, that in the year 1829, an expedition was despatched from England under the comimand of Captain John Ross, to the Polar regions, with the object of attempting the discovery of a north west passage. From that time until the year 1832 nothing had been heard of the party, and the fate of these adventurous men became a subject of general anxiety-inany believed that they had perished from the vicissitudes incident to so arduous a journey ; but the only circumstances which encouraged this belief being their protracted absence and the want of intelligence concerning them, it was determined by Captain George Back (who was then in Italy) to offer his services to the British government to VOL. X.X.-NO. 39.
undertake the command of an expedition in search of them. When Captain Back arrived in England, he learned that an application having been made to government to fit out an expedition upon a plan proposed by Dr. Richardson, without success, it had been presented for consideration to other quarters, and particularly to the friends of Captain Ross.
A petition was prepared by Mr. George Ross, (brother of Captain Ross,) praying the sanction and co-operation of his majesty's government, in the despatch of an expedition for ascertaining the fate of his son and brother. The name of Captain Back, with his consent, was inserted as the proposed commander of the expedition, and the petition was sent to the secretary of the colonies. Various other measures were adopted to promote the success of their object, which it is unnecessary to detail here. Suffice it to say, that a letter was received from Lord Howick, in which he informed Mr. Ross that the lords commissioners of the treasury had been recommended by Lord Goderich to make a grant of £2000 towards defraying the expenses of the expedition, upon the proviso of its being commanded by Captain Back; and provided also that the supplies and canoes should be furnished by the Hudson's Bay Company without charge, and that the remainder of the expense, which was calculated at £3000, should be defrayed by the friends of Captain Ross. Captain Back was then formally offered the command of the expedition, and readily accepted it.
In November 1832, a meeting was called for the furtherance of the objects above mentioned, at which Vice-admiral Sir John Cockburn presided, and the interest excited on the occasion, when the plan of the expedition was exhibited, being very great, a subscription was taken, and a large sum of money was contributed on the spot. A standing committee for the management of the expedition was also formed, of which the Duke of Sussex was chairman. Under the direction of this committee the funds rapidly increased. The Hudson's Bay Company had given orders to their agents in America to make preparations for advancing the expedition ; and in addition to supplying it with a large quantity of provisions, boats, &c. the directors offered to take it under the especial protection of the company. This offer was, of course, joyfully accepted, and a commission under their seal given to Captain Back as commander.
The plan proposed for the expedition, in a letter of instructions issued from the colonial office, was briefly as follows: The party was to consist of two officers and eighteen men-English and Canadians. From Montreal they were to proceed, by the usual route of the fur traders of the north west, to the great Slave Lake. They were then to pursue a north eastwardly direction to the Great Fish river, which lies to the eastward of
the lake, and communicates with it by a succession of smaller lakes. At this place they were to select a position for their winter quarters, and erect a house for their accommodation. While this house was in progress a portion of the party, under Captain Back, was to pursue the course of the river, exploring it to its mouth ; erecting there a land-mark, and leaving notice of their intention to return to England in the following spring. This was intended for the guidance of Captain Ross, in case he should be journeying along that coast. When this was accomplished, Captain Back was to return to his winter residence, where two boats were to be constructed capable of navigating the Polar Sea. On the return of spring, the expedition was to proceed down the river to the sea.
The first object after attaining this point was to reach Cape Garry, the place where the ship Fury was wrecked—the distance being estimated by Captain Back at something less than three hundred miles—this last movement was deemed advisable, as it was known to be Captain Ross's intention to visit the Fury, for the purpose of obtaining such stores and fuel as could be got out of her, and in fact to return and winter beside her in case he should be unable to get to the westward during the summer.
If no traces could be discovered of Captain Ross in that vicinity, the party were to start, from the 12th to the 20th of August, on their return to winter quarters, taking every opportunity to erect land marks and signal posts, and depositing notes beneath them; that the attention of the wanderers might be arrested, and themselves informed of the means adopted for their relief. In case Captain Back should consider it proper to devote a second summer to this service, he was directed to do so.
As a secondary object in the enterprise, he was directed to prepare maps of such parts of the coast as were yet unknown, as well as to make such other scientific observations as circumstances might enable him to do. In case of meeting Captain Ross before arriving at Regent's Inlet, he was to offer
to return, and conduct him to the Hudson's Bay settlements. Should any indications of his having been on that coast, and any memorial that might lead to a discovery of his intentions be found, Capt. B. was to search in whatever direction he might deem most likely to lead to him.
Such is a brief outline of the plan of the expedition, and the reader will perceive, by a reference to the map which accompanies the narrative, that it was an enterprise of a most arduous character. The preparations were completed by the engagement of a medical man(Dr. King) to attend the expedition. Three men only were taken from England; the remainder of the party
were to be hired in Montreal, and at the settlements of the Company in the interior.
It will be proper to mention here, that just one year after the departure of Captain Back from Canada, he received a letter from Sir Charles Ogle, on the part of the committee of managers, announcing the return to England of Captain Ross and the survivors of his party. This despatch was forwarded to him at Great Slave lake, by the Hudson's Bay Company. The reader is referred to the appendix of the narrative, for an account of the wonderful expedition with which this despatch was transmitted.
In consequence of the return of Captain Ross, Captain Back was directed to turn his whole attention to the secondary object of the expedition, viz. the completion of the coast line of the north-eastern extremity of America ; and with this view an extract of Ross's proceedings was forwarded to him, setting forth the route by which he passed, and indicating the termination of his progress.
Sir Charles Ogle irtimated that further instructions should be transmitted to him, by which he would be governed as to the prolongation of the enterprise for another season. These instructions were never sent; and, for reasons which are given at length by our author, if they had been sent, they would not have been available. To return to the expedition :
In February, 1833, Captain Back, with his surgeon and three men, embarked at Liverpool, and after a passage of thirty-five days, arrived at New-York. From New-York they went to Albany, and thence to Montreal in coaches, where they arrived in the month of April, having been received every where, en route, with great hospitality. There was a short detention at Montreal, during which two of the men became rather refractory, and threatened to go no farther. However, our author convinced them of the disgrace which would attend such conduct, and, by way of securing their services, sent them off, by means of Mr. Keith, to a distant post of the Company. A fire broke out at the hotel, in which Captain Back lost a valuable barometer—the greater part, however, of his property was saved.
On the morning after the fire (25th April) our author, with the party of voyageurs whom he had hired for the expedition, embarked on the canal in two canoes, amidst the shouts of the people and the firing of musketry. A short time, and their little vessels were in the waters of the St. Lawrence, one loud huzza bidding them farewell.
From this time until the 17th of June, our captain and his party were pursuing their voyage. Of this, he gives us a tolerably minute description-though little of particular interest occurred in that interval. On the last named day they arrived at