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His answer to that part of the charge which related to Ireland was flaming in the extreme : That he had promoted the cause of religion ; increased the revenue of the church; built churches; and preferred learned and orthodox preachers; had advanced the king's power; and had so aug. mented the revenue, as to have paid off large debts, and left a considerable sum in the exchequer : That he had increased the army, and governed it by the strictest discipline: That he had been the means of calling parliaments, and putting an end to projects and monopolies as burdensome and grievous to the people: That, under his governinent, the shipping had increased a hundred fold; trade had prospered, and justice had been administered without partiality or corruption : That the laws of Ireland were quite different from those of England; and that consequently he could not be judged of by the law of the latter : That the coun. cil had always exercised an extensive jurisdiction ; and that martial law was justified by the practice of his predecessors, who had used it with the same moderation as himself*. To this defence, Pym replied thus: “ For religion we say, and shall prove, that he has been diligent indeed to favour innovations--to favour superstition--to favour the encroachments of the clergy; but, for religion, it never received any advantage from him; vay, a great deal of hurt.”

* See his Answer in Rush. vol. viii.

“ He saith he hath been a great husband for the church, and truly hath brought in many lands to the church; but he hath brought them in by ways without law, without rules of justice: He hath taken away men's inheritances. And here, my Lords, is an offering of rapine; an offering of in. justice and violence: and will God accept such an offering ? must the revenues of the church be raised that way? It is true it was the more in the way of preferment. He knew who sat at the helm here, the archbishop of Canterbury; and such services might win more credit with him. It was not an eye to God and religion ; but an eye to his own preferment.

Mr. Pym then proceeds to consider his state. ment about building of churches, and says : “ Many churches have been built since his government. Truly, my lords, why he should have any credit or honour if other men built churches I know not: I am sure we hear of no churches he hath built himself: If he would have been careful to have set up good preachers, that would have stirred up devotion in men, and made them desirous of the knowledge of God, and by that means made more churches, it had been something : But I hear nothing of spiritual edification-nothing of the knowledge of God that hath, by his means, been dispersed in that kingdom. And certainly they that strive not to build up men's souls in a spiritual way of edification, let them build all the material churches that can be, they will do no good ; God is not worshipped with walls, but with hearts.”

“ He saith, that many orthodox and learned preachers have been advanced by his means, and the doctrine and discipline of the church of Eng. land, by his means protected and defended. My Lords, I shall give but two or three patterns of the clergy that he hath preferred: If you will take Dr. Atherton, he is not to be found above ground, for he was hanged for many foul and unspeakable offences: Dr. Bramhall hath been preferred to a great bishopric; but he is a man that now stands charged with high treason : He hath been but two years in Ireland, and yet he hath laid out at least £30,000 in purchases. I shall name but one chaplain more, and that is one Arthur Gwyn, who, about 1634, was an under-groom to the Earl of Cork, in his stable : In the year after, Dr. Bram. hall preferred him to be a clergyman; and a parsonage and two vicarages were taken from my Lord of Cork, and given to this Arthur Gwyn. I shall add no more patterns of his clergy."

“ As for the honour of the king, my Lords, we say it is the honour of the king that he is the father of his people,--that he is the fountain of justice; and it cannot stand with his honour and justice to have his government stained and polluted with tyranny and oppression.”

" For the increase of the revenue: It is true there may be some addition of sums; but we say there is no addition of strength nor wealth, because in those parts where it hath been increased this Earl hath taken the greatest share himself: And when he hath spoiled and ravined on the people, he hath been content to yield up some part to the

king, that he might with more security enjoy the rest.” Pym then enters into a particular examination of the revenue, and refutes Strafforde's statement, shewing by the records, that since the year 1622, (nine years before his appointment,) Ireland had supported itself: That he got the most extraordinary subsidies from the parliament, (by what means we have seen, and shall immediately see more ;;) that he had been guilty of rapine and injustice, forcing men even to resign their estates; and that his expenditure had been excessive, while he had himself, by a deceitful bargain to farm the customs, made from eighteen to twenty thousand a-year; nay, that he had even taken £24,000 from the exchequer, about two years since, and though the royal army was in want, had only paid the money in lately: That, as to his pretence of having put down monopolies, he best proved the cause of his dislike to them, by taking the most profitable to himself, as well as by his farming of the customs, with which certain monopolies put down by him interfered. That, as to the great increase of shipping and of trade—that arose out of the particular situation of that kingdom, which had been for the first time settled in peace a little before his appointment, and consequently was in a condi. tion to make a most rapid advance, not from the nature of his government, which had, by the num. ber of monopolies, &c. exercised in his own person, been destructive to trade.

“ He says,” (remarks Pym,) “ he was a means of calling a parliament not long after he came to his government. My Lords, parliaments without parliamentary liberties, are but a fair and plausible way into bondage. That parliament had not the liberties of a parliament : Sir Pierce Crosby, for speaking against a bill in the Commons's house, was sequestered from the council-table, and committed to prison. Sir John Clotworthy, for the same cause, was threatened that he should lose a lease he had. Mr. Barnwell, and two other gentle. men, were threatened they should have troops of horse put upon them for speaking in the house. Proxies by dozens were given by some of his favourites. Parliaments coming in by these ways are grievances, mischiefs, and miseries ; no works of thanks or honour,”-His desperate dispatch to Laud, as Prynn calls it, relative to his mode of balancing the parties of protestants and papists in parliament, and governing the whole assembly, had, unfortunately, not yet been obtained by the commons.

“ He saith he had no commission but what his predecessors had; and that he hath executed that commission with all moderation. For the commission, it was no virtue of his if it were a good commission: I shall say nothing of that." “ But, for the second part, bis moderation; when you find so many imprisoned of the nobility; so many men, some adjudged to death, some executed without law; when you find so many public rapines on the state, soldiers sent to make good his decrees; so many whippings in defence of monopolies ; so many gentlemen that were jurors, because they would

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