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the forces in the south of the Trent, with power to raise troops in case of necessity*. Disbanding The grand point of debate now regarded the

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mits. disbanding of the armies, the question being which should be disbanded first; but it was at last prudently resolved that both should be disbanded together. This was accordingly begun on the 6th of August, and " the Scots, with store of English money, and the best entertainment, left their warm and plentiful quarters." An act of pacification was likewise passed f. The disbanding of the Irish army was begun in June.

As the king was peremptorily resolved to commence his journey by the 10th, the commons sat all Sunday to finish important business; but as this was a deviation from their principles and practice, they apologized for it to the people as an act of necessity, and declared that it should not be drawn into a precedent. They pressed much for a regency in the king's absence, but it was refused. They likewise appointed a committee to accompany his majesty, with a view of attending to the English interest in the settlement of Scottish affairs, though, in reality, that it might watch his motions. The committee were, the Earl of Bedford, Lord Howard, Sir Phil. Stapleton, Sir William Armyne, Mr. Fiennes, and Mr. Hampden.

All the vigilance of parliament proved necessary, and so perverse was the royal policy, that an attempt to debauch the troops was made even at disbanding the armies t.

* Clar. vol. i. p. 279.

+ Whitclocke, p. i7. Rush. vol. iv. p. 362, ct sea. Nalson, vol. ii. p. 466. Clar. vol. i. p. 279. { Rush- vol- iv. p. 275. Clar. vol. i. p. 290. Diurnal Occur.

After the king's absence, some matters of consequence fell under the cognizance of parliament; but nothing important was done; except that the army plots, for there appear to have been two plots, were farther successfully investigated^ ihat some orders were issued about the public worship; and that the commons, by their orders, &c. of the 8th September, frustrated a private agreement between the king and the Spanish ambassador to engage a great part of the Irish army for Spain. The commons, having appointed a committee to watch over the public interest during the recess, adjourn- teem. ed, as well as the lords, on the 9th September, till the 20th of October *.

t Cob. Pari. Hist. vol. ii. p. 904. et seq. Journals.

142

CHAP. VII.

Secret Policy of the King—Affairs of Scotland, and Conduct of MontroseThe King's Journey to ScotlandThe Incident, and settlement of Affairs titereThe Irish Rebellion and MassacreThe Re-meetingqf the English ParliamentGeneral apprehensions of Plots, £fc.Return of Charles to London; his reception thereThe RemonstranceImpeachment qf the Bishops, and Proceedings in regard to EpiscopacyAccusation of the Five MembersTumultsProceedings in regard to IrelandKing leaves London; arrives at YorkPreparations for Civil War.

Secret poiu WEhave repeatedly remarked, that it was ever a faCharles- tal error of Charles and his advisers to impute the opposition which his measures encountered to a few leading men, who merely acted as organs for the expression of the general sentiments; and that, as a consequence of this erroneous opinion, he always flattered himself with the hope of removing the opposition, could he destroy or gain the individuals to whom he attributed the lamented control- ment of his prerogative. If he thus allowed him

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self to be deceived in English affairs, it is not wonderful that he should have been misled in regard to Scotland—a country narrow in itself, and so aristocratic as to give a few families great ascendancy. It was from that country, however, that his illegal government had received so remarkable a check; and, though the late events in England might have taught him that the crisis there had only been hastened, not created, by the Scottish appeal to arms, he had deemed the Scottish army the grand impediment to the most desperate measures against the Parliament, and, consequently, against the whole privileges of the commonwealth. He had assiduously laboured, therefore, to gain leading men in Scotland, that, with their assistance, joined to that of certain individuals who, as incendiaries, had been reserved for judicial procedure, he might destroy the rest, when he doubted not his ability to accomplish a complete revolution which would also recover his ground in the south, particularly as he was promised from Scotland the grounds of a capital prosecution against those whom he most dreaded in England. The Scottish commissioners, however, with the exception of Rothes, whom an offer of a place in the bed-chamber, and the promise of a great marriage, had so won, that it is extremely probable, in spite of his professions to his old friends, a premature death alone rescued from the disgrace of apostacy *, had been proof against all

• Clar. vol. i. p. 280. Baillie's Let. MS. vol. ii. p. 1205. Baillie, in a letter to his wife, dated the 2d of June, which, for what reason I cannot guess, the Editor has not thought worthy of publication, .-. the arts of the court *. But the King had in Montrose a fund of hope which sufficiently buoyed him up amid other disappointments. This nobleman, who had supposed himself neglected by the court, being destitute of either public or private principle, early joined the covenanters, with the indiscriminate keenness of a man who regards politics merely as a medium of self-exaltation ; and his presumptuous ambition^-.had flattered him with the hope of standing at tbje- bead of both the civil and military af^feirs in the approaching struggle. But the nomination of Leslie to the chief command disappointed him in the latter; while the influence and abilities of Argyle, whose conciliatory policy at the outset had probably suggested the idea of want of decision, by soon setting him at the head of the former, likewise frustrated the hopes of Montrose in that department. His presumptuous expectations being thus blasted, he embraced the first opportunity to earn the royal favour by testifying his aptitude to betray his party; and even at DunseLaw had, it is said, proffered his services "to have given over the whole north to the enemy f.

writes that a Scotch nobleman would probably change all the court; that the king and queen begin much to affect him, and if he go on he is like to be the greatest courtier, either Scotch or English. That he would likely take a place in the bed-chamber, and might have Lady Devonshire with L.4000 Sterling, per annum. I presume that this was Rothes, for see printed letter, vol. i. p. 327. See too, Rothes's own letter to Warriston on the subject, 25th June, 1641. Hailes' Col. p. 136. Burnet's Mem. of the Ham. p. 184.

* Hailes's Col. p. 107, et seq. t Hailes' Let. p. 147.

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