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dropping the prosecution of Strafforde; but, as that arrangement had failed, the resignations were not accepted of. The fate of Strafforde, now, however, so alarmed these official men, that they declined to retain their dangerous pre-eminence longer, and Cottington's office of master of the wards


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introduced him to Court when he suspected, from Wentworth's union with Laud, of whom Weston was jealous, that he was trying to supplant him. Let. and Disp. vol. i. 79, 211. Cottington had written to Strafforde about the dangerous indisposition of Weston, and he answers, (on the 28th March, 1635.) that he had been so affected, that he had not been well since; “ that Monday night last he swooned twice before they could get off his clothes.” Id. p. 393. In

letter to the Earl of Newcastle, on the 9th of April, that is, withcmfortnight of the one to Cottington, he expresses himself thus. death ruth is, I conceive my Lord Treasurer, sometime before his

in ned me no good, being grown extreme jealous of my often of nature noord of Canterbury, and myself, out of a sturdiness

i wiser ently passing by his unkind usage, as a man of a

it verv muger might have done ; for, I confess, I did and clear of crime towarbe so meanly suspected, (being as innocent upon my coming from Courim as the day,) considering that I had, faith and boldness in his affairs," "

affair n him as strong a testimony of my other friend he had, durst, or at least indeed, a stronger than any ing myself thus disappointed of the cold do for him. So as findsions at our parting, I grew so impatient as he had in his protesself, I would borrow a being from no man livingss, even to him and there I would fasten myself as surely as I could ; tuy nhus?

s by his death it is not altogether improbable that I am delivered heaviest adversary I ever had.” Id. p. 411. No wonder that Westo. was jealous, considering Wentworth's correspondence with Laud, to whom Wentworth professed the most unlimited devotion. “He should end his life in acknowledgments to his grace,'' &c. See his Letters to Laud during the life of Weston. How these individuals afterwards split we have already seen. Again Wenworth even applies for an Earldom to stop the malice of his enemies, who sought his ruin, but might be deterred by such a mark of tle royal favour. Charles long refused it. See Biog. Brit. and Let, and Disp.

was bestowed upon Lord Say; Juxon's, of hightreasurer, was put into commission; the Marquis of Hartford was appointed governor of the Prince; the Earl of Essex chamberlain of the household; while the Earl of Leicester was nominated lord

lieutenant of Ireland *. Abolition During the momentous trial of Strafforde, bills of the starChambers were brought into the Lower House for the aboli&c. &c.

tion of the Court of Star-chamber, the High Commission, the Court of York, the Court of the Marches of Wales, &c.; but they were not transmitted to the Lords till his fate was determined. Having passed the Upper House likewise, they were presented to the throne along with a poll-bill; W his majesty, while he passed the last, took notice of the first, and the circumstance et

ose bills alcontent, which induced him to pass :

in the ecclesiasso t. His grand object was to re-u.

current now ran to, tical government, which th restrain bi: shops, &c. strongly against. A bill. : consequence of former from secular offices.

ry Vane had perjured himself out of revenge

by Strafforde, in taking the title of Baron Raby, for an injury dopame of Vane's estate ; but the best proof of the cor

ben Vane's testimony is, that in spite of it, he retained the beconfidence. See Correspondence between Charles and Secretary Kicholas in the Append. to Evelyn's Mem. The paper for bridling parliaments, in Ludlow's Appendix, is improperly attributed to Strafforde, having been the production of Sir R. Dudley in the preceding reign. See Howell's State Trials, vol. iii. p. 387. I should not have noticed this had not the same error been committed by the editor of Hutchison's Memoirs.

* Cob. Parl. Hist. vol. ii. p. 793. Whitelocke, p. 46. . + Cob. Parl Hist. vol. i. p. 844, 851. Rush. vol. iv. p. 304. Nalson, vol. ij.

A bill to

resolutions, having passed the lower house, to restrain bishops and the other clergy from intermeddling with secular affairs, and which affected the right of the hierarchy to sit as members of the Up. per House,-a right that, according to the most eminent lawyers, they had enjoyed, not as belonging to their ecclesiastical function, but to their secular baronies *_was transmitted to the House of Lords ; but, as was to have been anticipated, it naturally met with a powerful opposition from the spiritual members, of whom there were twenty-six ; and as several temporal peers joined them, they succeeded in throwing out the bill t. The fate of this bill Deering's only induced the commons to attempt a bolder utter extirmeasure that of utterly abolishing the hierarchy, pation of with deans and chapters, &c. The bill on this sub-deans and

chapters. ject is said to have been drawn by St. John; but Sir Henry Vane, jun. and Oliver Cromwell were the most active promoters of it; while Sir Edward Deering was prevailed upon to adopt it: but the opposition to the reading of the bill was so violent, (Clarendon, then Mr. Hyde, who had already engaged himself to the crown, was exceedingly ac.. tive on the occasion,) that, though it was read, the popular members perceived the propriety of not pushing it for a season 1, though they did not aban. don it. A new church government, by commis.

* 4th Inst. p. 35, 46, 32).
+ Cob. Parl. Hist. vol. ii. p. 725, 63, 92, 4, 814, 16, 22, 28.

# Ibid. vol. ii. p. 814. See Deering's Speeches, London, printed by F. Englesfield, 1642. Clar. vol. i. p. 275. Life, vol. i. p. 42, 82.

sioners in every diocese, was intended as a substi. tute. A liberal allowance was to be made to the present incumbents. To terrify the hierarchy, too, thirteen of the bishops were impeached for their illegal proceedings at the late convocation. Wren, upon a report of the committee, was voted to be incapable of holding any office, either in church or state, and committed to the tower. Six of the judges were also impeached *. A vote of the commons, in regard to the city of London, may likewise be properly introduced in this place : The city had purchased a large plantation in Ireland ; and this the Court of Star-Chamber, which had no power even by usage for interfering with questions of freehold, had adjudged to be void, an act in which it had not even attended to the abstract principles of equity. The commons voted the proceeding to be a usurpation, as well as a pure act of injustice, and resolved that the city should be restored to its property t. The right of parliament in the case of tonnage and poundage, that

former grand point of dispute, was now completeTonnage ly vindicated. A committee having been appointand pound- ed to inquire into the rate of duties, and the pro

portion which articles would bear in such a period, after a long investigation, fixed upon certain temporary rates; and an act was passed granting the


• Rush. vol. iv. p. 319, et seq. Clar. Hist. vol. i. p. 263. Whoever will take the trouble to compare this with Clarendon's own speech against the judges, on the 6th of July, 1641, will set a proper value upon his statement in his history on tonnage and poundage. See Diurnal Proceedings.

† Rush. vol. iv. p. 379.


duties to the crown from the 15th of May, to the 25th of July : By another, they were granted from the 15th of July, to the 10th of August; and again, from the 10th of August, to the 1st of December. But, in the preambles, the exclusive right of parliament to give such duties was fully recognized, and it was provided by a particular clause in each, that if any officers whatever, levied such duties, or any customs, except what were denominated the perpetual customs, and had been regularly paid from the time of Edward III. to that of Queen Mary, should incur the penalty of a premunire, and disability to maintain any action in a court of justice *.

The Irish army, which had been expressly raised Irish army, for the subjugation of Scotland, had, upon every &c. just principle, now become unnecessary, yet, in spite of the repeated urgent solicitations of the parliament, and even the discovery of the armyplot, it was unaccountably kept up-and various evasions of the request were resorted to. But parliament strenuously insisted upon the disband. ing of that army, and, in the meantime, the commons continued their investigations of the army-plot, in which they made great discoveries :-Ashburnham, Wilmot, Sir John Berkeley, O'Neil, and others, were found to have been deeply engaged, though, to the house, they had disclaimed every thing, including even the oath of secresy, which was then no longer


* Journals, Nalson, vol. ii. p. 280. See Stat. 16. Car. C. 8. 12. 22.

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