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good-breeding render it, in general, im- is such a disgrace, that there is no differperceptible; and, as one may well say, ence with them between the highest and

He that has pride, not newing that he's proud, lowest that are concerned in it; they rank

Let me not know it, he's not poud at all, the greatest merchants among common one may also afirm, with truth, of the Bri- tradetinen, as they can fee no difference with nobility, that he who has po pride at between a counting-house and a chindler's all cannot shew less than they do. They hop. They think the run of their father's creat the meaneit subject with the greateit or their brother's kitchen, a more genteel asibility, a:id take paus to make every means of subsistence than what is afforded person they converse with forget the dir- by any calling or occupation whatsoever, iance that there is between hini and them. excepi the army or the navy; as if nobody

As the younger brothers, and other near was deserving enough of the honour to cut relations of the nobility, have the same a Frenchman's throat, but perlons of the education and the same examples ever be first rank and distinction. fore their eyes, one might expect to see in As I live so far from the police end of them the same affable behaviour, the fatoe the town as Bedford.row, I undergo much politeness. But, itrange as it is, nothing is decent raillery on that account, whenever more different than the behaviour of iny I have the honour of a vilic from one of lord, and my lord's brother. The latter these younger brothers of quality: he won. you generally fee proud, insolent, and over- ders who makes my wigs, my cloaths, and bearing, as if he poíieiled all the wealth my liveries; he praises the furniture of and honour of the family. One might my house, and allows my equipage to be imagine from his behaviour, that the pride handiome: but declares he discovers more of the family, like the estates in some bo. of expence than taite in either: he can disroughs, always descended to the younger eover that Hallet is not my upholsterer, brother. I have known one of theie young and that my chariot was not made by Burnoblemen, with no other fortune than this ler: in short, I find he thinks one might younger brother's inheritance, above mar as well compare the Banqueting-house at rying a rich merchant's daughter, because Whitehall with the Mansion-house for ele. he would not disgrace him.lelf with a ple- gance, as to look for that in Bedford-row, beian alliance; and rather choof to give which can only be found about St. James's. his hand to a lady Betty, or a lady Char He will not touch any thing at my table 1,4tz, with nothing but her title for her but a piece of mutton i he is so cloyed with portion.

made dishes, that a plain joint is a rarity; I know a younger brother in a noble my clare: too, though it comes from Mell

. family, who, twelve years ago, was so re Brown and Whitefoord, and no otherwise gardless of his birth, as to detire my lord differs from my lord's than in being bought his father to send him to a merchant's for ready money, is put by for my port. counting-house for his education; but, Though he politely hobs or nobs with my though he has now one of the best houses wife, he does it as if I had married my of business of any in Leghorn, and is al. cook; and the is further mortified with scady able to buy his father's estate, his feeing her carpet treated with as little cebrothers and filters will not acknowledge remony as if it was an oil-cloth. If, after hiin as a relation, and do not fcruple to dinner, one of her damask chairs has the deny his being their brother, at the expence honour of his lordly breech, another is inof their lady-mother's reputation.

dulged with the favour of raising his leg. It always raises my mirth, to hear with To any gentleman who drinks to this man ni hat contempt these younger brothers of of fashion, he is his most obedient humble quality speak of persons in the three learn- servant, without bending his body, or look. ed profeifions, cven those at the top of each. ing to see who does him this honour. If The bench of biheps are never distinc any person even under the degree of a guithed by them with any higher appella. knight, speaks to him, he will condescend tion, than-those parsons: and when they to say Yes or No; bnt he is as likely as Sir speak of the judges, and those who hold Francis Wronghead to say the one when the first places in the courts of justice, to he should say the other. If I presume to a gentleman at the bar, the lay-your talk about any change in the miniftry belawyers : and the doctors Heberden, Ad-fore him, he discovers great surprize at my dirgton, and Afew, are, in their genteel ignorance, and wonders that we, at this end dialect,called-iheie physical people. Trade of the town, should differ so much from the

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people

people about Grosvenor-square. We are with fo much contempt from the porter absolutely, according to him, as little alike and my lord's brother, what mult I expect as if we were not of the fame species; from my noble patron? While I was chus and I find, it is as much impoffible for as redecting, in comes a gentleman, runting to know what passes at court, as if we up to me, and taking me cordially by the lived at Rotherhiche or Wapping. I have land, said, he was beartily glad to see me. very frequent opportunities of contemplat. I was greatly ditrefied to know how to be. ing the different treatment I receive from have. I could not imagine this to be his him and his elder brother. My lord, from lord hip, who was so affable and courteous, whom I have received many favours, be- and I could not suppołe it was any body haves to me as if he was the person obli- who meant to insult me. My anxiety was ged; while his lordlip's brother, who has removed by his pulling out the letter I had conferred no favour on me but borrowing left, and saving, “ He was very happy that my money, which he never intends to pay, “it was in his power to comply with the behaves as if he was the creditor, and the "contents of it;" at the same time introdebt was a forlorn one.

ducing me to his brother, as a gentleman The insolence which is fo much con he was happy to know. This younger plained of among nobleman's servants, is brother arose from his chair with great innot difficult to account for: ignorance, difference; and, taking me coolly by the idleness, high-living, and a contciousness hand, faid, “ He thould be proud of lo of the dignity of the noble person they “ valuable an acquaintance;" and, resunserve, added to the example of my lord's ing his seat, proceeded to finish his pambrother, whom they find no less dependent phlet. Upon taking leave, my lord renew in the family than themselves, will naru- ed his former declaration; but his brother rally make them arrogant and proud. But was too intent on his reading to observe this conduct in the younger brother must the bow made to him by the valuable aco: for ever remain unaccountable. I have quaintance he a few minutes before profef. been endeavouring to solve this phenome- fed himself so proud of. non to myself, ever since the following I am not ignorant, however, that there occurrence happened to me.

are many younger brothers to peers, who : When I came to settle in town, about acknowledge, with much concern, the truth fve-and-twenty years ago, I was strongly of what has been taid, and are ready to alrecommended to a noble peer, who pro- low, that, in too many families of diftincmised to allift me. On my arrival, I wait- tion, the younger brother is not the finer ed upon his lordhhip, and was told by the gentleman. porter, with an air of great indifference,

I am your humble servant, &c. that he was not at home; and I was very

B. T bornton, near receiving the door in my face, when I was going to acquaint this civil person, § 133. Persons of Quality proved to be

Traders, that I had a letter in my pocket for his lord: upon my producing it, he said I I always reflect with pleasure, that strong might leave it; and immediately snatched as the fondne!s of imitating the French has it from me. I called again the next day, been among people of fashion, they have and found, to my great furprise, a fome- not yet introduced among us their contempt what better reception from my friend the for trade. A French marquis, who has noporter, who immediately, as I heard after- thing to boaft of but his high birth, would wards, by order from his lord, introduced scorn to take a merchant's daughter by me into the library. When I entered, I the hand in wedlock, though her father saw a gentleman in an armed chair reading should be as rich as the Buily of the East a pamphlet, whom, as I did not know him, Indies; as if a Frenchman was only to be I took for my lord himfelf, especially as he valued, like a black-pudding, for the good did not rise from his chair, or so much as ness of his blood; while our nobiliiy not offer to look towards me, on my entering. only go into the city for a wife, but send I immediately addresled myself to him with their younger fons to a merchant's count

-“ My lord”—but was instantly told by ing-house for education. But, I confess, I him, without taking his eyes from the pam- never considered, till very lately, how far phlet, that his brother was dressing : he they have from time to time departed from read on, and left me to contemplate the this French folly in their esteem for trade; situation I was in, that if I had been treated and I find, that the greatest part of our no

bility may be properly deemed merchants, men do not truck their commodities for if not traders, and even shopkeepers. money, they are nothing less than higlers

In the first place, we may confider many and huekiters, dealets and chapmen, in the of our nobility in the same light as Beaver proper fenfe of the words; for an exchange or Henson, or any other keeper's of repo was never denied to be a sale, though it is fitories. The breeding of running-horses attirmed to be no robbery. is become a favourite traitic among them; I come now to the confideration of those and we know how very largely persons of who deal in a much larger and more exthe first fathion deal this way, and what tenfive way, and are properly ftiled mergreat addition they make to their yearly chants, while those already mentioned are income by winning plates and matches, little more than traders in the retailing and then selling the horse for a prodigious bufiness: what immense fums are received fum. What advantages mult accrue to by those electioneering merchants, whose them, if they have a mare of blood to breed foriunes and infuence in many counties from ! But what a treasure have they if and boroughs enable them to procure a they are possessed of the stallion in fashion ! seat in parliament for any that will pay for I can therefore see no difference between it! How profitable has nursing the eltates this occupation of my lord and that of any of extravagant persons of distinction proved Yorkshire dealer whatsoever : and if his

to many a righe honourable friend? I do lordship is not always fo successful in his not mean from his shewing himself a true trade as the jockey of the North, it is not steward, but from the weight and intereft becaufe he does not equally hold it fair to he has got by it at a general election. What cheat his own brother in horse-feh. If a Jew deals larger than many of our nobility duke rides his own horses on the course, in the stocks and in lottery tickets? And, he does not, in my judgment, differ from perhaps one should not find more bulls and any other jockey on the rurf; and I think bears at Jonathan's than at Arthur's. If you it the same thing, whether a man gets cannot, at this last place, insure your house money by keeping a sallion, or whether from fire, or a lip from the danger of the he gets it by keeping a bull or a boar for seas, or the rench, you may get largely the parish.

underwrit on lives, and insure your own We know of many persons of quality against that of your mother or grandmother whose passion for trade has made them for any sum whatsoever. There are thole dealers in fighting-cocks; and I heard one who deal as greatly in this practice of putdcciare to me lately, that there was no ting one life against another as any undertrusting to servants in that business; that writer in the city of London: and, indeed, he Mould make nothing of it, if he did not the end of insuring is less answered by the look after the cocks himself; and that, for latter than the former; for the prudent a month before he is to fight a match, he citizen will not set his name to any policy, always takes care of and feeds them him- where the person to be insured is not in self; and for that purpose (strange as it perfect health ; while the merchants at may seem) he lies in a little room clofe by St. James's, who insure by means of bets them every night. I cannot but admire instead of policies, will pay you any

sum this industry, which can make my noble whatsoever, if a man dies that is run friend quit his lady's bed, while tradesmen through the body, shot through the head, of a lower rank neglect their business for or has tumbled off his chair in an apoplexy;, the charms of a kept mistress. But it must for as there are persons who will lay on be allowed, that these dealers in live fowl either fide, he who wants to insure need are to be considered as poulterers, as well only choose that which answers his purpose. as those who sell the deer of their park are And as to the dealings of these merchants to be ranked among the butchers in Clare- of fashion in annuities upon lives, we often market; though the latter endeavour art. hear that one sells kis whole estate, for his fully to avoid this, by selling their venison life, to another; and there is no other form to paftry-cooks and fifhmongers.

of conveyance used between the buyer and What shall we say of those who send ve- seller, than by shuffing a pack of cards, or nison, hares, pheasants, partridges, and all throwing a pair of dice; but I cannot look other game, to their poulterer and filh- upon this fort of traffic in any other light monger in London, to receive an equiva- than that, when a condemned felon sells lent in poultry and fill in winter, when his own body to a furgeon to be anatothey are in town :-Though these sport- mised.

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After all, there is no branch of trade to be keel-hauled to death under a firstthat is usually extended fo far, and has rate man of war; and he who, like a Turk. such a variety in it, as gaming; whether ish vizier, levies contributions on those we consider it as carried on by card, dice, who hold posts and places under his mashorse-racing, pitting, berring, &c. &c. &c. ter, theuld, like hiri, be squeezed in his These merchants deal in very various com turn, till the spunge is dry, and then bowmodities, and do not seem to be very ftringed for the good of the people. anxious in general about any difference

I am your humble servant, &c. in value, when they are striking a bargain :

B. Thornton. for, though some expect ready money for ready money when they play, as they would

§ 134. On Pedantry. blood for blood in a duel, many, very Sir, many, part with their ready money to those To display the least symptom of learnwho deal upon trust, nay oftentimes to ing, or to seem to know more than your those who are known to be incapable of footman, is become an offence againit the paying. Sometimes I have seen a gentle. rules of politeness, and is branded with the man bet his gold with a lady who has ear name of pedantry and ill-breeding. The rings, bracelets, and other diamonds to very found of a Roman or a Grecian answer her stake: but I have much oftener name, or a hard name, as the ladies call feen a lady play against a roll of guineas, it, though their own perhaps are harder with nothing but her virtue to part with by half, is enough to disconcert the temto preserve her honour if she loft. The per of a dozen countesses, and to strike a markets, in which the multiplicity of busic whole a Tembly of fine gentlemen dumb ness of this kind is transacted, are very with amazement. many, and are chiefly appropriated to that This squeamishness of theirs is owing to end and no other, fuch as routs, affemblies, their averfion to pedantry, which they unArthar's, Newmarket, and the courses in derstand to be a fort of multiness that can every county. Where thefe merchants only be comtracted in a recluse and a tutrade in ready money only, or in bank- dious life, and a foible peculiar to men of notes, I consider them as bankers of qua. letters. But if a strong attachment to a lity; where, in ready money against trust, particuiar fubje&t, a total ignorance of and notes of hand of persons that are but every other, an eagerness to introduce that little able to pay, they must be broken subject upon all occasions, and a confirmed merchants: and whoever plays with money habit of declaiming upon it without either against a lady's jewels, should, in my mind, wit or discretion, be the marks of a pehang out the Three Blue Balls in a private dantic character, as they certainly are, is alley; and the lady who takes her virtue belongs to the illiterate as well as the for gold, should take the house of a late leamed; and St. James's itself may boat venerable matron in the Piazza, to carry of producing as arrant pedants as were on her trade in that place.

ever send forth from a college. But it is with pleasure I see our werchants I know a woman of fashion who is per. of quality neglecting several branches of petually employed in remarks upon the trade that have been carried on with suc- weather, who observes from morning co cess, and in which great fortunes have been noon that it is likely to rain, and from raised in former times by some of their an. noon to night that it spits, that it milles, cestors. What immense fums have, we that it is set in for a wet evening; and, know, teen got by some great inen in the being incapable of any other discourse, is smuggling trade! And we have heard of as insipid a companion, and just as pedanlarge profits being made by the sale of tic, as he who quotes Aristotle over his tea, commissions in the army and navy; by or talks Greek at a card-table. procuring places and pensions; and valt A gentleman of my acquaintance is a fums received for quartering a lord's fifter, conftant attendant upon parliamentary bu. nephew, or natural son on any one who holds finess, and I have heard him entertain a a profitable port under the government, large circle, by the hour, with the speeches Smuggling, furely, should be left to our that were made in a debate upon mụm and good friends on the shores of Kent and perry. He has a wonderful memory, and Sussex; and I think, he who sells commií- a kind of oratorical tune in his elocution, fions in the navy or army, the free-gifts that serves him instead of an emphasis. of the prince, should suffer like a deserter, By those means he has acquired the repu

cation of having a deal to say for himself; $ 135. A Sunday in the Country. but as it coni's entirely of what others

Sir,

Aug. 8, 1761. have Crid for then:selves before him, and As life is so short, you will agree with if he should be deaf during the seslions, he me, that we cannot afford to lose any of would certainly be dumb in the inter- that precious time, every moment of which rals, I mult needs let him down for a pe- should be emplo; ed in such gratifications dant.

as are suitable to our stations and disposiB:1t the most troublesome, as well as tions. For this reason we cannot but la. molt cangerous character of this sort that ment, that the year should be curtailed of I am so unhappy as to be connected with, almost a seventh part, and that, out of three is a tripling who spends his whole life in hundred and fixty-five days, fifty-two of a fencing-Ichool. This amiable young them Mould be allotted, with respect to pedant is, indeed, a moʻt formidable crea many persons, to dullness and insipidity. ture; his whole conversation lies in Quart You will easily conceive, that, by what I and Tierces if you meet him in the treet, have said, I allude to that enemy to all he falutes you in the gymnastic man- mirth and gaiety, Sanday, whose imperti. ner, throws himself back upon his left hip, nent intrusion puts a check on our amuselevels his cane at the pit of your stomach, ments, and casts a gloom over our cheerand looks as fierce as a prize-fighter. In ful thoughts. Perfons, indeed, of high the midst of a discourse upon politics, he fashion regard it no more than the other starts from the table on a sudden, and splits part of the week, and would no more be himself into a monstrous lounge against the restrained from their pleasures on this day, wainscot; immediately he puts a foil into than they would keep taft on a fast-day; but your hand, insiits upon teaching you his others, who have the same taste and spirit, inurthering thrust, and if, in the course of though less fortunes, are constrained, in his instructions, he pushes out an eye or a order to save appearances, to debar themfore-tooth, he tells you, that you frapp'd felves of every amusement except that of your peint, or dropp'd your wrist, and im- going to church, which they can only enjoy putes all the mischief to the awkwardness in common with the vulgar. The vulgar, of his pupil.

it is true, have the happy privilege of conThe musical pedant, who, instead of at- verting this holy-day into a day of extratending to the discourse, diverts himself with ordinary festivity; and the mechanic is humming an air, or, if he speaks, exprefles allowed to get drunk on this day, if on no himself in the language of the orchestra; other, because he has nothing else to do. the Newmarket pedant, who has no know. It is true, that the citizen on this day gets ledge but what he gathers upon the turf: loose from his counter, to which he had the female pedant, who is an adept in no been fastened all the relt of the week like thing but the patterns of filks and Hounces; a bad shilling, and riots in the luxuries of and the coffee-house pedant, whose whole Ilington or Mile-end. But what Mall be erudition lies within the margin of a neis fiid of those who have no business to fol. paper, are nuilances to extremel: conmon, low but the bent of their inclinations? on that it is almost uncecessary to mention whose hands, indeed, all the days of their them. Yet, pedants as they are, they hel- life would hang as henvy as Sundays, if ter chemtelves under the fathionablerels of they were not enlivered by the dear vari. their foible, and, with all the properties of ety of amusements and diversions. How the character, generally escape the inpu. can a woman of any spirit pass her time tation of it. In my opinion, however, they on this dismal day, when the play-houses, deferve our censure more than the merest and Vauxhall, and Ranelagh are shut, and book-worm imaginable. The man of let no places of public meeting are open, but ters is usually confined to his study, and the churcites? I talk not of those in higher having but little pleasure in converfing life, who are so much above the world, with men of the world, does not often in- that they are out of the reach of its centrude himself into their company: there sures; I mean those who are confined in a unlearned pedants, on the contrary, are to narrower sphere, so as to be obliged to pay be met with every where; they have no fome regard to reputation. But if people thing to do but to run about and be trou. in town have reason to complain of this blesome, and are universally the bane of weekly bar put upon their pleasures, how agreeable conversation. I am, Sir, &c. unhappy must they be who are immured in B. Thornton, the old mansion-house in the country, and

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