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the first public employment he held, what those unfortunate persons to fresh pain, does it exhibit, but one continued scene of who have not been able to save their wives villainies ? Cneius Carbo plundered of the and daughters from his impurity. And public money by his own treasurer, a con: these his atrocious crimes have been com. ful stripped and betrayed, an army desert. mitted in so public a manner, that there ed and reduced to want, a province robbed, is no one who has heard of his name, but the civil and religious rights of a people could reckon up his actions.--Having, by violated. The employment he held in Asia his iniquitous sentences, filled the prisons Minor and Pamphilia, what did it produce with the most industrious and deserving of but the ruin of those countries : in which the people, he then proceeded to order num. houses, cities, and temples, were robbed by 'bers of Roman citizens to be strangled in him. What was his conduct in his præ- the gaols; so that the exclamation, “ 1 am torship here at home? Let the plundered a citizen of Rome !" which has often, in temples, and public works neglected, that the moft distant regions, and among the he might embezzle the money intended most barbarous people, been a protection, for carrying them on, bear witness. But was of no service to them, but on the conhis prætorthip in Sicily crowns all his trary, brought a speedier and more severe works of wickedness, and finishes a lasting punishment upon them. monument to his infamy. The mischiefs I ak now, Verres, what you have to done by him in that country during the advance against this charge? Will you three years of his iniquitous adminiftration, pretend to deny it? Will you pretend that are such, that many years, under the wiseft. any thing falle, that even any thing ag. and best of prætors, will not be sufficient gravated, is alledged against you ? Had to refore things to the condition in which any prince, or any ftate, committed the ke found them. For it is notorious, that, same outrage against the privilege of Roduring the time of his tyranny, the Sicili- man citizens, should we not think we had ans neither enjoyed the protection of their fufficient ground for declaring immediate own original laws, of the regulations made war against them? What punishment for their benefit by the Roman fenate upon ought then to be infifted upon a tyrannitheir coming under the protection of the cal and wicked prætor, who dared, at no commonwealth, nor of the natural and un- greater distance than Sicily, within fight alienable rights of men. His nod has de- of the Italian coast, to put to the infamous cided all causes in Sicily for these three death of crucifixion that unfortunate and years; and his decisions have broke all innocent citizen Publius Gavius Cofanus, law, all precedent, all right. The sums only for his having aflerted his privilege he has, by arbitrary taxes and unheard of of citizenship, and declared his intention impofitions, extorted from the induttrious of appealing to the justice of his country poor, are not to be computed. The molt againit a cruel oppressor, who had unjustly faithful allies of the commonwealth have confined him in a prison at Syracuse, from been treated as enemies. Roman citizens whence he had just made his escape? The have, like slaves, been put to death with unhappy man, arrested as he was going to tortures. The most atrocious criminals, embark' for his native country, is brought for money, have been exempted from the before the wicked prætor. With eyes deserved punishments; and men of the darting fury, and a countenance diftorted most unexceptionable characters condemn- with cruelty, he orders the helpless vidim es, and banished, unheard. The harbours, of his rage to be stripped, and rods to be though sufficiently fortified, and the gates brought ; accusing him, but without the of Itrong towns, opened to pirates and ra least shadow of evidence, or even of lusvagers: the soldiery and failors belonging picion, of having come to Sicily as a spy: to a province under the protection of the It was in vain that the unhappy man cried commonwealth, ftarved to death : whole out, “ I am a Roman citizen; I have fleets, to the great detriment of the pro « served under Lucius Pretius, who is now vince, suffered to perilh ; the ancient mo « at Panormus, and will atteft my innuments of either Sicilian or Roman great “ nocence.” The blood-thirlly prætor, ness, the statues of heroes and princes, car deaf to all he could urge in his own deried off; and the temples stripped of the fence, ordered the infunous punishment to images. The infamy of his lewdness has be inflicted. Thus, Fathers, was an innobeen such as decency forbids to describe; cent Roman citizen publicly mangled with bor will I, by mentioning particulars, put scourging; whilst the only words he ut.

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tered amidst his cruel sufferings, were, indeed it is, judiciously to handle a subject, « I am a Roman citizen!" With these he where even probable truth will hardly gain hoped to defend himself from violence and assent. The hearer, enlightened by a long intamy; but of so little service was this acquaintance, and warm in his affections, privilege to him, that while he was thus may quickly pronounce every thing unaiserting his citizenthip, the order was favourably expressed, in respect to what given for his execution for his execution he wishes and what he knows; whilft upon the cross!

the stranger pronounceth all exaggerated, O liberty!- found once delightful to through envy of those deeds which he is every Roman ear! O sacred privilege of conscious are above his own atchievement. Roman citizenship!--once sacred !--now For the praises bestowed on others are trampled upon !-- But what then? Is it then only to be endured, when men ima. come to this ? Shall an inferior magi- gine they can do those feats they hear to Atrate, a governor who holds his whole have been done; they envy what they power of the Roman people, in a Roman cannot equal, and immediately pronounce province, within fight of Italy, bind, it false. Yet, as this folemnity has refcourge, torture with fire and red-hot ceiyed its fanction from the authority of plates of iron, and at the last put to the our ancestors, it is my duty also to obey infamous death of the cross, a Roman citi- the law, and to endeavour to procure, lo zen? Shall neither the cries of innocence far as I am able, the good will and approexpiring in agony, nor the tears of pitying bation of all my audience. fpectators, nor the majeity of the Roman I shall therefore begin first with our commonwealth, nor the fear of the juftice forefathers, since both justice and decency of his country, restrain the licentious and require we should, on this occasion, beltow wanton cruelty of a monster, who, in con on them an honourable remembrance. In tience of his riches, strikes at the root of this our country they kept themselves alliberty, and sets mankind at defiance? ways firmly settled; and, through their i conclude with expressing my hopes, valour, handed it down free to every

your wisdom and justice, Fathers, will fince-fucceeding generation. Worthy, not, by suffering the atrocious and un- indeed, of praise are they, and yet more exampled insolence of Caius Verres to worthy are our immediate fathers; fince, escape the due punishment, leave room to enlarging their own inheritance into the apprehend the danger of a total subversion extensive empire which we now poffefs, of authority, and introduction of general they bequeathed that their work of toil to anarchy and confusion.

us their fons. Yet even these successes, Cicero's Orations. we ourselves, here present, we who are

yet in the itrength and vigour of our days,

have nobly improved, and have made fucla $ 12. The Oration which was spoken by provisions for this our Athens, that now Pericles, at the public Funeral of those it is all-suficient in itself to answer every ATHENIANS who had been firt killed exigence of war and of peace. I mean in the PELOPONNESIAN War.

not here to recite those martial exploits

by which these ends were accomplished, Many of those who have spoken be or the resolute defences we ourselves fore me on occafions of this kind, have and our forefathers have made againt the commended the author of that law which formidable invasions of Barbarians and we are now obeying, for having in- Greeks. Your own knowledge of these fituted an oration to the honour of those will excuse the long detail

. But, by what who facrifice their lives in fighting for methods we have rose to this height of their country. For my part, I think it glory and power; by what polity, and by fuficient for men who have approved their what conduct, we are thus aggrandized; virtue in action, by action to be honoured I fall first endeavour to fhew, and then for is—by such as you see the public grati- proceed to the praise of the deceased. tude now performing about this funeral; These, in my opinion, can be no impertiand that the virtues of many ought not nent topics on this occasion; the discuffion to be endangered by the management of of them must be beneficial to this numerous any one person, when their credit must company of Athenians and of strangers. precariously depend on his oration, which We are happy in a form of government may be good, and may be bad. Difficult which cannot envy the laws of our neigh.


bours; for it hach served as a model to This may be proved by facts, since the others, but is original at Athens. And Lacedemonians never invade our territhis our form, as committed not to the tories, barely with their own, but with the few, but to the whole body of the people, united strength of all their confederates. is called a democracy. How different so. But when we invade the dominions of ever in a private capacity, we all enjoy our neighbours, for the most part we the same general equality our laws are conquer without difficulty, in an enemy's fitted to preserve; and superior honours, country, those who fight in defence of jult as we excel. The public administra- their own habitations. The strength of tion is not confined to a particular family, our whole force, no enemy hath yet ever but is attainable only by merit. Poverty experienced, because it is divided by our is not an hindrance, since whoever is abie naval expeditions, or engaged in the dif. to serve his country meets with no ob- ferent quarters of our service by land. itacle to preferment from his first obscu. But if any-where they engage and defeat sity, The offices of the state we go a small party of our forces, they boastingly through without obstructions from one give it out a total defeat; and, if they are another; and live together in the mutual beat, they were certainly overpowered by endearments of private life without suspi- our united strength. What though from cions; not angry with a neighbour for a state of inactivity, rather than laborious following the bent of his own humour, exercise, or with a natural, rather than an nor putting on that countenance of dif- acquired valour, we learn to encounter content, which pains, though it cannot danger; this good at least we receive punilh; so that in private life we converse from it, that we never droop under the ingether without diffidence or damage, apprehension of pollible misfortunes, and whilst we dare not, on any account, offend when we hazard the danger, are found against the public, through the reverence no less courageous than those who are we bear to the magistrates and the laws, continually inured to it. In these respects, chiefly to those enacted for redress of the our whole community deserves justly to be injured, and to those unwritten, a breach admired, and in many we have yet to menof which is allowed disgrace. Our laws tion. have further provided for the mind most In our manner of living we fhew an frequent intermitions of care, by the ap- elegance tempered with frugality, and we pointment of public recreations and sacri- cultivate philosophy, without enervating fices throughout the year, elegantly per- the mind. We display our wealth in the formed with a peculiar pomp, the daily season of beneficence, and not in the delight of which is a charm that puts vanity of discourse. A confefsion of melancholy to fight. The grandeur of poverty is difgrace to no man; no effort tais our Athens causes the produce of to avoid it, is disgrace indeed. There is the whole earth to be imported here, by visibly, in the same persons, an attention which we reap a familiar enjoyment, not to their own private concerns, and those more of the delicacies of our own growth, of the public; and in others, engaged in than of those of other nations.

the labours of life, there is a competent In the affairs of war we excel those of skill in the affairs of government. For our enemies, who adhere to methods op we are the only people who think hin posite to our own; for we lay open Athens that does not meddle in state affairs-not to general resort, nor ever drive any indolent, but good for nothing. And yet liranger from us, whom either improve- we pass the foundeft judgment, and are ment or curiosity hath brought amongst quick at catching the right apprehensions us, lest any enemy heuid hurt. us by of things, not thinking that words are feeing what is never concealed: we place prejudicial to actions ; but rather the noc not so great a confidence in the prepara- being duly prepared by previous debate, tives and artifices of war as in the native before we are obliged to proceed to exewarmth of our souls impelling us to cution. Herein consists our distinguishing action. In point of education, the youth excellence, that in the hour of action we of some people are inured, by a course of hew the greates courage, and yet debate laborious exercise, to support toil and before.hand the expediency of our meahardihip like men; but we, notwithstanding sures. The courage of others is the result our easy and elegant way of life, face all of ignorance; deliberation makes them the dangers of war as intrepidly as they. cowards. And these undoubtedly must


habit of dispatch.

be owned to have the greatest souls, who, have more at stake than men whose public moft acutely sensible of the miseries of war advantages are not so valuable; and to and the sweets of peace, are not hence in illustrate by actual evidence, how great a the leaft deterred from facing danger.

commendation is due to them who are In acts of beneficence, farther, we dif now my subjects, and the greatest part of fer from the many. We preserve friends, which they have already received. For not by receiving, but by conferring obli- the encomiums with which I have celegations

. For he who does a kindness, brated the state, have been earned for it hath the advantage over him who, by the by the bravery of these, and of men like law of gratitude, becomes a debtor to these. And such compliments might be his benefactor. The person obliged is thought too high and exaggerated, if compelled to act the more infipid part, pafied on any Grecians, but them alone. conscious that a return of kindness is The fatal period to which these gallant merely a payment, and not an obligation. souls are now reduced, is the furelt evi. And we alone are splendidly beneficent to dence of their merit-an evidence begun others, not so much from interested mo in their lives, and completed by their tives, as for the credit of pure liberality. deaths: for it is a debt of justice to pay I fhall fum up what yet remains, by only fuperior honours to men, who have devoted adding, that our Athens, in general, is their lives in fighting for their country, the school of Greece: and that every fingle though inferior to others in every virtue Athenian among us is excellently formed, but that of valour. Their last service by his personal qualifications, for all the effaceth all farmer demerits—it extends various scenes of active life, acting with a to the public; their private demeanors molt graceful demeanor, and a most ready reached only to a few. Yet not one of

there was at all induced to shrink from That I have not; on this occasion, made danger, through fondness of those delights use of a pomp of words, but the truth of which the peaceful afluent life beitows; falts, that height to which, by such a not one was the less lavish of his life, conduct, this itate hath rose, is an un- though that flattering hope attendant deniable proof. For we are now the only upon want, that poverty at length might people of the world, who are found by be exchanged for affluence. One pallion experience to be greater than in report; there was in their minds much stronger the only people who, repelling the attacks than these, the desire of vengeance on of an invading enemy, exempts their de- their enemies. Regarding this as the feat from the blush of indignation, and most honourable prize of dangers, they to their tributaries no discontent, as if boldly rushed towards the mark, to seek subject to men unworthy to command. revenge, and then to satisfy those secondThat we deserve our power, we need no ary pafsions. The uncertain event they evidence to manifeft; we have great and had already secured in hope; what their fgnal proofs of this, which entitle us to eyes Thewed plainly must be done, they the admiration of the present and of future trusted their own valour to accomplish, ages. We want no Homer to be the he- thinking it more glorious to defend themrald of our praise ; no poet to deck off a selves, and die in the attempt, than to yield history with the charms of verse, where the and live. From the reproach of cowardice, opinion of exploits muft fuffer by a strict indeed, they fled, but presented their borelation. Every sea hath been opened by dies to the shock of battle; when, insenqur fleets, and every land been penetrated fible of fear, but triumphing in hope, in by our armies, which have every where the doubtful charge they inltantly drop ; left behind them eternal monuments of our and thus discharged the duty which brave enmity and our friendship.

men owe to their country. In the just defence of such a state, these As for you, who now survive them, it victims of their own valour, scorning the is your business to pray for a better fate-ruin threatened to it, have valiantly but to think it your duty also to preserve fought, and bravcly died. And every the same spirit and warmth of courage one of those who survive is ready, I am against your enemies; not judging the persuaded, to facrifice life in such a cause. expediency of this from a mere harangue And for this reason have I enlarged fo where any man, indulging a flow of much on national points, to give the words, may tell you, what you yourselves clearest proof, that in the present war we

know as well as he, ho.v many advantages



there are in fighting valiantly against your will have frequent remembrances, in seeing
enemies—but rather making the daily the happiness of others, of what they once
iscreating grandeur of this community themselves enjoyed. And sorrow flows not
the objeět of your thoughts, and growing from the absence of those good things we
quite enamoured of it. And, when it have never yet experienced, but from the
really appears great to your apprehen- loss of those to which we have been accuf.
fions, think again, that this grandeur was tomed. They, who are not yet by age ex-
acquired by brave and valiant men; by empted from issue, should be comforted in
men who knew their duty, and in the the hope of having more. The children
monents of action were sensible of lame; yet to be born will be a private benefit to
who, whenever their attempts were un some, in causing them to forget such as no
fuccessful, thought it dishonourable their longer are, and will be a double benefit to
country shorid Itand in need of any thing their country, in preventing its desolation,
their valour could do for it, and so made and providing for its security. For those
it the most glorious present. Bestowing persons cannot in common justice be re-
Thus their lives on the public, they have garded as members of equal value to the
every one received a praise that will never public, who have no children to expose to
decay, a sepulchre that will be most il. danger for its safety. But you, whose age
luftrious.--Not that in which their bones is already far advanced, compute the
Jie mouldering, but that in which their greater share of happiness your longer time
fame is preserved, to be on every occasion, hath afforded for so much gain, persuaded
when honour is the employ of either word in yourselves the remainder will be but
or ac, eternally remembered. This whole short, and enlighten that space by the glory,
earth is the sepulchre of illustrious men; gained by these. It is greatness of foul
r.or is it the inscription on the columns in alone that never grows old; nor is it wealıb
their native fuil that alone shews their that delights in the latter stage of life, as
merit, but the memorial of them, better some give out, so much as honour.
than all infcriptions, in every foreign na To you, the sons and brothers of the de-
tion, reposited more durably in universal ccased, whatever number of you are here, a
remembrance than on their own tomb. field of hardy contention is opened. For
From this very moment, emulating these him, who no longer is, every one is ready
noble patterns, placing your happiness in to commend, so that to whatever height you
liberty, and liberty in vaicur, be prepar- push your deserts, you will scarce ever be
ed to encounter all the dangers of war. thought to equal, but to be somewhat infe.
For, to be lavish of life is not lo noble in rior, to these. Envy will exert itself against
those whom misfortunes have reduced to a competitor whilft life remains; but when
misery and despair, as in men who hazard death stops the competition, affection will
ike loss of a comfortable tublistence, and applaud without restraint.
the enjoyment of all the blessings this If, after this, it be expected from me to
world affords, by an unsuccessful enter- say any thing to you, who are now reduced
prize. Adversity, after a series of eale to a state of widowhood, about female
and afluence, sinks deeper into the heart virtue, I shall express it all in one short
of a man of spirit, than the stroke of death admonition: It is your greatest glory
inícosibly received in the vigour of life not to be deficient in the virtue peculiar
and public hope.

to your sex, and to give the men as little For this reason, the parents of those handle as possible to talk of your

behavi. who are now gone, whoever of them may our, whether well or ill. be attending here, I do not bewail; I have now discharged the province al. Į thall rather comfort. It is well known lotted me by the laws, and said what I to what unhappy accidents they were thought molt pertinent to this assembly. liable from the moment of their birth; Our departed friends have by facts been and that happiness belongs to men who already honoured, Their chiidren, from have reached the most glorious period of this day till they arrive at manhood, shall life, as there now have who are to you be educated at the public expence of the the source of sorrow; those, whose life state*, which hath appointed so beneficial haih received its ample measure, happy in its continuance, and equally happy in its the public expence, and when come to age presented

The law was, that they should be instructed at conclusion. I know it in truth a difficult with a complete fuit of armour, and honoured with ink to tix comfort in those brcalls which the airft seats in all public plats

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