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law which would not have passed if it nours upon distinguished patriots; and it could have brought him to life. If his is the part of a brave man, not to be indestroyer then should confess the fa&t, need duced by the greatest sufferings to repent he fear to be punished by those whom he of having boldly discharged his duty. Milo has delivered? The Greeks render divine therefore might have made the confession honours to those who put tyrants to death. which Ahala, Nafica, Opimius, Marius, What have I seen at Athens ? what in and I myself, formerly made. And had other cities of Greece? what ceremonies his country been grateful, he might have. were instituted for such heroes? what rejoiced; if ungrateful, his conscience muit hymns: what fongs? The honours paid still have supported him under ingratitude, them were almost equal to those paid to But that gratitude is due to him for this the immortal gods. And will you not favour, my lords, the fortune of Rome, only refuse to pay any honours to the pre your own preservation, and the immortal server of so great a people, and the aven- gods, all declare. Nor is it possible that ger of such execrable villainies, but even any man can think otherwise, but he who fuffer him to he dragged to punishment? denies the existence of an over-ruling He would have confeffed, I say, had he power or divine providence; who is undone the action ; he would have bravely affected by the majesty of your empire, and freely confessed that he did it for the the sun itself, the revolutions of the hea. common good; and, indeed, he ought not venly bodies, the changes and laws of naonly to have confessed, but to have pro- ture, and, above all, the wildom of our claimed it. ,

ancestors, who religiously observed the For if he does not deny an action for sacred sites, ceremonies, and auspices, and which he defires nothing but pardon, is it carefully transmitted them to their poltelikely that he would scruple to confess' rity. what he might hope to be rewarded for ? There is, there certainly is such a Power; unless he thinks it is more agreeable to nor can this grand and beautiful fabric of you, that he should defend his own life, nature be without an animating principle, than the lives of your order; especially, when these bodies and feeble frames of as by such a confeslion, if you were in. ours are endowed with life and perception. dined to be grateful, he might expect to Unless perhaps men think otherwise, beobtain the noblest honours. But if you cause it is not immediately discerned by bad not approved of the action (though them; as if we could discern that princi. how is it poffible that a person can disap- ple of wisdom and foresight by which we prore of his own safety!) if the courage act and speak, or even could discover the of the brateft man alive had not been manner and place of its existence. This, agreeable to his countrymen; he would this is the very power which has often, in have departed with steadiness and resolu- a wonderful manner, crowned Rome with tion from so ungrateful a city. For what glory and prosperity; which has destroyed can fhew greater ingratitude, than that all and removed this plague ; which inspired hould rejoice, while he alone remained him with presumption to irritate by viodisconfolate, who was the cause of all the lence, and provoke by the sword, the joy! Yet, in destroying the enemies of bravest of men, in order to be conquered car country, this has been our constant by him ; a victory over whom would have persuasion, that as the glory would be ours, procured him eternal impunity, and full lo we should expect our share of odium fcope to his audaciousness. This, my and danger. For what praise had been lords, was not effected by human prudence, due to me, when in my consulate I made nor even by the common care of the imfo many hazardous attempts for you and mortal gods. Our sacred places themyour pofterity, if I could have proposed felves, by heavens, which faw this monster to carry my designs into execution without fall, seemed to be interested in his fate, the greatest struggles and difficulties? what and to vindicate their rights in his dewoman would not dare to kill the most struction. For you, ye Alban mounts and villainous and outrageous citizen, if the groves, I implore and attest, ye demohad no danger to fear? But the man who lished altars of the Albans, the companions bravely defends his country with the pro- and partners of the Roman rites, which pect of public odium, danger, and death, his fury, after having demolished the sa* a man indeed. It is the duty of a cred groves, buried under the extravagant grateful people to bestow distinguished ho- piles of his building. Upon his fall, your


altars, your rites, Aourished, your power he coveted, that this year he did not think prevailed, which he had defiled with all would he his own. None but Milo opmanner of villainy. And you, O vene. posed his designs; he looked upon Pomrable Jupiter! from your lofty Latian pey, the man who was beft able to oppose mount, whose lakes, whose woods and bor- him, as firmly attached to his interett, by ders, he polluted with the most abomina- their late reconciliation. The power of ble lust, and every species of guilt, at laft Cæsar he called his own; and my fall opened your eyes to behold his deltruc- had taught him to despise the sentiments tion: to you, and in your presence, was of all good men; Milo alone resisted the late, but just and deserved penalty him. paid. For surely it can never be alledged In this situation, the immortal gods, as that in his encounter with Milo before the I before observed, inspired that furious chapel of the Bona Dea, which lands upon miscreant with a design to way-lay Milo. the estate of that worthy and accomplished No otherwise could the monster have been youth, P. Sextius Gallus, it was by chance destroyed; the state could never have he received that first wound, which deli. avenged its own cause. Is it to be imaginvered him up to a fhameful death, I mayed, that the senate could have restrained Say under the eye of the goddess herself: him when he was prætor, after having efno; it was that he might appear not ac- fected nothing while he was only in a priquitted by the infamous decree, but reserved vate station ? Could the confuls have been only for this signal punishment

strong enough to check their prætor? In Nor can it be denied that the anger of the first place, had Milo been killed, the the gods inspired his followers with such two consuls must have been of his fa&tion; madness, as to commit to the flames his in the next place, what conful would have exposed body, without pageants, without had courage to oppose him when prætor, finging, without shews, without pomp, whom he remembered, while tribune, to without lamentations, without any oration have grievously harassed a person of conin his praise, without the rites of burial, sular dignity? He might have oppressed, besmeared with gore and dirt, and depriv. seized, and obtained every thing: by a ed of that funeral solemnity which is al. new law which was found among the other ways granted even to enemies. It was Clodian laws, he would have made our inconsistent with piety, I imagine, that the flaves his freed-men. In short, had not images of such illustrious persons mould the immortal gods inspired him, effemigrace fo monstrous a parricide ; nor could nate as he was, with the frantic resolution he be torn by the dogs, when dead, in a of attempting to kill the bravest of men, more proper place than that where he had you would this day have had no republic. been so often condemned while alive. Had he been prætor, had he been consul, Truly, the fortune of the Roman people if indeed we can suppose that these temseemed to me bard and cruel, which saw ples and these walls could have stood till and suffered him to insult the state for so his consulthip; in short, had he been alive, many years. . He defiled with luft our would he have committed no mischief; most sacred ritcs; violated the most folenin who, when dead, by the dire&tion of Sexdecrees of the senate; openly corrupted his cus Clodius, one of his dependants, set the judges; harased the senate in his tri. senate-house on fire? Was ever fight more buneship: abolished those acts which were dreadful, more Shocking, and more mifepassed with the concurrence of every order rable? That the temple of holiness, digfor the safety of the state; drove me from nity, wisdom, public counsel, the head of my country; plundered my goods; fired this city, the fanctuary of her allies, the my house; persecuted my wife and chil. refuge of all nations, the seat granted to dren; declared an execrable war against this order by the unanimous voice of the Pompey; allassinated magistrates and ci. Roman people, should be fired, erased, and tizens; burnt my brother's house ; laid defiled And not by a giddy mob, though Tuscany walle; drove many from their even that would have been dreadful, but habitations and estates; was very eager by one man; who, if he dared to commit and furious ; neither Rome, Italy, provin- such havock for his deceased friend as a ces nor kingdoms, could confine his frenzy. revenger, what would he not, as a leader, In his house, laws were hatched, which have done for him when living? He chose were to subject us to our own slaves; there to throw the body of Clodius into the reWas nothing belonging to any one, which nate-house, chat, when dead, he might


burn what he had subverted when living. be safe, may they be glorious, may they be Are there any who complain of the Ap- happy! May this renowned city proiper, pian way, and yet are filent as to the se- and my country, which shall ever be dear nate-house? Can we imagine that the fo- to me, in whatsoever manner she shall rom could have been defended against please to treat me: since I must not live that man, when living, whose lifeless corse with my fellow-citizens, let them enjoy destroyed the Raise, raise peace and tranquillity without me; but him if you can from the dead; will you then, to me, let them owe their happiness. break the force of the living man, when I will withdraw, and retire into exile: if I you can scarce sustain the rage occasioned cannot be a member of a virtuous com by his unburied body? Unless you pre- monwealth, it will be some satisfaction not tend that you sustained the attacks of those to live in a bad one ; and as soon as I set who ran to the senate house with torches, foot within a well-regulated and free state, to the temple of Caftor with scythes, and there will I fix my abode. Alas, cries he, flew all over the forum with swords. You my fruitless toils! my fallacious hopes ! faw the Roman people massacred, an af- my vain and empty schemes ! Could I, fembly attacked with arms, while they who, in my tribunelhip, when the state was were attentively hearing Marcus Cælius, under oppression, gave myself up wholly the tribune of the people; a man undaunt to the service of the senate, which I found ed in the service of the republic; most re- almost destroyed; to the service of the Rosolute in whatever cause he undertakes; man knights, whose strength was so much devoted to good men, and to the authori- weakened ; to the service of all good citi. ty of the senate; and who has discovered zens, from whom the oppressive arms of a divine and amazing fidelity to Milo un. Clodius had wrested their due authority; der his present circumstances; to which he could I ever have imagined I Mould want was reduced either by the force of envy, a guard of honelt men to defend me? or a fingular turn of fortune.

When I rellored you to your country, (for But now I have said enough in relation we frequently discourse together) could I to the cause, and perhaps taken too much ever have thought that I should be driven liberty in digrefling from the main subject. myself into banishment? Where is now What then remains, but to beseech and ad. that senate, to whose intereft we devoted jure you, my lords, to extend that com. ourselves? Where, where, says he, are passion to a brave man, which he disdains those Roman knights of yours? What is to implore, but which I, even against his become of that warm affection the muni. consent, implore and earnestly intreat. cipal towns formerly testified in your faThough you have not seen him shed a fin vour? What is become of the acclamations gle tear while all are weeping around him, of all Italy? What is become of thy art, though he has preserved the same steady of thy eloquence, my Tully, which have so countenance, the same firmness of voice often been employed to preserve your feland language, do not on this account with low-citizens ? Am I the only person, to hold it from him: indeed I know not whe- whom alone they can give no asistance; I, ther these circumstances ought not to plead who have so often engaged my life in your with you in his favour. If in the combats defence? of gladiators, where persons of the lowest Nor does he utter such sentiments as rank, the very dregs of the people, are these, my lords, as I do now, with tears, engaged, we look with so much contempt but with the same intrepid countenance on cowards, on those who meanly beg their you now behold. For he denies, he absolives, and are so fond of saving the brave, lutely denies, that his fellow citizens have the intrepid, and those who chearfully offer repaid his services with ingratitude; but their breasts to the sword; if, I say, we he confesses they have been too timorous, feel more pity for those who seem above too apprehensive of danger. He declares, alking our pily, than for those who with that, in order to insure your safety, he carneftness intreat it, how much more gained over the common people, all the ought we to be thus affected where the in- scum of the populace, to his interest, when tereits of our bravest citizens are concern- under their leader Clodius they threatened ed? The words of Milo, my lords, which your property and your lives; that he not be frequently utters, and which I daily only curbed them by his resolution, but hear, kill and confound me. May my foothed their rage at the expence of his fellow-citizens, says he, flourish, may they three inheritances. And while, by his li

berality, berality, he appeases the fury of the people, me, how this body of mine is disposed of, he entertains not the least doubt but that since the glory of my name already fills, his extraordinary services to the state will and shall ever possess, every region of the procure him your affection and favour. earth. Repeated proofs of the senate's esteem, he T his, Milo, is what you have often acknowledges that he has received, even talked to me, while there were absent; upon the present occafion; and declares, and now that they are present, I repeat it that, wherever fortune may convey him, to you. Your fortitude I cannot sufficithe can never deprive him of those marks ently applaud, but the more noble and of honour, regard, and affection, conferred divine your virtue appears to me, the more upon him by you and the people of Rome, distress I feel in being torn from you, He recollects too, that he was declared con- Nor when you are separated from me, ful by the universal fuffrage of the people, shall I have the poor consolation of being the only thing he valued or desired; and angry with those who give the wound. that, in order to his being invested with For the separation is not made by my enethat office, the voice of the cryer was only mies, but by my friends; not by those wanting; a matter, in his opinion, of very who have at any time treated me injurilittle importance. But now if these arms ously, but by those to whom I have been are to be turned against him, at last, 'tis a always highly obliged. Load me, my fatisfaction to him that it is not owing to lords, with as severe afflictions as you his guilt, but to the suspicion of it. He please, even with that I have just mentionadds likewise, what is unquestionably true, ed, (and none surely can be more severe) that the brave and wise perform great yet shall I ever retain a grateful sense of actions, not so much on account of the your former favours. But if you have loft Tewards attending them, as on account of the remembrance of these, or if I have their own intrinsic excellence; thatthrough fallen under your displeasure, why do not his whole course of life, whatever he has ye avenge yourselves rather upon me, than done has been nobly done, since nothing can Milo? Long and happily enough thall I be more truly great than for a man to rescue have lived, could I but die before fuch a his country from impending dangers : that calamity befall me. Now I have only one they are without doubt happy, whom their consolation to support me, the consciousfellow-citizens have repaid with their dueness of having performed for thee, my reward of honour; but that neither are Milo, every good office of love and friendthose to be esteemed unhappy, whose ser- fhip it was in my power to perform. For vices have exceeded their rewards. Yet, thee, I have dared the resentment of the should we in the pursuits of virtue have any great and powerful : for thee, I have often of its rewards in view, he is convinced that exposed my life to the swords of thy enethe noblest of all is glory; that this alone mies; for chee, I have often prostrated compensates the shortness of life, by the myself as a suppliant: I have embarked immortality of fame; that by this we are my own and my family's estate on the still present, when absent from the world, same bottom with thine; and at this very and survive even after death; and that by hour, if you are threatened with any viothe steps of glory, in short, mortals seem to lence, if your life runs any hazard, I demount to heaven. Of me, says he, the mand a share in your danger. What now people of Rome, all the nations of the remains ? what can I say? what can I do earth, fall talk, and my name shall be to repay the obligations I am under to you, known to the latest pofterity. Nay, at but embrace your fortune, whatever it this very time, when all my enemies com- shall be, as my own ? I will not refuse; I bine to inflame an universal odium against accept my share in it: and, my lords, I me, yet I receive the thanks, congratula- intreat you either to crown the favours you tions, and applauses of every assembly. have conferred upon me by the preserva. Not to mention the Tuscan festivals insti- tion of my friend, or cancel them by his tuted in honour of me, it is now about an destruction. hundred days since the death of Clodius, Milo, I perceive, beholds my tears and yet, I am persuaded, not only the without the least emotion. Incredible fame of this action, but the joy arising firmness of soul! he thinks himself in exile from it, has reached beyond the remotelt there, where virtue has no place; and bounds of the Roman empire. It is there- looks upon death, not as a punishment, fore, continues he, of little importance to but as the period of our lives. Let him


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then retain that nobleness of soul, which be fo, suffer the punishment I have not deis natural to him; but how, my lords, are served. Shall this man then, who was you to determine? Will ye ftill preserve born to save his country, die any where the memory of Milo, and yet drive his but in his country? Shall he not at least person into banishment? And shall there die in the service of his country? Will be found on earth a place more worthy you retain the memorials of his gallant the residence of such virtue, than that which foul, and deny his body a grave in Italy? gave it birth? On you, on you I call, ye Will any person give his voice for banishheroes, wbo have lost so much blood in ing a man from this city, whom every city the service of your country; to you, ye on earth would be proud to receive within centurions, ye soldiers, I appeal in this its walls? Happy the country that fhall hour of danger to the best of men, and receive him! ungrateful this, if it shall bravest of citizens; while you are looking banish him! wretched, if it should lose 00, while you stand here with arms in your him! But I must conclude ; my tears will hands, and guard this tribunal, shall vir- not allow me to proceed, and Milo forbids tue like this be expelled, exterminated, caft tears to be employed in his defence. You, but with dishonours Unhappy, wretched my lords, I beseech and adjure, that, in man that I am ! could you, Milo, by these your decision, you would dare act as you recall me to my country; and by these think. Trust me, your fortitude, your Ahall I not be able to keep you in yours? justice, your fidelity, will more especially What answer shall I make to my children, be approved of by him, who, in his choice who look on you as another father? What of judges, has raised to the bench the to you, Quintus, my absent brother, the braveit, the wisest, and the best of men. kind partner of all my misfortunes ? that I

Whitworth's Cicere. could not preserve Milo by those very in. fruments which he employed in my pre: 811. Part of Cicero's Oration against servation ? in what cause could I not pre

VERRES. ferve him? a cause approved of by all. Who have put it out of my power to pre

The time is come, Fathers, when that ferve him? Those who gaired most by the which has long been wished for, towards death of Clodius. And who folicited for allaying the envy your order bas been Milo? I myself. What crime, what hor- subject to, and removing the imputaTid villainy was I guilty of, when those tions against trials, is (not by human conplots that were conceived for our common trivance but superior direction) effectually destruction were all, by my industry, traced put in our power. All opinion has long out, fully discovered, laid open before you, prevailed, not only here at home, but likeand crushed at once? From that copious wife in foreign countries, both dangerous fource flow. all the calamities which befall to you, and pernicious to the state, viz. me and mine. Why did you desire my that in prosecutions, men of wealth are return from banishment? Was it that I always fafe, however clearly convi&ted. might see those very persons who were There is now to be brought upon his trial inftrumental in my reftoration banished before you, to the confusion, I hope, of the before my face? Make not, I conjure propagators of this slanderous imputation, you, my return a greater affliction to me, one whose life and actions condemn him in than was my banishment. For how can I the opinion of all impartial perfons, but think myself truly restored to my country, who, according to his own reckoning, and I those friends who restored me are to be declared dependence upon his riches, is torn from me?

already acquicted; I mean Caius Verres. By the- immortal gods I wish (pardon If that sentence is passed upon him which me, O my country ! for I fear what I his crimes deserve, your authority, Fathers, thal fay out of a pious regard for. Milo will be venerable and sacred in the eyes may be deemed impiety against thee) that of the public: but if his great riches Mould Clodius not only lived, but were prætor, bias you in his favour, I shall still gain one consular, di&tator, rather than be witness to point, viz. to make it apparent to all the luch a scene as this. Immortal gods! world, that what was wanting in this case how brave a man is that, and how worthy was not a criminal nor a prosecutor, but of being preserved by you! By no means, justice and adequate punishment. he cries: the ruffian met with the punith. To pass over the shameful irregularities ment he deserved; and let me, if it must of his youth, what does his quæstorihip,


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