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I cannot see. For besides the disgrace bestowed on them who, in framing these that must attend us, if any of our interests laws, have greatly injured the community ; are supinely disregarded, I have no small and that the odium should fall on him, apprehensions of the consequence, (the 'The. whose freedom and sincerity are of imbans affected as they are towards us, and portant service to us all.

Until these rethe Phocians exhauited of their treasures) gulati uns be made, you are not to think if Philip be left at full liberty to lead his any man fo great that he may violate theie armies into these territories, when his pre- laws with imponity; or so devoid of reason, sent enterprises are accompli hed. If any as to plunge himself into open and foreseen one among you can be so far immersed in destruction. indolence as to suffer this, he must chuse to And be not ignorant of this, Athenians, be witness of the misery of his own coun- that a decree is of no significance, unless try, rather than to hear of that which attended with resolution and alacrity to strangers sufier ; and to seek asliftants for execute it. For were decrees of themhimself, when it is now in his power to selves suficient to engage you to perform grant affistance to others. That this must your duty, could they even execute the be the consequence, if we do not exert things which they enact ; so many would ourselves on the present occasion, there not have been made to so little, or rather can scarcely remain the least doubt among to no good purpose; nor would the info

lence of Philip have had so long a date. But, as to the necessity of sending suc. For, if decrees can punish, he hith long cours, this, it may be said, we are agreed since felt all their fury. But they have no in ; this is our resolution. But how thall such power: for, though proposing and rewe be enabled ? that is the point to be solving be first in order, yet, in force and explained. Be not surprised, Athenians, efficacy, action is superior. Let this then if my sentiments on this occasion seem re be your prircipal concern; the others you pugnant to the general sense of this assem- cannot want; for you have men among bly. Appoint magistrates for the inspec- you capable of advising, and you are of tion of your laws: not in order to enact all people most acute in apprehending : any new laws; you have already a suffi- now, let your interest direct you, and it cient number ; but to r' peal those, whose will be in your power to be as remarkable ill effects you now experience. I mean the for acting. What season indeed, what oplaws relating to the theatrical funds (thus portunity do you wait for, more favourable openly I declare it) and some about the than the present? Or when will you exert foldiery. By the first, the soldier's pay goes your vigour, if not now, my countrymen? as theatrical expences to the ufeless and Hath not this man seized all those places inactive; the others screen those from that were ours? Should he become master justice, who decline the service of the field, of this country too, muft we not sink into and thus damp the ardour of those disposed the lowest state of infamy? Are not they to serve us.

When you have repealed whom we have promised to assist, whenthese, and rendered it consistent with safe- ever they are engaged in war, now attackty to advise you juftly, then seek for some ed themselves? Is he not our enemy? Is person to propole that decree, which you he not in pofleffion of our dominions ? Is all are sensible the common good requires. he not a barbarian ? Is he not every base But, till this be done, expect not that any thing words can express ? If we are inman will urge your true intereft, when, for sensible to all this, if we almost aid his deurging your true interest, you repay him figns; heavens ! can we then as to whom with destruction. Ye will never find the consequences are owing ? Yes, I know such zeal; especially since the consequence full well, we never will impute them to can be only this; he who offers his opi- ourselves. Just as in the dangers of the nion, and moves for your concurrence, fuf- field: not one of those who fly will accuse fers fome unmerited calamity; but your himself; he will rather blame the general, affairs are not in the least advanced : nay, or his fellow-soldiers : yet every single this additional inconvenience must arise, man that fted was accessary to the defeat. that for the future it will appear more dan- He who blames others might have maingerous to advise you, than even at present. tained his own post; and, had every man And the authors of these laws should also maintained his, success might have ensued. be the authors of their repeal. For it is Thus then, in the present case, is there a not just that the public favour should be man whose counsel seems liable to objec

tion ?

tion? Let the next rise, and not inveigh ricles. But since we have had speakers, againit him, but declare his own opinion. who, before their public appearance, alk Doth another offer some more falutary you, “ What do you desire ? What ihall I counsel? Pursue it, in the name of Heaven. propose? How can I oblige you?” The “ But then it is not pleasing.” This is intereit of our country hath been facrificed not the fault of the speaker, unless in that to momentary pleasure, and popular fahe hath neglected to express his affection vour. Thus have we been distrefied; in prayers and wishes. To pray is easy, thus have these men risen to greatness, and Athenians ; and in one petition may be you funk into disgrace. collected as many instances of good for And here let me intreat your attention tune as we please. To determine justly, to a summary account of the conduct of when affairs are to be considered, is not so your ancestors, and of your own. I shall easy. But what is most useful should ever mention but a few things, and these well be preferred to that which is agreeable, known, (for, if you would pursue the way where both cannot be obtained.

to happiness, you need not look abroad But if there be a man who will leave us for leaders) our own countrymen point the theatrical funds, and propose other sub. it out. These our ancestors, therefore, fidies for the service of the war, are we not whom the orators never courted, never rather to attend to him ? I grant it, Athe- treated with that indulgence with which nians ! if that man can be found. But I you are flattered, held the sovereignty of fhould account it wonderful, if it ever did, Greece with generalconsent, five-and-forty if it ever can happen to any man on earth, years ; deposited above ten thousand tathat while he lavishes his present poffef- ients in our public treasury; kept the king fions on onneceffary occafions, fome future of this country in that subjection, which funds !hould be procured to supply his a barbarian owes to Greeks; erected mo. real necessities. But such proposals find numents of many and illustrious actions, a powerful advocate in the breait of every which they themselves atchieved by land hearer. So that nothing is so easy as to and fea; in a word, are the only persons deceive one's self; for what we wish, that who have transmitted to posterity such glory we readily believe ; but such expectations as is superior to envy. Thus great do they are oftentimes inconsistent with our affairs. appear in the affairs of Greece. Let us On this occasion, therefore, let your af now view them within the city, both in fairs direct you; then will you be enabled their public and private conduct. And, to take the field; then you will have your first, the edifices which their adminiltrafull pay. And men, whose judgments are tions have given us, their decorations of well directed, and whose fouls are great, our temples, and the offerings depofited could not support the infamy which muit by them, are fo numerous and so magni. attend them, if obliged to desert any of ficent, that all the efforts of pofterity canthe operations of a war, from the want of not exceed them. Then, in private life, money. They could not, after snatching fo exemplary was their moderation, their up their arms, and marching against the adherence to the ancient manners so scruCorinthians and Megareans, suffer Philip puloully exact, that if any of you ever dif. to inílave the slates of Greece, through the covered the house of Aristides, or Miltiades, Want of provisions for their forces. I say or any of the illustrious men of those times, not this wantonly, to raise the resentment he must know that it was not distinguished of some among you. No; I am not so by the leait extraordinary splendor. For urhappily perverse as to study to be hated, they did not so conduct the public business when no good purpose can be answered by as to aggrandire themselves; their fole it: but it is my opinion, that every honeit great object was to exalt the state. And Speaker should prefer the interest of the thus, by their faithful attachment to Greece, fate to the favour of his hearers. This by their piety to the gods, and by that (I am assured, and perhaps you need not equality which they maintained among be informed) was the principle which ac- themselves, they were raised (and no wontuated the public conduct of those of our der) to the summit of prosperity. ancellors who spoke in chis assembly (men, Such was the state of Athens at that whom the present set of orators are ever time, when the men I have mentioned were ready to applaud, but whose example they in power. But what is your condition by no means imitate) : such were Aristides, under these indulgent ministers who now Naujas, the former Demofthenes, and Pe- direct us? Is it the same, or nearly the fame?

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Other things I shall pass over, though that they who are engaged in low and gro. I might expatiate on them. Let it only velling pursuits, can entertain great and be observed, that we are now, as you all generous sentiments. No! such as their fee, left without competitors; the Lace- employments are, so muft their dispositions demonians loit; the Thebans engaged at prove.—Aud now I call Heaven to wit. home ; and not one of all the other states ness, that it will not surprise me, if I sufof consequence fufficient to dispute the fo- fer more by mentioning this your condi. vereignty with us. Yet, at a time when tion, than they who have involved you in we inight have enjoyed our own dominions it! Freedom of speech you do not allow in security, and been the umpires in all on all occasions; and that you have now disputes abroad; our territories have been admitted it, excites my wonder. wreited from us ; we have expended above But if you will at length be prevailed one thousand five hundred talents to no on to change your conduct; if you will purpose; the allies which we gained in war take the field, and act worthy of Athehave been lost in time of peace; and to nians; if these redundant fums which you this degree of power have we raised an receive at home be applied to the advanceenemy against ourselves. (For let the ment of your affairs abroad; perhaps, my man stand forth who can shew, whence countrymen ! perhaps some infance of Philip hath derived his greatness, if not consummate good fortune may

attend you, from us.)

and ye may become so happy as to de“ Well! if these affairs have but an un- spise those pittances, which are like the “ favourable aspect, yet those within the morsels that a physician allows his patient. “ city are much more flourishing than For these do not restore his vigour, but ever.” Where are the proofs of this ? just keep him from dying. So, your distriThe walls which have been whitened ? butions cannot serve any valuable purpose, the ways we have repaired ? the supplies but are just suficient to divert your atten. of water, and such trifles ? Turn your eyes tion from all other things, and thus into the men, of whose administrations there crease the indolence of every one among are the fruits. Some of whom, from the you. lowest state of poverty, have arisen sud But I shall be asked, « What then! is denly to afluence ; some from meanness to “ it your opinion that these sums should renown: others have made their own pri pay our army?"-And besides this, that vate houses much more magnificent than the state Thould be regulated in such a the public edifices. Just as the state hath manner, that every cne may have his share fallen, their private fortunes have been of public business, and approve himself an raised.

useful citizen, on what occasion foever his And what cause can we aflign for this ? aid may be required. Is it in his power How is it that our affairs were once so to live in peace? He will live here with tourishing, and now in such disorder ? Be- greater dignity, while these fupplies precause formerly, the poeple dared to take vent him from being tempted by indigence up arms themselves; were themselves

to any thing dishonourable Is he called masters of those in employment, disposers forth by an emergency like the present? themselves of all emoluments : so that every Let him discharge that facred duty which citizen thought himself happy to derive he owes to his country, by applying these honours and authority, and all advantages fums to his fupport in the field. Is there whatever from the people. But now, on

a man among you past the age of service the contrary, favours are all dispensed, Let him, by inspecting and conducting the affairs all transacted by the ministers ; public bufiness, regularly merit his Phare while yon, quite enervated, robbed of your of the distributions which he now receives, riches, your allies, fand in the mean rank without any duty er.joined, or any return of servants and afiiitants : happy if these made to the community. And thus, with men grant you the theatrical appoint- scarcely any alteration, either of abolishments, and send you scraps of the public ing or innovasing, all irregularities are re. meal. And, what is of all moft fordid, moved, and the state completely settled; you hold yourselves obliged to them for by appointing one general regulation, ihat which is your own, while they con which fall entitle our citizens to receive, fne you within these walls, lead you on and at the fame time oblige them to take renuly to their purposes, and soothe and arms, to adminiller jaftice, to act in all tanic you to obedience. Nor is it posible, cases as their time of life, and our affairs


require. But it never hath, nor could it as shewech, that his former remon. have been moved by me, that the rewards strances had not the desired effect. of the diligent and active should be betowed on the useless citizen: or that you I AM persuaded, Athenians ! that you should fit here, supine, languid, and irre. would account it less valuable to poi.e's solute, listening to the exploits of some ge- the grca'elt riches, than to have the true neral's foreign troops (for thus it is at pre.

interest of the state on this emergency sent not that I would reflect on him clearly laid before you. It is your part, who serves you in any instance. But you therefore, readily and chearfully to atyourselves, Athenians, should perform those tend to all who are disposed to offer their services, for which you heap honours upon opinions. For your regards need not be others, and not recede from that illuitri. confined to those, whole counsels are the ous rank of virtue, the price of all the effect of premeditation : it is your good glorious toils of your anceltors, and by fortune to have men among you, who can them bequeathed to you.

at once suggest many points of moment. Thus have I laid before you the chief From opinions, therefore, of every kind, points in which I think you intereited. It you may easily chuse that most conducive is your part to embrace that opinion, which to your intereit

. the welfare of the state in general, and

And now, Athenians, the present junc. that of every single member, recommends ture calls upon us; we almost near its to your acceptance.

Leland. voice, declaring loudly, that you yourselves

must engage in these affairs, if you have $ 4. The third Olynthiac Oration : pro- the least attention to your own security. nounced in the same year.

You entertain I know not what sentiments,

on this occasion : my opinion is, that the INTRODUCTION.

reinforcements fhould be instantly decreed; The preceding oration had no further that they should be raised with all possible

effect upon the Athenians, than to expedition ; that so our succours may be prevail on them to send orders to sent from this city, and all former inconCharidemus, who commanded for veniencies be avoided ; and that you should them at the Hellespont, to make an send ambassadors to notify these things, attempt to relieve Olynthus. He ac- and to secure our interests by their precordingly led some forces into Chal- sence. For as he is a man of consummate cis, which, in conjunction with the policy, complete in the art of turning every forces of Olynthus, ravaged Pallene, incident to his own advantage there is a peninsula of Macedon, towards the utmost reason to fear, that partly by Thrace and Bottia, a country on the concessions, where they may be seasonable; confines of Chalcis, which among partly by menaces, (and his menaces may other towns contained Pella, the ca be believed) and partly by rendering us pital of Macedon.

and our abience suspected; he may tear But these arcempts could not divert from us something of the last importance,

Philip from his resolution of reducing and force it into his own service. Olynthus, which he had now public Those very circumstances, however, ly avowed, The Olynthians, there- which contribute to the power of Philip, fore, found it necessary to have once are happily the most favourable to us. For more recourse to Athens: and to that uncontrolled command, with which he request that they would send troops, governs all transactions public and fecret; composed of citizens, animated with his intire direction of his army, as their a fincere ardor for their interest, their leader, their sovereign, and their treasurer;

own glory, and the common cause. and his diligence, in giving life to every Demosthenes, in the following oration, part of it, by his presence; these things

insists on the importance of saving greatly contribute to carrying on a war Olynthus; alarms his hearers with with expedition and success, but are powe the apprehension of the war, which erful obitacles to that accommodation, actually threatened Attica, and even which he would gladly make with the the capital; urges the necessity of Olynthians. For the Olynthians fee personal service; and returns to his plainly, that they do not now fight for charge of the misapplication of the glory, or for part of their territory, but to public money; but in such a manner, defend their state from dissolution and sla


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very. They know how he rewarded those And, in my opinion, Athenians! if a traitors of Amphipolis, who made him mal. man were to bring the dealings of the ter of that city; and those of Pydna, who gods towards us to a fair account, though opened their gates to him. In a word, free many things might appear not quite agreeftates, I think, mult ever look with suspicion able to our wishes, yet he would acknowon an absolute monarchy: but a neighbour- ledge that we had been highly favoured by ing monarchy mult double their apprehen- them; and with great reason: for that fions.

many places have been lost in the courte of Convinced of what hath now been offer- war, is truly to be charged to our own weak ed, and poslefied with every other just and conduct. But that the dificulties, arilen worthy sentiment; you must be resolved, from hence, have not long affected us; and Athenians ! you must exert your spirit; you that an alliance now preients itself to remust apply to the war, now, if ever; your move them, if we are disposed to make the fortunes, your persons, your whole powers, just use of it; this I cannot but ascribe to are now demanded. There is no excuse, the divine goodness. But the same thing no pretence left, for declining the perform- happens in this case, as in the use of riches. ance of your duty. For that which you If man be careful to save those he hath were all ever urging loudly, that the Olyn- acquired, he readily acknowledges the thians should be engaged in a war with kindness of fortune: but if by his impruPhilip, hath now happened of itself; and dence they be once loll; with them he alto this in a manner molt agreeable to our in- loses the sense of gratitude. So in political tereft. for, if they had entered into this affairs, they who neglect to improve their war at our persuasion, they must have been opportunities, forget the favours which the precarious allies, without Iteadiness or re- gods have, bestowed; for it is the ultimate solution : but, as their private injuries have event which generally determines mens made them enemies to Philip, it is proba- judgment of every thing precedent. And, ble that enmity will be lafting, both on ac therefore, all affairs hereafter ihould engage count of what they fear, and what they have your strictelt care; that, by correcting our already suffered. My countrymen ! let not errors, we may wipe off the inglorious itain so favourable an opportunity escape you: of pait actions. But should we be deaf to do not repeat that error which hath been these men too, and should he be suffered to so often fatal to you. For when, at our fubvert Olynthus; say, what can prevent return from aslifting the Eubæans, Hierax, him from marching his forces into whatand Stratocies, citizens of Amphipolis, ever territory he pleales. mounted this gallery, and prefiid you to Is there not a man among you, Athe. send out your navy, and to take their city nians! who reflects by what lieps, Philip, under your protection; had we discovered from a beginning to inconsiderable, hath that resolution in our own cause, which we mounted to this height of power? First, exerted for the safety of Eubea; then had he took Amphipolis: then he became mafAmphipolis been yours ; and all those diffi ter of Pydna; then Potidæa fell; then Meculies had been avoided, in which you have thone: then came his inroad into Thessaly: been fince involved. Again, when we re after this, having disposed affairs at Pheræ, ceived advice of the fieges of Pydna, Poti at Pegasæ, at Magnesia, intirely as he dæa, Methone, Pegalæ, and other places, pleased, he marched into Thrace. Here, (for I would not detain you with a parti- while engaged in expelling some, and eltacular recital) had we ourselves marched blishing other princes, he fell fick. Again, with a due spirit and alacrity to the relief recovering, he never turned a moment of the first of these cities, we should now from his course to ease or indulgence, but find much more compliance, much more instantly attacked the Olynthians. His exhumility in Philip. But by ilill neglecting peditions against the Illyrians, the Pæo. the pr lent, and imagining our future in- nians, against Arymbas, Í pals all over. terests will not demand our care: we have But I may be asked, why this recital, now? aggrandized our enemy, we have raised That you may know and see your own him to a degree of eminence, greater than error, in ever neglecting some part of your any king of Macedon hath ever yet en affairs, as if beneath your regard : and that joyed. --Now we have another opportu- active spirit with which Philip pursueth n tv. That which the Olynthians, of them- his designs: which ever fires him; and selves, prelent to the state : one no less, which never can permit him to rest satiscunfide: able than any of the former, fied with those things he hath already


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