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fing above ten weeks in the year; which is I know well that the singing of the then also contined to the cocks of a few cock-bird in the spring, is attributed by species; I conceive that this last circum- many to the motive only of pleasing its stance arises from the fupcrior strength of mate during incubation. the muscles of the larynx.
They, however, who suppose this, should I procured a cock nightingale, a cock recollect, that much the greater part of and hen blackbird, a cock and hen rock, a birds do not fing at all, why should their cock linnet, as also a cock and hen chat mate therefore be deprived of this solace finch, which that very eminent anatomitt, and amarement? Mr. Hunter, F. R. S, was so obliging as The bird in a cage, which, perhaps, to dissect for me, and b-gged, that he sings nine or ten months in a year, cannot would particularly attend to the Itate of do fo from this inducement; and, on the the organs in the different birds, which contrary, it arises chiefly from contending might be suppoled to contribute to fing- with another bird, or indeed against almost
any sort of continued noise. Mr. Hunter found the muscles of the Superiority in sorg gives to birds a mot larynx to be stronger in the nightingale amazing ascendancy over each other; as is than in any other bird of the same lize; well known to the bird-catchers by the and in all those instances (where he dif. fascinating power of their call-birds, which sected both cock and hen) that the same they contrive should moult prematurely for muscles were stronger in the cock.
this purpose. I sent the cock and hen rook, in order But, to thew decisively that the singing to see whether there would be the same dif- of a bird in the spring does not arise from ference in the cock and hen of a species any attention to its mate, a very expewhich did not fing at all. Mr. Hunter, rienced catcher of nightingales hath inhowever, told me, that he had not attend- formed me, that some of these birds have ed so much to their comparative organs of jerked the instant they were caught. He voice, as in the other kinds; but that, to hath also brought to me a nightingale, the best of his recollection, there was no which had been but a few hours in a cage, difference at all.
and which burst forth in a roar of song. Strength, however, in these muscles, At the same time this bird is so sulky on seems not to be the only requisite; the its first confisement, that he muft be crambirds must have also great plenty of food, med for seven or eight days, as he will which seems to be proved lufficiently by otherwise not feed himself; it is also nebirds in a cage singing the greatest part of cessary to tye his wings, to prevent bis the year *, when the wild ones do not (as killing himself against the top or sides of I observed before) continue in song above the cage. ten weeks.
I believe there is no instance of any The food of finging birds confills of bird's singing which exceeds our blackplants, insects, or feed., and of the two first bird in fize: and possibly this may arise of these there is infinitely the greatest pro- from the difficulty of its concealing itself, fusion in the spring.
if it called the attention of its enemies, As for seeds, which are to be met with not only by bulk, but by the proportionable only in the autumn, I think they cannot loudness of its notes well find any great quantities of them in a I should rather conceive, it is for the country so cultivated as England is; for same reason that no hen-bird fings, because the seeds in meadows are destroyed by this talent would be still more dangerous mowing; in pastures, by the bite of the during incubation;, which may possibly cattle; and in arable, by the plough, when also account for the inferiority in point of most of them are buried too deep for the plumage.
Barringter. bird to reach them t. • Fich also which are supplied with a constant
FISH E S, fuccefsion of palatable food, continue in realon
$22. The Exl. throughout the greatest part of the year; trouts, therefore, when confined in a stew and fed with
The eel is a very singular fish in several minnows, are almost at all seasons of a good Aavour, things that relate to its natural history, and are red when dressed.
+ The plough indeed may turn up some few feeds, For the same reason, most large birds are wilder which may still be in an eatable state.
than the smaller ones.
and in some respects borders on the nature No filh lives so long out of water as the of the reptile tribe.
eel: it is extremely tenacious of life, as its It is known to quit its element, and parts will move a considerable time after during night to wander along the mea. they are flayed and cut into pieces. dows, not only for change of habitation, The eel is placed by Linnæus in the but also for the sake of prey, feeding on genus of muræna, his first of the apodal the snails it finds in its passage.
fish, or such which want the ventral fins. During winter it beds itself deep in the The eyes are placed not remote from mud, and continues in a state of rest like the end of the nole: the irides are tinged the serpen: kind. It is very impatient of with red : the under jaw is longer than the cold, and will eagerly take shelter in a upper: the teeth are small, sharp, and nu. whisp of straw Aung into a pond in severe merous: beneath each eye is a minute weather, which has sometimes been prac- orifice : at the end of the nose two others, tised as a method of taking them. Ale small and tubular. bertus goes so far as to say, that he has The fish is furnished with a pair of pecknown eels to shelter in a hay-rick, yet toral fins, rounded at their ends. Another all perished through excess of cold
narrow fin on the back, uniting with that It has been observed, that in the river of the tail: and the anal fin joins it in Nyne there is a variety of small eel, with the same manner beneath. a lesser head and narrower mouth than the Behind the pectoral fins is the orifice to common kind; that it is found in clusters the gills, which are concealed in the skin. in the bottom of the river, and is called Eels vary much in their colours, from a the bed-eel; these are sometimes roused footy hue to a light olive green ; and those up by violent foods, and are never found which are called silver eels, have their at that time with meat in their stomachs. bellies white, and a remarkable clearners This bears such an analogy with the cluf. throughout. tering of blindworms in their quiescent Belides these, there is another variety ftate, that we cannot but consider it as a of this fish, known in the Thames by the further proof of a partial agreement in the name of grigs, and about Oxford by that nature of the two genera.
of grigs or gluts. These are scarce ever The ancients adopted a most wild opi- seen near Oxford in the winter, but appear nion about the generation of these filh, in spring, and bite readily at the hook, which believing them to be either created from common eels in that neighbourhood will the mud, or that the scrapings of their not. They have a larger head, a bluyter bodies which they left on the stones were nose, thicker skin, and less fat than the animated and became young eels. Some common fort; neither are they so much moderns gave into these opinions, and into eiteemed, nor do they often exceed three others that were equally extravagant. They or four pounds in weight. could not account for the appearance of Common eels grow to a large size, these fiin in ponds that never were stocked sometimes so great as to weigh fifteen or with them, and that were even so remote twenty pounds, but that is extremely rare, as to make their being met with in such Astointtances brought by Dale and others, places a phænomenon that they could not of these fith increafing to a superior magfolve. But there is much reason to be- nitude, we have much reason to suspect lieve, that many-waters are supplied with them to have been congers, since the enorthese fish by the aquatic fowl of prey, in mous fish they descsibe have all been taken the same manner as vegetation is spread at the mouths of the Thames or Medby many of the land birds, either by be. way. ing dropped as they carry them to feed The eel is the moft universal of fish, yet their young, or by paffing quick through is scarce ever found in the Danube, though their bodies, as is the case with herons; it is very common in the lakes and rivers and such may be the occasion of the ap- of Upper Austria. pearance of these fish in places where they The Romans held this fith very cheap, were never seen before. As to their im- probably from its likeness to a snake. mediate generation, it has been sufficiently proved to be effected in the ordinary course Vos anguilla manet longæ cogata colubra, of nature, and that they are viviparous.
Vernula riparum pinguis torrente cloaca.
Juvenal, Sat. V They are extremely voracious, and very destructive to the fry of fish,
Por you is kept a fink-fed laake-like eel.
On the contrary, the luxurious Sybarites ing downwards : the belly is white, tinged were so fond of thele fish, as to exempt with red : the ventral fins of a rich scar. from every kind of tribute the persons who let; the anal fins and tail of the same cofold them.
lour, but rather paler.
In a lake called Llyn Rajthlyn, in Me$ 23. The PERCH.
rionethshire, is a very singular variety of The perch of Aristotle and Ausonius is perch: the back is quite hunched, and the the same with that of the moderns. That lower part of the back-bone, next the tail, mentioned by Oppian, Pliny, and Athe- ftrangely distorted : in colour, and in other næus, is a sea-fish, probably of the Labrus respects, it resembles the common kind, or Sparus kind, being enumerated by them which are as numerous in the lake as these among some congenerous species. Our deformed fith. They are not peculiar to perch was much eileemed by the Romans: this water; for Linnæus takes notice of a
similar variety found at Fahlun, in his own Nec te delicias mensaru 'n PERCA, Glebo Amnigenos inter pisces dignande marinis.
country. I have also heard that it is to be AUSONIUS. met with in the Thames near Marlow,
It is not less admired at present as a . $ 24. The TROUT. firm and delicate fish; and the Dutch are
It is a matter of surprise that this common particularly fond of it when made into a filh has escaped the notice of all the ap. dish called water souchy.
cients, except Ausonius : it is also fingular, It is a gregarious fish, and loves deep
that so delicate a species should be nego holes and gentle Itreams. It is a moft von lected at a time when the folly of the ta. racious fish, and eager biter : if the angler ble was at its height: and Cliat the epi. meets with a fhoal of them, he is sure of
cures should overlook a fish that is found taking every one.
in such quantities in the lakes of their It is a common notion that the pike will
neighbourhood, when they ransacked the not attack this fish, being fearful of the
e universe for dainties. The milts of ms. spiny fins which the perch erects on the
ræna were brought from one place; the approach of the former. This may be
e livers of scari from another *; and oy fters true in respect to large filh; but it is well
even from so remote a spot as our Sandknown the small ones are the moft tempt.
wich f: but there was, and is a fashion in ing bait that can be laid for the pike.
the article of good living. The Romans The perch is a filh very tenacious of seem to have despised the trout, the piper, life: we have known them carried near
near and the doree; and we believe Mr. Quin fixty miles in dry straw, and yet survive hi
survive himself would have resigned the rich paps the journey.
of a pregnant fow I, the heels of camels $, These fith seldom grow to a large size:
and the tongues of flamingos ll, though we once heard of one that was taken in
in dresled by Heliogabalus's cooks, for a good the Serpentine river, Hyde Park, that ?
mat jowl of salmon with lobfter-sauce. weighed nine pounds; but that is very When Ausonius speaks of this filh, he uncommon.
makes no eulogy on its goodness, but ceThe body is deep: the scales very rough:
na lebrates it only for its beauty. the back much arched ; side-line near the back.
Purpurcisque Salar stellatus tergore gutis. The irides golden: the teeth small, dispored on the jaws and on the roof of the With purple spots the Salar's back is itain'd. inouth : the edges of the covers of the
These marks point out the species he gills ferrated : on the lower end of the
intended : what he meant by his faris is largest is a sharp spine.
not so easy to determine: whether any The first dorsal fin consists of fourteen
fpecies of trout, of a size between the falar Prong spiny rays; the second of sixteen
and the salmon; or whether the salmon itfost ones: the pectoral fins are transparent,
self, at a certain age, is not very evident, and consist of fourteen rays; the ventral of fix; the anal of eleven. The tail is a little forked.
. * Suetonius, vita Vite!lii. The colours are beautiful : the back and + Juvenal. Sat IV. 141.
I Martial. Lib. XIII. Epig. 44. part of the fides being of a deep green,
Ś Lampriere, Vit. Heliogab. marked with five broad black bars Foini
Martial, Lib. XI. Epig. 71.
Teque ther ;
Teqde inter geminos species, neutrumque et These stomachs are fometiines served up utrumque,
to table, under the former appellation. It Qui nec dum SALMO, nec SALAR ambiguusque Amborum medio Fario intercepte sub ævo.
does not appear to me, that the extraordi
nary strength of stomach in the Irish filh, SALMON or SALAR, I'll pronounce thee nei. should give any suspicion that it is a dis
tinct fpecies : the nature of the waters A doubtful kind, that may be none, or either. FAR10, when stopt in middle growth.
might increase the thickness; or the supe
rior quantity of shell-fith, which may more In fact, the colours of the trout, and its frequently call for the use of its comminutspots, vary greatly in different waters, and ing powers than those of our trouts, miglo in different seasons : yet each may be re- occasion this difference, I had opportuduced to one species. In Llyndivi, a lake nity of comparing the stomach of a great in South Wales, are trouts called coch y Gillarco trout, with a large one from the dail, marked with red and black spots as Uxbridge river. The last, if I recollect, big as fixpences; others unspotted, and of was smaller, and out of season; and its sto. a reddith hue, that sometimes weigh near mach (notwithstanding it was very chick) ten pounds, but are bad tasted.
was much inferior in strength to that of In Lough Neagh, in Ireland, are trouts the former : but on the whole, there was called there buddagbs, which I was told not the least specific difference between the sometimes weighed thirty pounds; but it two subjects was not my fortune to see any during my Trouts are most voracious fish, and ftay in the neighbourhood of that valt wa. afford excellent diversion to the angler: ter,
the paffion for the sport of angling is Trouts (probably of the same species) so great in the neighbourhood of Lonare also taken in Hulse-water, a lake in don, that the liberty of fithing in some of Cumberland, of a much superior size to the streams in the adjacent counties, is purthose of Lough Neagh. These are sup- chased at the rate of ten pounds per anposed to be the same with the trout of the num, Jake of Geneva, a fish I have eaten more These fish shift their quarters to spawn, than once, and think but a very indifferent and, like salmon, make up towards the one.
heads of rivers to deposit their roes. The In the river Eynion, not far from Ma- under jaw of the trout is subject, at certain chyntleth, in Merionethshire, and in one times, to the same curvature as that of the of the Snowdon lakes, are found a variety salmon, of trout, which are naturally deformed, A trout taken in Llynallet, in Denbighhaving a strange crookedness near the tail, shire, which is famous for an excellent kind, resembling that of the perch before de- measured seventeen inches, its depth three scribed. We dwell the less on these mon- and three quarters, its weight one pound ftrous productions, as our friend, the Hon. ten ounces: the head thick ; the nose rather Daines Barrington, has already given an Tharp; the upper jaw a little longer than account of them in an ingenious disserta- the lower; both jaws, as well as the head, tion on some of the Cambrian fish, pub- were of a pale brown, blotched with black: lished in the Philosophical Transactions of the teeth sharp and strong: disposed in the the year 1767.
jaws, roof of the mouth and tongue, as is The stomachs of the common trouts are the case with the whole genus, except the uncommonly thick and muscular. They gwyniad, which is toothless, and the grayfeed on the shell-fish of lakes and rivers, ling, which has none on its tongue. as well as on small fish. They likewise take The back was dusky; the tides tinged into their stomachs gravel, or small ftones, with a purplish bloom, marked with deep to affift in comminuting the teftaceous purple spots, mixed with black, above and parts of their food. The trouts of certain below the side line which was strait: the lakes in Ireland, such as those of the pro- belly white. vince of Galway, and some others, are re. The dorsal fin was spotted ; the spu. markable for the great thickness of their rious fin brown, tipped with red; the pecftomachs, which, from some slight resem- toral, ventral, and anal fins, of a pale blance to the organs of digestion in birds, brown; the edges of the anal fin white : the have been called gizzards: the Irish name tail very little forked when extended. the species that has them, Gillaroo trouts.
4 A 3
§ 25. The Pike or Jack the surface (as is frequently the case) the The pike is common in most of the lakes lesler fish are often observed to swim around. of Europe, but the largest are those taken it in vart numbers, and in great anxiety. in England, which, according to Schäffer, Pike are often haltered in a noose, and are sometimes eight feet long. They are taken while they lie thus alleep, as they are taken there in great abundance, dried, and often found in the ditches near the Thames, exposed for sale. The largest fish of this in the month of May. kind which we ever heard of in England, In the shallow water of the Lincolnshire weighed thirty-five pounds.
fens they are frequently taken in a manner According to the common saying, these peculiar, we believe, to that country, and the filh were introduced into England in the isle of Ceylon. The fishermen make use reign of Henry VIII. in 1537. They were of what is called a crown-net, which is no so rare, that a pike was sold for double the more than a hemispherical basket, open at price of a house-lamb in February, and a top and bottom. He stands at the end of pickerel for more than a fat capon. one of the little fenboats, and frequently
All writers who treat of this species bring puts his basket down to the bottom of the instances of its vast voraciousness. We have water, then poking a stick into it, discovers known one that was choaked by attempt.' whether he has any booty by the striking of ing. to swallow one of its own species that the filh: and vast numbers of pike are taken proved too large a morsel. Yet its jaws in this manner. are very loosely connected ; and have on The longevity of this fish is very remark. each fide an additional bone like the jawable, if we may credit the accounts given of a viper, which renders them capable of of it. Rzazcynski tells us of one that was greater diftention when it swallows its prey. ninety years old; but Gesner relates that It does not confine itself to fecd on fish and in the year 1497, a pike was taken near frogs; it will devour the water rat, and draw Haiibrun, in Suabia, with a brazen ring down the young ducks as they are swim- affixed to it, on which were these words in ming about. In a manuscript note which Greek characters : I am the fit which cvas we found, p. 244, of our copy of Plott's first of all put into this lake by ihe hands of tbe History of Staffordshire, is the following governor of the universe, Frederick, the second, extraordinary fact : « At Lord Gower's the 5th of October, 1230: so that the for. (i canal at Trentham, a pike seized the mer must have been an infant to this Me.
head of a swan as she was feeding under thusalem of a filh. “ water, and gorged so much of it as kil- Pikes spawn in March or April, accord.
them both. The servants perceiving ing to the coldness or warmth of the wea. “ the swan with its head under water for ther. When they are in high season their 5c a longer time than usual, took the boat, colours are very fine, being green, sported
and found both swan and pike dead ." with bright yellow; and the gills are of a
But there are instances of its fierceness most vivid and full red, When out of season, still more surprising, and which indeed bor. the green changes to grey, and the yellow der a little on the marvellous. Gesner + spots turn pale. relates, that a famished pike in the Rhone . The head is very flat; the upper jaw seized on the lips of a mule that was brought broad, and is shorter than the lower ; the to water, and that the beast drew the fith under jaw turns up a little at the end, and out before it could disengage itself. That is marked with minute punctures. people have been bit by these voracious The teeth are very sharp, disposed only creatures while they were washing their in the front of the upper jaw, but in both legs, and that they will even contend with sides of the lower, in the roof of the mouth, the otter for its prey, and endeavour to and often the tongue, The flit of the mouth, force it out of its mouth.
or the gape, is very wide; the eyes small. Small filh sew the fame uneasiness and The dorsal fin is placed very low on the detestation at the presence of this tyrant, as back, and consists of twenty-one rays; the the little birds do at the fight of the hawk pectoral of fifteen ; the ventral of eleven; or owl. When the pike lies dormant near the anal of eighteen.
The tail is bifurcated. • This note we afterwards discovered was wrote
$26. The Carp. by Mr. Plott, of Oxford, who affured me he in. tented it on good authority,
This is one of the naturalized filh of our ☆ Geiner pisç. 503.
country, having been introduced here by