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God has lock'd up y° mystic Page
And curtain'd darkness round ye stage!
Wise to render search perplext,
Has drawn 'twixt ys & y next
A dark impenetrable screen
All behind wch is yet unseen!

We talk of 8, we talk of Hell;
But wt yy. mean no tongue can tell!
Heaven is y realm where angels are,
And Hell ye chaos of despair.

But wt yese awful truths imply,
None of us know before we die !
Whether we will or no, we must
Take yR succeeding on trust.

This hour perhaps of Fra is well,
Death-struck ye next he cries, Farewell!
I die!-& yet for ought we see,
Ceases at once to breathe & be.

Thu' launch'd fm life's ambiguous shore,
Ingulph'd in Death appears no more,
Then undirected to repair

To distant we know not where.

Swift flies y 2, perhaps 'tis gone,
A thousand leagues beyond y° sun;
Or 2ce 10 thousand more 3ce told,
Ere y forsaken clay is cold!

And yet who knows if Frnds we lov'd
Tho' dead may be so far remov'd;
Only y vail of flesh between,
Perhaps yy. watch us though unseen.

Whilst we, yir loss lamenting, say,
They're out of hearing far away;
Guardians to us perhaps they're near,
Conceal'd in vehicles of air.

And yet no notices yy. give,
Nor tell us where, nor how yy. live;
Tho' conscious whilst with us below,
How much yms desired to know.

As if bound up by solemn Fate
To keep y secret of yir state,
To tell yr joys or pains to none,
That man might live by Faith alone.

Well, let my sovereign, if he please,
Lock up his marvellous decrees;
Why shd I wish him to reveal
Wt he thinks proper to conceal ?

It is enough yt I believe
Heaven's bright y" I can conceive :
And he yt makes it all his care
To serve God here shall see him there!
But oh! w' shall I survey
The moment y' I leave y' clay?
How sudden y surprise, how new!
Let it, my God, be happy too." *

J. G. B.

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being truncated at each end, instead of extending entirely across the shield. The first Dukes of Cleveland, Grafton, and St. Albans, natural sons of Charles II., bore his arms with a baton sinister over all, to mark their illegitimacy. In those days, such a mark of connexion with royalty was considered an honourable distinction in a coat of arms, and some heraldic authorities write with scorn of the notion that any marks of disgrace were ever inserted in heraldic bearings. The term "bar sinister," in English heraldry, would not only be a misnomer, but would involve in it an impossibility; for as a bar is a horizontal figure, extending entirely across the shield, it could not, as a whole, be either dexter or sinister. I think, however, that I can explain how the term "bar sinister" has crept into our language. In a curious work on heraldry now before me, published in 1724, and which I fancy is now somewhat rare, viz., Johnston's Notitia Anglicana (see vol. ii. p. 54-6), it is stated that the French heralds have no "bend sinister" in their heraldry, but call it a "bar." So it would seem that "bar sinister" is a Gallicism. Johnston ridicules the idea of any heraldic bearings being significant of disgrace. At the same time, I imagine that all heralds admit that there are degrees of honour in the position of figures in the field, and that the sinister side of a shield is less honourable than the dexter. M. H. R.

Surely a "baton sinister" is also used as a mark of illegitimacy. It may be seen at this moment placed on the shield of the Royal arms of England borne by the Fitz-Roys, Dukes of Grafton. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.

WELSH TESTAMENT (5th S. i. 9, 173, 256, 393.) -I opened this correspondence in order to call attention to important variances between the English and Welsh versions, and with a view to ascertain whether the New Testament Company, in collating different versions, are taking any notice of the Welsh version. I only quoted the case of the miracle at Cana as one instance out of many, in which it appears to me that the Welsh is more clear and forcible than the English. Possessing but a superficial knowledge of Welsh, I may have been mistaken, as pointed out by MR. UNNONE and SIGMA, in translating the Welsh "mo'r" into the English more, and I don't dispute their correctness. At the same time I have this excuse, that one of the dictionary meanings of the Welsh " more of. However, this error does not affect my main contention, that the Welsh version, stating clearly that the wine had run short, is more expressive than the English, in which it is at least doubtful whether there had been any wine originally provided. SIGMA admits that the Welsh is less vague. My object now is to point out two in

mo

" is

and having just opened The Royal Red Book for
1868, I find the name there also.
W. J. BERNHARD SMITH.

Temple.

stances, in the next chapter (S. John iii.), where the English and Welsh are strikingly different; the difference being, in my opinion, in favour of the latter. Verse 16, "That whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life." The ARMS OF MILGATE RADCLIFFE FAMILY (5th words "but have everlasting life" are thus rendered S. i. 227, 374.)-After much careful study and inin the Welsh: "ond caffael o hono fywyd tragy-vestigation of this point, I have come to the conwyddol," the meaning of the latter being "but clusion that there can be but little doubt of this obtain from him eternal life." The difference is ancient family of Radcliffe being at the present most important. Again, in verse 33 (English), time directly represented in the male line by Mr. "that God is true”; (Welsh), “mai geirwir yw Radcliffe of Foxdenton Hall, in the county of LanDuw" (that God is truth-speaking or truthful, caster. Why his coat of arms is differenced by a literally true in word). The difference here is of label, I am unable to say, representing as he does special importance, as speech is referred to in the the main stem. There are three families at the immediate context: indeed in the very next verse occurs the expression (English) "speaketh the whose arms are underneath described :present day bearing that time-honoured name, words of God." I observe that in the Luther Bible the word "wahrhaftig" (truthful) is used for the English true. It appears to me that the English word is more general-not to say vague -than either the German or Welsh, and not nearly so expressive in relation to the context as

the latter.

M. H. R.

"REGINALD TREVOR: A TALE," &c., BY EDWARD TREVOR ANWYL (4th S. viii. 327, 462; 5th S. i. 86, 413.)-OLPHAR HAMST has overlooked that part of the note of CYMRO AM BYTH in which the writer remarks that "Anwyl" is a Welsh surname as well as an adjective. The Cambrian Quarterly Magazine for April, 1829, in a review of "Reginald Trevor," speaks of the author as "Mr. Anwyl," and the author, in that name, dedicates the work to Sir Watkin Williams Wynn. Your anagrammatic correspondent does not think the word Anwyl euphonious; he has never heard a Welsh mother, in caressing her baby, call it "Anwyl bach," or he would perhaps alter his opinion. He is puzzled with the signature "Cymro am Byth," and fears there may be some hidden meaning in it. If he will refer to the magazines of the day, he will find "Cymry am Byth" as a motto, under the trade-mark (a goat) of the Ruthin Soda Water Works; and the meaning of the one is "Welshman," and of the other "Welshmen for ever!" Anwyl, as a surname, is not uncommon in North Wales: the Anwyls of Bala are the descendants of Evan Lloyd, a friend of Churchill, Wilkes, and Garrick, and who wrote The Methodist, The Powers of the Pen, and other poems.

A. R.

Croeswylan, Oswestry. "Anwyl Bach"-little dear; "Deux Anwyl" =good God! a common expletive, "deux" being corrupted Welsh.

I am astonished that any doubt should exist as to this being a proper name. I have often paid taxes to a Mr. Anwyl, who formerly kept a grocer's shop in Belgravia, and was a tax-gatherer as well;

1. Radcliffe of Foxdenton arms: Argent, two bends engrailed, sable, over all a label of three points, gules; crest, a bull's head erased, sable, ducally gorged and chained, azure; motto, "Caen, Cressi, Calais." In addition to Foxdenton, this family has extensive estates in the county of Dorset.

2. Radcliffe of Rudding Park, Yorkshire, now represented by Sir Percival Radcliffe, Bart. Arms, argent, a bend engrailed, sable, charged with a crescent of the field for difference; crest, as that of Foxdenton; motto, "Virtus propter se." The name of the first baronet was originally Joseph Pickford, Esq., who, in consequence of the eminent services he rendered to Government in suppressing the Luddite disturbances, was so created, with the singular honour of a gratuitous patent. He died

in 1819.

3. Delmé Radcliffe, of Hitchin Priory, in the county of Hertford. Arms, as Radcliffe of Foxdenton, according to Clutterbuck's History of Hertfordshire, iii., 22 and 23. But Berry's Encyclopædia Heraldica gives as arms, "argent, a cross crosslet, gules, between two bendlets engrailed, sable; a label of three points, on a canton argent, a cross crosslet, or." The original patronymic of this family was Delmé, and the name Radcliffe was added in 1802, on coming into possession of property in right of his wife.

But the arms of Ratcliffe, or Radcliffe, Earl of Sussex in the sixteenth century, were: Argent, a fess, engrailed, sable. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.

Miscellaneous.

NOTES ON BOOKS, &c. English School Classics. Edited by Francis Storr, B.A., Assistant Master at Marlborough College, &c. Cowper's Task. By Francis Storr, B.A. Scott's Lay of the Last Minstrel. By J. Surtees Phillpotts, M.A., Assistant Master in Rugby School, &c. (Rivingtons.) MR. STORR may be congratulated on the manner in which he is providing for schools a good training in English. The English School Classics (they will embrace, besides those enumerated above, the Seasons, Bacon's Essays, Wordsworth's Excursion, &c.) ought to find its way into Eton and

Harrow, and all our great public schools, to say nothing of the colleges that are springing up everywhere for the education of girls. We cannot but think that, were that mental training adopted which the study of our greatest writers would assuredly provide, far greater and more useful results must be attained than by driving boys, whether they like it or not, through a course of elegant accomplishments. On all hands it is affirmed now that too much is being attempted; that, after all, the thorough knowledge of a few subjects is of more avail in after-life than that smattering intelligence which is only too often productive of an eloquence that is offensive by its ignorance. Thoroughness then is evidently Mr. Storr's aim, for he suggests that each volume contains enough for one term's work. The notes are sure, by their freedom from dryness, to create an interest and rivet attention.

-a comparative knowledge of dialects has to be gained.
The author of Selections from Xenophon, Selections from
Arrian, Notes on the "Lay of the Last Minstrel," King
and Commonwealth, has, in Stories from Herodotus, pre-
sented public schools with a book which will encourage
both teachers and scholars in an arduous task-beginning
Herodotus.

The Herald and Genealogist. Edited by John Gough
Nichols, F.S.A. Parts XLVII., XLVIII. (Nichols &
Sons.)
We intend no disrespect to other labourers in that field
of antiquarian literature which the late Mr. John Gough
Nichols had made so peculiarly his own when we express
our conviction that it has been wisely determined that
the Herald and Genealogist, of which he was the origi-
nator, should be brought to a close now that he by whom it
had been so successfully conducted has gone to his rest.
Not less judicious and becoming is it, that the last number
of that journal should contain a memoir of its accom-
plished editor, written by a loving hand, in which are to
numerous literary, historical, and genealogical works for
which the world are indebted to the varied knowledge
and untiring industry of Mr. Nichols, but also pleasant
allusions to the friends and scholars with whom he was
often closely associated, and many glimpses of that amiable
character which distinguished him in all his domestic
relations. Mr. Nichols's love of truth, and honest dislike
of all false pretences, is aptly characterized by two or
three of the shorter notices which conclude the present
work, the last which heraldic students are destined to
receive from the fearless and independent pen of John
Gough Nichols.

The Manuale Clericorum: a Guide for the Reverent and Decent Celebration of Divine Service, the Holy Sacraments, and other Offices of the Church. Edited by the Rev. F. G. Lee, D.C.L., F.S.A. (Hogg & Co.) THIS manual, abridged from the Directorium Angli-be found not only a full and detailed account of the canum, will prove of great service to those clergy, lay readers, and choirmasters who find the larger work out of their reach. Dr. Lee is so well known for his great knowledge of those ancient ritual arrangements which are gradually being revived, that it would almost seem presumption to criticize anything that he may say on the subject; we will, therefore, rest contented with congratulating our learned correspondent, not only on the method and style of his last work, but also on the very exhaustive manner in which each service, as to its ritual arrangements, is treated. Recourse must be had to the Directorium when authorities are needed, for these in the Manuale were omitted for the very sufficient reason that the editor might be enabled to issue it in a convenient portable form, and at a reasonable price. We must not omit to add that the Manuale is furnished with an admirable glossary; and it is not too much to say that, without the help thus afforded, it would have been, to a great extent, unintelligible to those not pretending to a very deep knowledge of the subject.

Materials for the History of the Athenian Democracy from
Solon to Pericles. Collected from Ancient Authors.
By T. Case, M.A., Late Fellow of Brasenose College,
Oxford. (Parker & Co.)

CLASSICAL authors may find in this pamphlet material
whereon to found many chapters. The authorities cited
are in Greek, and, though limited to a certain period, are
very comprehensive. The laws of Solon, and the changes
made by Clisthenes and Pericles, form the main basis of
several important quotations. Voting by lot is placed
before 490 B.C., and is shown to have been generally, but
not necessarily, democratic. "Literæ Humaniores" and
"Tripos" men may peruse Mr. Case's collection with
advantage.

Stories from Herodotus, in Attic Greek: 1. Story of
Rhampsinitus; 2. The Battle of Marathon. Adapted
by J. Surtees Phillpotts, M.A., Assistant-Master in
Rugby School, and formerly Fellow of New College,
Oxford. (Rivingtons.)

AFTER second thoughts few critics will find fault when
they see the revered Herodotus turned into Attic Greek.
Mr. Phillpotts's aim being "pedagogic and not literary,"
he has struck his target. To learn Herodotus at school
means genuine hard work, some loss of temper, and not
very rapid progress. Yet not to be taught it is to be
deprived of much classical ground-work. How is it to be
mastered? Let these and similar stories be read in the
Attic, and then in the original text. It is not enough to
read Xenophon. Herodotus has a style sui generis.
Something more than "Herodotus made easy" is wanted

BOOKS AND ODD

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Notices to Correspondents.

OUR CORRESPONDENTS will, we trust, excuse our suggesting to them, both for their sakes as well as our own— That they should write clearly and distinctly—and on one side of the paper only-more especially proper names and words and phrases of which an explanation may be required. We cannot undertake to puzzle out what a Correspondent does not think worth the trouble of writing plainly.

H. E. S. K.-" At sixes and sevens" is a phrase in The and Middleton. It became a popular phrase to denote Widow, Act i. sc. 2 (1652), a piece by Jonson, Fletcher, confusion. It was, however, of earlier date, but its derivation has never been satisfactorily accounted for.

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CIVITAS LONDINUM,

RALPH AGAS.

A SURVEY OF THE CITIES OF LONDON AND WESTMINSTER, THE
BOROUGH OF SOUTHWARK AND PARTS ADJACENT.

With it is published a Biographical Account of RALPH AGAS, and a Critical
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Opinions of the Press.

"OLD LONDON.-Messrs. Adams & Francis have just pub-
lished a very curious and interesting survey of the Cities of
London and Westminster, the Borough of Southwark and
parts adjacent, which is attributed to Ralph Agas, and of which
only two original copies are now known to exist. It is a survey
of London, &c., in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and has, by
permission of the Corporation, been reproduced in fac-simile,
by Edward J. Francis, from the copy preserved in the Library
at Guildhall."-From the Times.

"The descriptive letter-press by Mr. Overall indicates much
research and labour, and is a fitting accompaniment to the
splendid publishing trophy here raised by Messrs. Adams &
Francis to their own fame and the great delight both of the
historian and the general reader."-From the Morning Post.

"By the process through which the fac-simile before us has
been produced, the Map is placed within the reach of every
purchaser. A year's reading about the metropolis of the Tudor
days would not convey anything like so good an idea of the
capital, as an hour spent over this faithful presentment of the
London not only of Elizabeth but of Shakspeare. . . . . It is a
perfect delight to find ourselves wandering about the streets of
this old London, and tarrying by the river or on Bankside.
The mere spectator is in a short time familiar with the scene.
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clearly than the street life; and we have before us the fields
and meadows through which passes the 'Rode to Redynge,' or
to St. Albans.""-From the Athenæum.

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"This is a publication for antiquaries to linger over.
little uncertainty surrounds the date and even the authorship
of this famous work, the earliest extant survey of our metro-
polis, if we except the pictorial view of London and Southwark
by Van Wyngrede, and the small maps of Braun and Norden.
But two genuine copies are known to exist, the one in the
Guildhall, the other in the Pepysian Collection at Cambridge.
It was re-engraved apparently, though with some omissions and
alterations, by a Dutch artist, in the reign of King William,
and from these later plates, Vertue, the well-known engraver
of the middle part of the last century, tinkered up' his fabri-
cated reproduction of an original map of 1560, of which all
subsequent editions of Agas, till the present, have been simply
copies. If the original was, indeed, the work of the surveyor of
Stoke-by-Nayland, it could not, as we may gather from the
doggrel rhymes annexed to his Map of Oxford in the Bodleian,
have been begun before 1588, and was, probably, completed
about 1591. Mr. Overall, however, seems half inclined to con-
nect the Guildhall map with the Carde of London,' the receipt
of which from Gyles Godhead appears in the registers of the
Stationers' Company for 1562-3, when Agas was only twenty-
one. On all these points, as well as on the specific discrepancies
between the two genuine copies and the fabrication of Vertue,
the reader will find ample information in the editor's intro-
ductory critique. To less scrupulous antiquaries, however, the
map itself, though rather on too large a scale for convenient
handling, will be the chief attraction. An hour, indeed, can
hardly be more amusingly spent than in comparing its faithful
reproduction of the streets and buildings of sixteenth-century
London with the same space in the modern map of our Post-
Office Directory."-The Graphic.

London: ADAMS & FRANCIS, 59, Fleet Street, E.C.

Printed by EDWARD J. FRANCIS, at No. 4, Took's Court, Chancery Lane, EC.; and Published by
JOHN FRANCIS, at No. 20, Wellington Street, Strand, W.C.-Saturday, July 4, 1874.

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