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"Aug. 3" (1805). "Walked with Fisin round the gaol. The gallows erecting for the execution, F. mentioned

that a friend of his had often (?) inquired of a person who had been turned off, and cut down on a reprieve, what were his sensations. He said the preparations were dreadful beyond all expression. On being dropped, he found himself amidst fields and rivers of blood, gradually acquiring a greenish tinge,-imagined if he could reach a certain spot in the same he should be easy,-struggled forcibly to attain it, and felt no more!"-Green's Diary quoted in Gentleman's Magazine, May, 1834.

I knew one who in like manner "babbled of green fields" on his recovery from drowning.


LAVINIA FENTON, DUCHESS OF BOLTON (5th S. i. 488.)-I thought most students knew that Hogarth painted one of his best portraits from this lady. It was engraved by G. Watson, and is now, or was while comprised in the Second Exhibition of National Portraits, 1867, in the possession of Mr. Brinsley Marlay; it bore the number 240. It has been also engraved by other hands than those of Watson. (Jack) Ellys likewise painted her, and his work was engraved by Faber, 1728, an important year in her history. Hogarth's likeness shows rather more than a bust, in a low laceedged dress, with a flower in the bosom and a necklace of pearls. The Arundel Society published a fairly successful photograph from the original, taken while that work was at South Kensington. She looks about forty years of age, and probably sat to Hogarth in 1748, or about that time.

F. G. S. PASTORINI (5th S. i. 408) was the name assumed by Dr. Walmsley, a bishop of the Church of Rome in England, in the title of his work on the Revelation of St. John. In it he predicted the destruction of all heretics in 1825. The falsification of this prophecy has caused his book to be almost forgotten. The same befell a work on unfulfilled prophecy by one Fleming, which foretold the downfall of the Papacy in 1848; and also a pamphlet called The Coming Struggle, which made a great noise just after the close of the Crimean War. S. T. P.

"IBHAR" (5th S. i. 469.)—This word is Gaelic, and means an adder. Highlanders, as a matter of course, declare that Gaelic is older than Hebrew, having been the language spoken by Adam and Eve in Paradise. I quote from memory:"When in the bowers of paradise

Eve first met Adam's view,

The first word that he said to her, Was Comerashandew."

Of course the spelling of the last phrase is not Celtically correct, and, for the benefit of your readers who do not understand Gaelic, I may state that it means 66 How are you to-day?" J. H.

The proper name of one of the sons of David, mentioned in the lists next after Solomon and before Elisha. 2 Samuel v. 13-16; 1 Chron. iii. chooses." By Josephus (Antiq. vii. iii. 3) it is 6; xiv. 4-7. It signifies "whom he (sc. God) written Jeban.

Conservative Club.


LATIN AND ENGLISH QUANTITY (5th S. i. 464.) Something might be said in defence of Byron's "tríbunal," strange as it sounds. Anyhow, there are many Latin words of which we English habitually disregard the Latin quantity, owing to our fondness for lengthening the penultimate, like auditor and interlocutor. The story is wellknown of the Scotch advocate who, upon speaking of cúrătors before an English judge, was reminded by him that the word should be pronounced curătors, in the Latin manner. "I supposed," retorted the advocate, "that I was following the English pronunciation; but I bow to the decision of so great a senator and eloquent an orator as your lordship."


HERALDIC (5th S. i. 449.)-In answer to D. C. E., the arms, &c., belong to the family of Wilson, of Queensferry, Scotland. WM. JACKSON PIGOTT.

Dundrum, co. Down.

"TH' BERRIN'S GONE BY," &c. (5th S. i. 468.)— This saying, exactly as HERMENTRUDE gives it, is very common in Craven; but it is chiefly confined to school-boys. At Skipton and Carleton Grammar Schools, when a boy

"Just arrived in time to be too late"

for a share of "toffy" or "bull's-eye," he was always greeted by us with the proverb. I never could find any meaning in it. Anthony is a very common name in Lancashire and Craven.


"THERE'S SOMEWHAT IN THIS WORLD AMISS (5th S. i. 468.)—This is in what is now the third verse of Alfred Tennyson's poem, "The Miller's Daughter," p. 83, edition 1848 of Poems:"Yet fill my glass: give me one kiss :

My own sweet Alice, we must die.
There's somewhat in this world amiss
Shall be unriddled by and by.
There's somewhat flows to us in life,
But more is taken quite away.
Pray, Alice, pray, my darling wife,

That we may die the self-same day."

It is by no means improbable that the last line may have suggested to Miss Dinah Maria Mulock the conclusion of her best work, John Halifax. The poem, in itself one of Tennyson's slightest, is

otherwise memorable, if it be true, as was reported
long ago, that it was brought under the notice of
Queen Victoria by "Johnny who upset the coach,"
and by its winning the royal favour was the
immediate occasion of gaining for Tennyson the
newly vacant Laureatship. In the first edition,
1833, there is an opening verse, now omitted :—
"I met in all the close green ways,

While walking with my line and rod,
The wealthy Miller's mealy face,
Like the moon in an ivy-tod.

He looked so jolly and so good

While fishing in the mill-dam water,

I laughed to see him as he stood,

And dreamt not of the Miller's daughter."
J. W. E.

Molash, by Ashford, Kent.

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POPULAR VERSES BEARING SERIOUS ALLUSIONS (5th S. i. 380.)-Your correspondent C. W. may be glad to see what Mr. J. O. Halliwell says (Nursery Rhymes of England, 6th edition, p. 90) concerning "Sing a Song of Sixpence":

"The first line of this nursery rhyme is quoted in Beaumont and Fletcher's Bonduca, Act v., sc. 2. It is

MRS. COWDEN CLARKE'S SHAKSPEARE CONCORDANCE (5th S. i. 485.)-It is a curious circumstance that it would be impossible for any one to verify a certain well-known Shakspearian quota-probable, also, that Sir Toby alludes to this song in tion

"Tis in ourselves that we are thus, or thus,"

Othello, Act i. sc. 3,

by referring to this excellent Concordance, for the reason that it entirely consists of the simplest words. These the accomplished compiler has naturally omitted, otherwise they would have swelled her book to an enormous bulk.


Twelfth Night, Act. ii., sc. 2, when he says, 'Come on; there is a sixpence for you; let's have a song.' In Epulario; or, the Italian Banquet, 1589, is a receipt to make pies so that the birds may be alive in them and flie out when it is cut up, a mere device, live birds being introduced after the pie is made. This may be the original subject of the following song, Sing a Song of Sixpence.' CUTHBERT Bede.

PLAYS ON "PLAY" (5th S. i. 423.)-A play called Thirty Years of a Gambler's Life is occa

DR. WILLIAM DODD (5th S. i. 488.)-See also "A full... Account of the life and trial of....sionally on the bills of the Theatre Royal, BirDoctor Dodd," &c. Lond. [1777], 12mo.

"Genuine Memoirs of the Rev. Dr. Dodd; containing many curious anecdotes." Lond. [1777], 8vo. "The trial and the life of the Rev. Dr. Dodd." [Pt. I.] 1777, 8vo.

Allibone refers to the Memoirs prefixed to his Thoughts in Prison; Jones's Life of Horne; Gentleman's Magazine, lx., 1010, '66, 77; and Boswell's Life of Dr. Johnson.


18, Kensington Crescent, W.


mingham; this, as the scene is laid at Paris, I
suspect to be a translation of Trente Ans; ou,
la Vie d'un Joueur. Among plays containing
gambling episodes should be included Lord
Lytton's comedy, Money.

FOLK-LORE OF THE HARE (5th S. i. 427.)-In The Chronicles of Merry England, London, 1856, Book ii., § 4, is-"She" (Boadicea) "had a spear in her hand, and a live hare within the folds of her loose-bodied gown, which, at the end of her speech, she let slip for good luck." The italics are


FLEUR DE LYS (5th S. i. 489.)The old name, flower de luce, is a plant of the genus Iric; yellow flag; Iris pseudacorus"; Worcester's English Dictionary. The quotation from Shakspeare, Henry VI., Pt. I. Act i. sc. i., commonly cited" with the word is

"Cropped are the flower de luces in your arms; Of England's coat one half is cut away." The word is still inserted in dictionaries: "Fleurdeliser, to cover with flower de luces."-J. E. Wesseley's French Dictionary, Routledge. Flower de lis is the mode of spelling in Guillim's Display of Heraldry, § 1. c. x., p. 143, Lond., 1660 :

"But of all other, the Flower de lis is of most esteem, having been, from the first, bearing the charge of a Regal escocheon, originally borne by the French Kings, though tract of time hath made the bearing of them more vulgar."



"FAWS" (5th S. i. 460) are mentioned as itinerant broom-vendors-a northern name." I have not met with this word as a name, nor heard it applied to broom-vendors, or, rather, as we call them, "Bussum-mackers." Faa was the name of a tribe of Gypsies located on the Borders, and of which old Will Faa was, in his day, the king. Sir Walter Scott, I think, mentions this tribe in one of his novels. The name seems, at one time in the border country, to have been applied to a mischievous pickle of a child. A lady of my acquaintance informs me that, when a child, her grandmother, who came from the border country, occasionally reproved her thus: "O, you little Faa!" It would be used, also, playfully, as "O, you little Gypsy!" is

occasionally to be heard in these days. Sir Walter has Gabriel Faa, in Guy Mannering, as the nephew of Meg Merrilies. J. N. Barnard Castle.

affect themselves as a House. A modern case in point was the claim of the co-heiresses of the late Lord Willoughby d'Eresby to a moiety of the office of Hereditary Great Chamberlain, and the reference to the Peers in cases of attainder or

“MARKEY" (5th S. i. 469) may refer to the Isle abeyance, in view of those disabilities being reof Marken, a little N.E. Amsterdam.

Gray's Inn.


YOUNG'S "NIGHT THOUGHTS" (5th S. i. 365.) The above poem may not suit the taste of the present very superior age, but it contains a remarkable number of passages fit for quotation. I would instance the following:

"Humble Love,

moved by the Crown, supports, to a certain extent, this view of the matter. W. M. also remarks that a baronetcy can in Scotland be indirectly established by a Decree of Service, and that a right under a Service of 1821 cannot now be called in question. But this could not in any way, I take it, affect a baronetcy or peerage; for it is an undeniable rule that the Crown cannot suffer from neglect or laches, and that no enjoyment of an

And not proud Reason, keeps the door of Heaven." hereditary dignity, however long, can give an indefeasible title.

"The spirit walks of every day deceased, And smiles an angel, or a fury frowns."

"Faith builds a bridge from this world to the next,

O'er Death's dark gulf, and all its horror hides." That the poets have read Night Thoughts with attention and sympathy is evident from the manner in which they have borrowed from that production. To cite a very few cases :

"Man wants but little, nor that little long." Night 4th.

"Man wants but little here below, Nor wants that little long." Goldsmith's Edwin and Angelina. "A previous blast fortels the rising storm." Night 3rd. "Coming events cast their shadows before." Campbell's Lochiel's Warning. "His crimes forgive! forgive his virtues too!" Night 9th."Forgive what seem'd my sin in me, What seem'd my worth since I began." Tennyson's In Memoriam. J. W. W. UNSETTLED BARONETCIES (5th S. i. 125, 194, 252.)-W. M.'s objection to the House of Lords deciding claims to baronetcies is, I think, very well founded, but some of his remarks are scarcely accurate. For instance, he says that the House of Lords acts as referees and advisers of the Crown in peerage cases, and that peerage claims are always referred to them. This is, of course, the general rule, but there have been cases where the claim to a peerage has been disputed and disallowed by the Peers themselves, on the ground of want of power in the Crown to create such a peerage, as, for instance, the creation of the life peerage of Wensleydale, where the House declined to allow a Peer to sit, notwithstanding a writ of summons from the Crown. Again, W. M., in answer to MR. STRATTON, denies the analogy of the claims to Irish and Scotch peerages with that of claims to baronetcies; but the Lords certainly have, at the instance of the Crown, taken cognizance of claims to dignities which do not in any way

If I might suggest a tribunal to decide claims to baronetcies, I should certainly fix upon the Probate Court, and mainly for this reason, viz., because it already has, under the powers given by the Legitimacy Declaration Act, the power of deciding many, if not most, of the disputed baronetcies, e.g., Payne, Vane, Codrington, Frederick, &c. The process might be very simple. Let the Garter, the Lyon, and the Ulster Kings-at-Arms draw up yearly a roll of the baronets of the three Kingdoms, as is now in the case of the peerage done by Garter and Ulster. Let them admit to such rolls those baronets only who could prove their right to their dignities, in the same manner as a Peer proves his right to a writ of summons on the death of his ancestor, and give them the power in case of any doubt or upon the motion of a rival claimant, whether to a dignity on or off the rolls, to transfer the consideration of the case to the Probate Court, and give the Crown power to attend any proceedings. If a power of appeal should be desired, the most appropriate would be to the Queen in Council, that is, to the Judicial Committee. This is not, and never can be, a popular question; but if some M.P. or Peer of legal training would introduce a well-considered bill on the subject, it is difficult to see what objection there could be to its being carried into law. R. PASSINGHAM.

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Marshal of Burgundy, whose body, he having died a prisoner for debt, is arrested at the prison door, when his son engages to satisfy the creditors,

"Whose cruelty denied him rest in death," and surrenders himself to obtain its sepulture. The supposed instance of Sir Barnard Turner, in 1784, was imitated half-a-century later, but no less supposititiously, I hope, as I heard it whispered at the funeral of a friend. I remember, however, an epigram, older, I believe, than the poor baronet's case, when the privations, the afflictions, the squalor, suffered by robbers and murderers, were heaped as heavily on debtors, ad pœnam, as being equally criminal in not paying their creditors :"Of old, to debtors who insolvent died Egypt the rites of sepulture denied: A different trade enlightened Christians drive, And charitably bury them alive."

E. L. S.

SIR THOMAS STRANGEWAYS (5th S. i. 127, 194, 318.)-I ought to have taken more notice of the fact that J. F. M. spoke of Viscount, not Lord, Beaumont. My reason for doubting the marriage was certainly not the absence of grant or pardon, which, as J. F. M. suggests, would disprove nothing. It was the consideration that I had never met with any allusion whatever to Katherine Neville as Lady Beaumont. I understand him to say that the marriage is proved by documentary evidence; if so, there is an end of the question. My note of the pardon contains no description of Sir Thomas Strangeways; and I think it would have done so, had there been any. HERMENTRUDE.

Cooper, instead of Cowper, proves nothing, but that that pronunciation is erroneous. One of your Correspondents says, that he knows only one word analogous to Cowper in which the w is dropped in pronouncing it, and that is Snowden; but as this word is evidently composed of snow and down (a plain upon a barren hill), the first syllable ought to retain its original sound, Sno. We say Sno-hill, not Snoo-hill, or Snou-hill. For the same reason Cowper can neither be pronounced Coper nor Cooper, or else we must also say Coard, or Cooard, for Coward. The diphthong ow is pronounced either o or ou, but never oo, as far as I know. If in surnames it were to sound like oo, then we ought to pronounce the names Bowles, Brownlow, Crowder, Howard, Howland, Lowther, Lowry, Owen, Rowley, Townshend, &c., Booles, Broonloo, Crooder, Hooard, Hooland, Loother, Loory, Ooen, Rooley, Toon

shend, &c."

This correspondence had its origin in a manner characteristic of the times, not, as in "N. & Q.," by a correspondent quoting a verse in which Cowper was made to rhyme with Trooper. "A Constant Reader" relates that, "sitting over the bottle one day with some friends," he happened to ask a gentleman whether he had read Cowper's poems, "pronouncing it as if it had been spelled Cooper," and his friend replied that he had not read Cowper's poems," pronouncing the first syllable as you would pronounce the quadruped cow" (sic).

It appears to me that the "ingenious" writer (as he would be termed in those days), who, in all likelihood, has been long since gathered unto his fathers, in the letter I have given above, has made a very good defence of the common pronunciation of the name of Cowper. The fact of some versifier having made Cowper rhyme with Trooper should not, I think, be any criterion, and, until I see better reasons for changing my opinion than have as yet appeared on the subject in " N. & Q.," I for one shall continue to pronounce Cowper "as you would pronounce the quadruped cow."


W. A. C.


BUDA (5th S. i. 287, 374, 417, 458.)-Is there not an error here? It is not from personal knowledge, but only on the authority of books, that I speak when I say that it is Buda, and not Pesth, which is otherwise called Ofen; Anglicè oven or stove. From my own knowledge, I may add 167, 232, 338) :that the equivalent of Ofen is, in Eccl. Slavonic, Peshtch, and in Russian, Petch. With the Polish or Bohemian variants I am not acquainted.

W. B. C.

COWPER: TROOPER (5th S. i. 68, 135, 272, 316.) -If the following letter, which appears in the European Magazine, 1814, vol. lxvi. pp. 386, 387, does not materially help to settle the controversy at present being waged in "N. & Q.," it may prove somewhat interesting in showing that sixty years ago the pronunciation of the name of Cowper was a subject of discussion in the correspondence columns of a popular monthly periodical :

"It appears to me rather singular that there should exist a diversity of opinion with regard to the pronunciation of the name of Cowper. That a gentleman of that name, belonging to the House of Commons, is called


"In viii. moldbredes (plough mold board) emptis xiid. "In ii. moldbredcloutz (iron plates) emptis xiid. "In xii. clut' empt' xiid.

"In ii clout nail emp' vid."

From Compotus of ye Steward of Sir John de Harde shul, 33 Ed. III. (Harl. Roll. A.A. 31.)


Saleby. P.S. "Clout: an iron plate to keep an axle-tree from wearing."-Johnson's Dict.

SWANS (5th S. i. 308, 338.)—Jodrell, in his Illustrations of Euripides, after having considered the ancient idea of the musical quality of the swan, enumerates the authors and witnesses of more modern times who acknowledge and support it, and, on the other hand, those opposed to these authorities. (Ion, pp. 43-74.)


CLASSICAL SIGN-BOARDS (5th S. i. 208, 395.)— 458, 498.)-Permit a final paragraph to this subWhen a schoolboy at Fulnec, near Leeds, well-ject to recommend a perusal of vol. ii. of Chrisnigh sixty years ago, I remember, on one of our topher Kelly's History of the Wars, where the school excursions to Kirkstall Abbey, noticing on reader is told, and quite correctly, that " "every the sign-board of the chief inn of the neighbouring individual present" at Waterloo received the village the short Greek motto, Tò πрéπоν. Greek medal. J. W. FLEMING. mottoes on the sign-boards of our village inns Brighton. must, I imagine, be rare. OUTIS. Risely, Beds.

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ST. CATHERINE OF SIENNA (5th S. i. 387, -I copy the annexed titles from various catalogues

1. "Vie de Sainte Catherine de Sienne, par Raymond de Capoue, suivie du Supplément du Thomas Caffarini et des témoignages des disciples de Sainte Catherine au

procès de Venise." (Editions, Paris, 1853 and 1859. Raymond of Capua was her Confessor.)

"HOW THEY BROUGHT THE GOOD NEWS FROM GHENT TO AIX" (5th S. i. 71, 174, 298, 418.)-[? Mr. Browning, while on a yachting expedition in the Mediterranean, was once lying becalmed. The fancy struck him, what would I give for a good gallop! As a devTepos Aoûs he wrote the ballad in question. I have heard the story at first hand. F. STORR.

THE SUNFLOWER (5th S. i. 165, 256, 417.)This flower is called girasol in both Italian and Spanish, and derives its name from turning, girare, in both languages. From one of these languages comes our Jerusalem artichoke, which has nothing to do with Jerusalem, but a great deal with its resemblance to the girasol, or sunflower.


SHOTTEN HERRING (5th S. i. 146, 194, 276, 449.) -See Taylor's Works, iii. 5:—

"Though they like shotten-herrings are to see,
Yet such tall souldiers of their teeth they be
That two of them, like greedy cormorants,
Devour more than sixe honest protestants."

THOMAS FRYE (5th S. i. 269, 316, 419, 476.)— I believe the portrait of the Queen of Denmark referred to under the above heading is not by Frye. Since writing I have seen a reduced engraving of the same subject by Watson after Cotes. I was led into the mistake from seeing it among the heads by Frye in the Print-room of the British Museum. CHARLES WYLIE.

"BLOODY" (4th S. xii. 324, 395, 438; 5th S. i. 37, 78, 278, 377.)-Permit me to suggest that this expletive is, like most oaths, of theological origin, and is synonymous with the obsolete woundy, preserved in Dean Aldrich's Hark the Bonny Christchurch Bells, which sound


"so woundy great."


THE WATERLOO and Peninsular MEDALS (5th S. i. 47, 98, 136, 217, 235, 336, 378, 396, 438,

2. The same work translated, Dublin, 1857. 3. "The Life of Saint Catherine of Siena, New York." By Father Formby.]

4. "Catherine de Sienne. Fioreti utilissimi extracti dal diuto Dyalogo vulgare de la Seraphica sposa di Sco. Domenico (A la fin). Impresse in Ferrara per Laurentio de Rubei da Valentia, 1511," in 8vo. with portrait.

Christo Sancta Catharina da Siena del tertio ordine di

5. "Catharina Senensis. Vita ac miracula selectiora formis aeneis expressa Venitiis, 1755," in 4to., 34 plates. Nos. 4 and 5 are quoted in Catalogue Maisonneuve et C. Paris, 1870. E. A. P.

WOOLSTON WELL, WEST FELTON (5th S. i. 449, 515.)-The local traditions are singularly meagre. I have never heard any date assigned to the building. It is evident, I think, that the cottage over the well was formerly used as a chapel, and self amongst the number) who would be glad to there are some persons in the neighbourhood (my

see it restored as such. The water of the well is singularly pure and clear; it is said to be good for the eyes. I hope that some one will be able to discover more about it than

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