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and performed other subordinate duties at a sacrifice. Hence they were called limocincti.

134-281. Juturna, the sister of Turnus, is advised by Juno to prevent by some means the proposed el between Aeneas and Turnus, as it will prove fatal to the latter. Meantime Latus and Aeneas enter upon the solemn ceremonies of the covenant of peace. Juturna takes the form of Camers, and, while the sacred rites are proceeding, excites the compassion of the Latins for Turnus. When they are thus incited, Tolumnius hurls his spear into the midst of the allies of Aeneas and slays one of their number.

138. Turni sororem; Juturna; she was properly the nymph of a fountain which flowed from the foot of the Alban mount, and, after forming a lake, descended into the Tiber. She was numbered among the native deities of Latium. 148. Cedere; for bene cedere; to prosper.—Latio; to Latium; i. e. to the Latins.- -152. Praesentius; more advantageous.159. Auctor; adviser or abettor.—161. Reges; of the omission of the verb (eunt or vehuntur) here, Thiel remarks, that the poet expresses the general substantive first, and after it places the individual substantives (Latinus, Turnus) in the same case with it; omitting the verb with the general term, and connecting it with the individual substantives in the singular; a construction which is not unusual in such cases. -164. Solis avi specimen; an emblem of the sun, his ancestor. It is implied that Latinus has derived his parentage, on one side, from Circe, the daughter of the sun. Some identify Marica (see vii. 47) with Circe.—Bigis albis; in a chariot with white horses. See above, 84.173, 174. Tempora notant; they mark the sacrificial victims simply by cutting off the hairs on the forehead. See on iv. 698.- -180. Pater. Comp. iii. 35.- -Torques; controllest.- -181, 182. Quae-religio; whatever (there is) divine in the lofty air; whatever attribute of the aether demands religious adoration.- -187. Nostrum Martem secundum Martem; successful conflict. See on nostro, ii. 396.192. Sacra-dabo; I will assign (to the newly confederated people) their sacred rites and their gods; I will claim only to make the worship of Vesta and the Trojan penates the paramount religion. As to Latinus, let him be supreme in war and also retain his wonted (solemne) authority in civil affairs.—197. Terram, etc. For the omission of per, see on vi. 324.

-198. Genus duplex; the twin offspring; Apollo and Diana.- -200. Fulmine sancit; Jupiter sanctions treaties by punishing the violators of them with his thunderbolt.-201. Medios; in the midst; placed on the top of the altar, and in the midst of the top.- -206. Ut; so truly as. 209. Matre; its parent trunk.- -216. Videri; historical infinitive.-218. Non viribus aequis; Wagner makes this an ablative of quality limiting eos understood. Translate the passage, when they more nearly (from a nearer point of view) perceive that they are of unequal strength.—219. Adjuvat; i. e. varium illum animorum motum.- -227. Haud nescia rerum; knowing well how to take advantage of the occasion.- -232. Fatalis manus; the

band led by fate; referring to the Etrurians, who had been led by their belief in signs and prophecies to adopt Aeneas as their fated leader. Juturna is supposed by several commentators to use the words ironically.— -233. Alterni; two by two; bini; there is hardly one for every two of us.——— 234. Ille, &c. Turnus will be exalted in fame to the gods, to the defence of whose altars he now devotes himself. For he defends them against Aeneas, who is intending to overthrow the altars of the native gods, and establish his own gods in Latium. See above, 192.- -242, 243. Foedusinfectum; wish the peace unmade.245. Praesentius; more effective.246. Monstro; augurio; by the supernatural token; namely, the signum. -250. Improbus; ravenous. -256. Fluvio; for the dative, see on i. 6. -258. Expediunt manus; prepare their hands. Proprie quidem arma expediuntur, sed quia hoc per manus fit, ipsae manus hic expediri dicuntur. Heyne.- -268. Simul hoc, etc.; at once this (occurred) and a great (battle, shout (arose), &c.- -269. Cunei; the assembly. Comp. v. 664.- -274. Laterum juncturas; the joining of the ends; the extremities of the belt which the clasp confines together (mordet.)

282-382. Both parties rush to arms, tearing down the altars, while Latinus flees to the city. Aeneas, while trying in vain to calm the tumult, is wounded by a random arrow, and is thus compelled to abstain for a season from the fight, while Turnus, taking advantage of his absence, slays a multitude of the Trojans and their allies.

291. Adverso equo; by spurring his horse against him; literally, with his horse against him.- -292, 293. Oppositis, etc.; he is thrown upon his head and shoulders against the altar standing behind (a tergo) in his way, (ob.)- -296. Hoc habet; this (wound) he has. Habet, or hoc habet, is the usual Latin form with combatants for "he has got it."- -Haec melior. Comp. v. 483.- -298. Corynaeus; a Trojan priest. See vi. 228.- -299. Ebuso; perhaps an Etruscan who has come to the war under Mezentius. The Etruscans wore the beard long.-304. Alsum; a Latin.-316. Faxo. Gr. § 162, 9, note; Z. § 161.. -326. Poscit. Turnus summons his charioteer, Metiscus, but in his eagerness seizes and handles (molitur) the reins himself.- -Superbus; audacious; assuming new spirit.-331. Hebri. See on i. 317. Mars was the god of Thrace. See iii. 35.- -336. Irae, insidiae; these words Forbiger takes in the nominative plural, rather than in the genitive after ora.- -338. Quatit; for incitat.- -Miserabile; for miserabiliter.- -365. Edoni; Thracian.- -370. Adverso curru; a causal ablative; the car running against the wind makes his crest wave.― 371. Non tulit; did not endure. Phegeus threw himself against the horses of Turnus, and attempted to turn them aside by seizing the rein; but he is himself borne along by the horses.

383-499. Iapis in the mean time strives in vain to extract the arrow from the wound of Aeneas. He is relieved at last through the interposition of Venus, and, after embracing Ascanius, hastens from the camp to the field, followed by Antheus, Mnestheus, Achates, and many heroes. His captains engage at once in the fight, while

he seeks Turnus alone.

But Juturna, assuming the appearance and office of the charioteer, Metiscus, skilfully keeps her brother's chariot beyond the reach of Aeneas

Wagner, folafter nitentem, See Gr. § 232;

386. Supporting his alternate steps with his long spear. lowed by Thiel and Forbiger, makes gressus the accusative in accordance with such phrases as viam ire, vitam vivere, &c. Z. § 384.387. Infracta; broken. Comp. x. 731, and note.- -388. Auxilio viam; the means of relief.- −389, 390. Secent, rescindant, remittant; the subjunctive depends on poscit.- -394. Dabat; for dare volebat. -395. Ut -parentis; that he might postpone the death of his parent just dying; literally, laid down. A man dangerously sick was sometimes, as a last resort, laid down by the side of his door, that passers-by might have an opportunity of suggesting any remedy.-398. Acerba; adverbially. Comp. torva, vi. 467.

-401. Paeonium; Jahn regards the o as short by poetic license; but Heyne makes three syllables, Pae-o-nyum. "The Paeonian custom;" that is, the custom of physicians, the servants of Apollo, who were wont to gird themselves when examining and dressing wounds.408. Stare; here, to be filled. See on vi. 300.-413. Puberibus; mature; neither too old nor too young; neither dry nor milky.414. Non incognita capris; the wild goats of Crete, when wounded with poisoned arrows, were said to be healed by eating the dictamnum, which caused the poisoned arrow to fall out of the wound. 117. Hoc, etc.; with this she stains the water (amnem) which had been poured (fusum) into the shining vases. Running or river water had been placed in vessels near at hand.- -Labris is the dative for in labra.- -422. Quippe; for certe.- -432. Habilis; fitted.- -433. Fusis circum; for circumfusis.- -437. Inter praemia ducet; shall lead thee to the rewards (the glorious prizes of my conflict.) Inter implies here both to and amidst; as if Ascanius were surrounded with the prizes of victory, and passing along from one to another.- −438–440. Facito ut sis, et excitet.450. Rapit; swiftly leads on. -451. Abrupto sidere; for abrupta nube; a bold metonymy suggested by the notion that storms are occasioned by the influence of the stars. -456. Rhoeteïus; Trojan. See iii. 108.- -465. Pede acquo; with equal foot; in fair encounter, face to face, as opposed to aversos. -Ferentes; for inferentes.—469. Media inter lora; while he is in the midst of his task or duty of managing the reins.- -481. Legit; traverses. -489. Levis cursa; quick or sudden in his onset.-491. Se— arma. See on x. 412.-495. Equos, currum; the horses and chariot of

Turnus.

500-613. While Aeneas and Turnus in different parts of the field are slaying all those they encounter, Aeneas conceives the idea of attacking Laurentum. Accord ingly he leaves the Etruscans and Arcadians to occupy the enemy, and forming a pha lanx of his Trojans, advances to the assault. The Latins in the city are terrified and distracted, and in the midst of their panic are still more agitated on learning that the queen, Amata, in her despair has hung herself.

501. Diversas; in different places.-508. Crates pectoris; another

term for costas.- -515. Genus; for filium.-518. Lernae; Lerna was the name of a river and marsh in the territory of Argos, and not far from the border of Arcadia.-519. Ars; his avocation of fisherman.- -529. Sonantem; for jactantem.-532, 533. Hunc-rotae. The rushing chariot (rotae) threw Murranus forward under the reins and horses, (juga;) that is, under the horses while he was held entangled in the reins. -Crebro pulsu; join with proculcat.- -Super; upon him.- -534. Nec memorum; and (they) not mindful. "The swift hoof of the horses, and of the horses indeed not mindful of their master." Ladewig.- -535. Hyllo retains the final o long.-546. Mortis metae; his death-goal; the goal or limit of life, which is death, or which death constitutes. Forbiger calls mortis, therefore, "a genitive of apposition."-548. Conversae; turned upon each other.

-563, 564. Nec deponunt. In an ordinary council of war they would have laid aside their arms; but here they retain them.-565. Hac; on this, i. e. on our, side; hac parte.—566. Ob inceptum subitum; on account of the suddenness of this measure some might distrust the prudence of it.—568. Victi is in the masculine plural, referring to the people in the city, instead of agreeing with urbs itself. See Gr. § 205, R. 3, (3); Z. § 368. -572. Caput, summa; Laurentum, as the chief seat of the Latins, is the head of the war and the centre of strength.-589. Trepidae rerum. See on i. 178.- –593. Haec fortuna; this (additional) misfortune; the suicide of the queen.-596. Incessi; for invadi. -600. Crimen; the guilty instigator; or, taking causam and crimen together, the guilty cause.——— Nodum leti; the deadly knot; lit., the knot of a shameful death.

-603.

614-709. Turnus is alarmed by confused noises from the distant city, and, recognizing Juturna in her disguise as his charioteer, he mourns the slaughter of his friends unsuccored by him. Saces brings news of the assault directed by Aeneas against the city, and Turnus hastens to challenge his enemy once more to single combat. The heroes prepare at once for battle, while both armies cease fighting, and all eyes are fastened on the two leaders.

621. Diversa; remote; as in iii. 4.-623-625. Huic occurrit; opposes him.-630. Numero; i. e. caesorum. -639. Superat; remains or survives; as in ii. 643, iii. 339.- -640. Comp. x. 842.- -646. Manes; for dii inferi.——648. Nescia culpae; unconscious of, not guilty of, the disgrace of saving life by flight at the sacrifice of friends and country.655. Dejecturum; supply se.- -657. Mussat; silently questions; Latinus dares not yet openly to express his doubts.-659. Tui fidissima; most faithful to thee; the genitive is used by poetic license, perhaps, as analogous to the genitive after amantissimus, or studiosissimus.-664. Deserto; remote from the actual scene of the conflict. Comp. above, 614.- -667. Uno, etc. Comp. x. 871 sqq.- -671. E rotis; for e curru.- -672, 673. Flammis vertex, etc.; the fiery column, (vertex,) eddying between the platforms (of the tower) was waving in flames towards the sky. Flammis is an ablat. The tower in question is one which Turnus himself had caused

of manner.

to be constructed on wheels within the walls, ready to be stationed at any point where it might be needed for defence.679. Morte―per mortem. "By seeking death itself, I am resolved to endure all the bitter suffering of death, whatever it is." Forbiger.-680. Furere furorem; to give vent to fury. See Gr. § 232; Z. § 384.- -Ante; first. Peerlkamp interprets this passage thus: Do not retain me, my sister. You will see me again, but no longer disgraced. Suffer me first (before you again see me) to give vent to this fury. Jahn and others, however, understand by ante, antequam moriar; thus, I must die, but before I die, &c.-681. Arvis; dat. for in arva.

-686. Sublapsa vetustas; the imperceptible lapse of time.- -Aut; for seu. -687. Mons; a vast rock, montis pars.—Improbus; vehementissime concitatus; furiously driven.- -694. Verins (est); it is more just.—701. Athos; now Monte Santo, a high mountain in Macedon, on the Strymonian gulf. Coruscis. Comp. i. 164.

710-790. The heroes hurl their spears, and then attack with the sword. Turnus in his haste having armed himself with the sword of his charioteer instead of his own, is now deceived by the treacherous weapon, which breaks at the first blow. He is pursued by Aeneas round and round, though the latter is retarded by his wound. While Aeneas in vain struggles to release his spear from the root of a tree into which it had struck, Juturna, in the guise of Metiscus, brings to Turnus his own sword. Then Venus, indignant at the interference of the Nymph, loosens the spear of Aeneas from the root, and the battle is renewed.

715. Sila; a great forest in the country of the Brutii.- -Taburno; now Tavurno or Rocca Rainola, a mountain chain between Samnium and Campania. 725. Examine; the tongue or index in the middle of the beam of a balance.- -727. Quem, etc.; (to ascertain) whom hardship (labor, hard fate) condemns to death? with which weight (whether that which represents Aeneas or that which represents Turnus) death sinks down. The latter clause, more fully expressed: cui pondus vergens letum destinet. The death of either is decided by the sinking down of his side of the balance. Labor is taken by some in the sense of pugna. Pondere is in the ablative of cause. -728. Impane; supply se facturum.- -729. In ensem. Comp. ix. 749, xi. 284. -733. Ni subeat; the apodosis is implied in the foregoing deserit; betrays him; leaves him to perish, unless, &c.- 769. Laurenti divo; Faunus as a tutelar god of Laurentum.- -771. Puro campo; in an unobstructed field.779. Fecere profanos; the Trojans have profaned the honors of Faunus by cutting away the tree and removing the tokens sacred to him. -785. Dea Daunia; Juturna.

791-886. Jupiter forbids Juno to exercise any farther influence in the contest, but consents, in answer to her prayer, that the Trojans shall lose their name, and that the Latins shall give theirs to the united people. One of the furies is sent in the form of a bird of ill omen to terrify Turnus; and Juturna, giving up all hope, plunges into the Tiber.

794. Indigetem. Aeneas was destined to be borne to heaven as a deus indiges, or deified hero, and this Juno well knew.- -801. Et continues the

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