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description of such an exciting incident. See on i. 237.-555. Habilem (eam); light; she could be easily hurled, when thus attached to the shaft of the spear.-558. Tua-fugit; in this order: prima tenens tela tua per auras fugit hostem. Prima for primum; for the first time.—562. Sonuere undae; the waves (of the overflowing river) resounded; thus making the scene still more frightful. This is Thiel's interpretation. Others understand that the waves are made to vibrate like the air itself, by the swift passage of the spear so near the surface of the water.- -566. Donum Triviae; a votive offering to (me) Diana. See on iv. 511, vi. 13.- -568. Neque-dedisset ; nor would he with his (by reason of his) wildness have yielded; i. e. even if the Volsci had wished him to be reconciled. Dare manus is to yield. 590. Haec; these arms; arcum et pharetram.

597-724. The opposing forces of cavalry come in sight of each other, rapidıy advance, and rush to the charge, each party alternately pursuing and retreating. Camilla is distinguished by her deeds both on horseback and on foot.

599. Compositi numero in turmas; divided into troops in equal numbers; literally, by number.-601. Huc et huc; the fiery horse, impatient of restraint, springs now this way, now that.- -607. Adventus; the advance; implying “the noise of the advancing squadrons.”—Ardescit; for crescit ; rises louder and louder.—609. —que; joined in scanning with the following verse. -612. Tyrrhenus; here the name of some Etruscan warrior.

-Aconteus; a Latin warrior.-614. Perfracta; proleptic.―615. Pectora pectoribus rumpunt; comp. x. 361; they dash their horses one against the other, breast against breast, and Aconteus is hurled by the shock far from his seat.- -616. Tormento ponderis acti; of a stone cast by an engine; i. e. by a ballista.- -617. Praecipitat. See on ii. 9.622. Mollia colla; the flexible necks (of their horses.) -624. Alterno gurgite; with alternating billow; now advancing and now receding. -626. Extremam arenam; the inmost strand.- -Sinu; with the curving wave; the long sweeping wave advances across the beach, curving inward more and more, while diminishing in volume and force.. -628. Vado labente; the shallow sinking away; when the wave retires, the shallow water along the beach glides away.- -633. Gemitas; supply est or erat.- -635. Semianimes; sem-yan-i-mes.649. Exserta. See on i. 492.654. Converso; like the Parthian horsemen when retreating, she would turn partially round on the horse, and discharge her arrows back upon the pursuers.- -659. Threïciae; Thracian; not here in its strict sense, but as an appellative of objects lying far to the north, as the Thermodon, which, like Thrace itself, is conceived by Virgil as situated in a northerly region, though in Cappadocia.- -660. Pulsant; when the river is frozen over.- -666. Clytio; supply natum.670. Super; besides.- -671. Dum colligit; the horse, wounded under the body, bends down with his hind legs, thus unseating, but not throwing off, his rider, who grasps at the reins, and draws them tightly in the effort to prevent himself from falling.-678. Iapyge; adjec

tive, as above, in 247.684. Agmine verso; his troop having been put to flight. When the troop in the midst of which he had advanced, had

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turned round and retreated, he was left alone, and thus it was not difficult for Camilla to cut him off.- –685. Super; as in 670.687, 688. Advenit qui, etc.; the day has come which shall have refuted (was destined to refute) your words by means of a woman's arms; Ornytus has expressed contempt for the Latins and their female allies.- -Nomen; fame.-692. Sedentis; sitting on his horse, and exposing his neck by bending forward in urging his flight.694. Fugiens; flying, but only in pretence.- -695. Interior; in the language of the circus this was the same as ab laeva, on the left, because the chariot turned the goal to the left.- -699. Incidit huic; her the son of Aunus encountered. -701. Not the last of the Ligurians (i. e. in deccit) while the fates suffered him to practise deceit. The Ligurians were noted for cunning.- –706. Dimitte fugam; give up the chance of flight; the advantage of being able to escape on horseback. So Forbiger. But Heyne understands fugam merely as cursum equestrem.- -717. Auno; both -721. Sacer; the hawk is sacred, as

the father and son are named Aunus.connected with the sacred auguries.

725-835. Tarchon, incited by Jupiter, reproaches the Tyrrhenians for their cowardice, and sets them the example of bravery by attacking Venulus, (see viii. 9 sqq.,) whom he tears from his horse, and bearing him away on his own, stabs him. Arruns watches the course of Camilla, and stealthily keeps her within the range of his javelin, until, in an unguarded moment, while she pursues Chloreus, he hurls the weapon with fatal aim, and pierces her breast. She falls from her horse, and sending Acca to summon Turnus, she dies.

730. Alas; the cavalry. Comp. iv. 121.738. Exspectare depends on segnes.740. Hestia pinguis; if the soothsayer announced favorable omens, (secundus haruspex,) a victim was slain and a sacrificial feast was held in the sacred grove.- -741. Moriturus et ipse; himself also resolved to die; not less than those whom Camilla has slain.- -759. Maconidae; another term for Lydi; the Tyrrhenians. Comp. viii. 479, 499, ix. 11.760. Prior; excelling (her); or else, with Heyne, prevertens cam, dum lateri semper adhaeret.- -767. Improbus; with deadly purpose.- -770, 771. Pellis-tegebat; the covering of the horse was the skin of a wild beast adorned with plates of bronze wrought into the form of scales, and lying over each other like feathers. It was fastened under the body of the horse with golden clasps.-775. Sinus crepantes; rustling folds. -785. Soractis; Soracte, now Monte di S. Oreste, in the country of the Falisci, north of Rome. The Hirpini or priests of Apollo on this mountain were accustomed to walk over burning coals. Their feet were guarded, however, as Varro says, by some kind of ointment. Arruns, perhaps, had been driven away from the neighborhood of Soracte by his countrymen, who were now fighting under Messapus and Turnus. Hence as an exile he is acting with their enemies.———786. Ardor; flame.—788. Premimus vestigia; we plant our footsteps.798. In Notos. Comp. ix. 312, 313.- -822. Partiri; was Comp. iv. 422.

wont to share.

836-915. Opis now executes the command of Diana (see above, 591, 592) by slaying Arruns. The Latin cavalry, after the fall of Camilla, retreats to the walls of Lauren. tum, and the foremost of the fugitives crowd into the gates. But the gates are hastily shut, and many are left to perish at the hands of the pursuers before the walls. TurLus abandons his ambuscade, and hastens to the rescue, while the Trojan infantry under Aeneas passes through the defile in safety, and appears before Laurentum. Both the Trojans and Latins then encamp for the night.

847. Famam-inultae; nor shalt thou suffer the wrong (infamy) of being unavenged; literally, of one unavenged.—850. Dercenni; an unknown king of Latium.—————854. Vana tumentem; swelling with arrogance.—858. Threissa; as a huntress.—861. Manibus aequis; with equal hands here means the two hands brought into one line.—880. Inimica super premit turba; besides (the danger from the enemy) the perilous (inimica) throng (of their own countrymen) crushes them. This is Forbiger's interpretation. Others refer inimica turba to the pursuers, a portion of whom might mingle with the fugitives entering the gates.-892. Monstrat; teaches; shows them how to defend themselves. The following words, ut videre Camillam, are included by some in the parenthesis, and thus made to qualify monstrat. -901. Apertos; unoccupied by the enemy.--913. Gurgite Hibero; in the Iberian (or Spanish) sea; i. e. in that part of the ocean which is adjacent to Spain.

BOOK XII.

The final conflict between Aeneas and Turnus.

1-133. Turnus, seeing the Latins now exhausted and hopeless, resolves, in spite of the earnest remonstrances of Latinus and Amata, to make an end of the contest by single combat with Aeneas. The latter accepts the proposition, a solemn compact is entered into by the hostile parties, and all the preparations are made for the fight.

1. Infractos. Comp. v. 784, ix. 499.- -5. Ille. See on x. 707.7. Latronis; i. e. the huntsman, who has come upon the lion by stealth. -13. Concipe foedus; draw up the compact; make it in the customary language, or, verbis ex more conceptis.—16. Crimen commune; the common complaint. See xi. 215 sqq. I will silence the common accusation that I am involving the whole nation in a ruinous war; I will individually encounter the whole danger. -26. Animo; supply tuo.-31. Genero; Aeneas, to whom Lavinia had been promised in marriage. See vii. 267 sqq.- -32. Illo; supply tempore.-35. Recalent; re often denotes, according to Wagner, not a repetition, but a mere change of state; here the sense is not "again heated," but merely "heated," as a changed condition;-no longer cold.-37. Quo-toties; whereto do I so often turn away (from my pur pose)? namely, of giving Lavinia to Aeneas.- -39. Incolumi; supply Tur

no.- -43. Res bello varias; fortunes varying in war. Comp. x. 160.44. Longe; like procul, only a relative term; far from thee in thy perils;— for any distance under such circumstances is "far."- 46. Medendo. See Gr. § 275, R. 2; Z. § 658.—52, 53. Quae tegat, occulat; before these words the idea of quam vocabit is involved. Fully expressed: He will not be aided by his mother, whom he will call upon that she may cover him, (sese,) &c. For the subj. see Gr. § 266, 3; Z. § 545.-55. Moritura; resolved to die. Comp. iv. 604, xi. 741.- -74. Neque-mortis; nor indeed is any delay of death (if that awaits me) left to (free to) Turnus. He has no power to delay death.- -82. Ante ora. Comp. ii. 531, v. 553.– -83. Orithyia; O-ri-thy-ia; the wife of Boreas. -87. Dehine; here dě-hinc.- -88. Aptat habendo; he makes ready by handling; ascertains by handling whether all are in good order; so Forbiger. Heyne makes habendo in the dative.—100. Vibratos; crisped; made to appear waving.-101, 102. Ab ore absistunt; leap forth from his countenance. -104. Irasci in cornua; to collect his rage for fighting with his horns. Forbiger.-115. Lucem; for ignes. -118. Focos; a focus, or receptacle for coals, is placed upon the altar of turf.-119. Fontem; living water must be used for washing, before sacrifices are made.—120. Velati limo; girded with the apron; with the covering worn about the abdomen by those who killed the victims

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