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numbers. -781. Deinde; still, farther.- 787. Segnes; ye cowards; acc. agreeing with vos. -794. Acerba; adverbially. See on i. 465.-803 Sufficere; to afford, or supply; as ii. 618.804. Germanae; Juno. See i. 47, and xii. 830.- -806. Subsistere; to withstand. -Tantum; so much; so much as would be necessary to maintain the fight. Comp. v. 21.813, 814. Piceum flumen agit; urges along a pitchy stream; the sweat breaking out from his face and body flows mingled with blood and dust, and looks black like pitch.-816. Ille refers to fluvius; the Tiber.

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Jupiter and the Olympian gods.


Council of the gods. Pallas, Lausus, Mezentius.

1-117. Jupiter calls the gods to a council in Olympus, and persuades them to put an end to discord. Venus complains of the hard persecution of the Trojans, and Juno bitterly replies. Jupiter declares at last that the fates shall decide the conflict without any interference of the gods.

1. Panditur. Olympus was opened in the morning and closed in the evening. Comp. i. 374.- -5. Bipatentibus; with two-valved doors.-7. Versa retro; turned back again to the same bitter hostility as in former times during the Trojan war.- -13. Alpes immittet apertas; will send the opened Alps; a bold expression for hostes per Alpes apertas immittet; referring to the invasion of Hannibal. The language is analogous to that of Tacitus, Agr. 18, mare expectabant, for hostes per mare expectabant.- -24. Aggeribus murorum. Comp. ix. 769. For murorum some editions adopt the older form moerorum.- -28. Arpis; Arpi, or Argyripa, the city of

Diomed in Apulia, called Aetolian because Diomed was of Aetolian descent. -29. Vulnera. Diomed had inflicted a wound on the hand of Venus in battle at the siege of Troy. The occasion was the same as the one alluded to in i. 94 sqq.-42. Super imperio; concerning the supreme dominion; namely, that promised to the Trojans in i. 257. For the usage of super, see on i. 680. -51. Amathus and Paphus were cities of Cyprus.-Cythera. See on i. 257.52. Idaliae. See on i. 681, 693.—53. Hic; domi mede. -54. Premat; supply ut; the infinitive is the regular construction after jubere.-Inde; from that quarter; i. e. from Ascanius and his posterity.70. Summam belli; the direction of the war.71. Tyrrhėnam-quietas; to stir up an Etrurian league or peaceful tribes. To excite the peaceful Tyrrhenians to a warlike alliance.- -Fidem; a league or alliance. 72. Fraudem; mischance.- -73. Hic; here; on this present occasion of difficulty, where is the agency of Juno or Iris?(is it)? is it not shameful for the Trojans to commit violence, to oppress, &c. ?- –79. Soceros, pactas; referring to Latinus and Lavinia.- -83. It was by Cybele that the ships were actually transformed; but every favor to the Trojans, by whomsoever effected, is ascribed by Juno to Venus.-90. The infinitive is a very irregular construction after quae causa fuit. The prose would be quae causa fuit Europae Asiaeque consurgendi ?– -96. Orabat; spoke. Comp. vii. 446.- -98. Caeca; low, indistinct.—102. Tremefacta solo; shaken or trembling in its depths.ply se; have calmed themselves, have sunk to rest.

77. Quid; what

-103. Posuere ; sup-Placida is proleptic.

−107. Secat; forms.—108. Fuat; an archaic form for sit.- -111. Sua exorsa; his own beginnings, his own enterprises shall bring to each, &c. -113-115. Comp. ix. 104-106.

118-145. The Trojans, few in number, are distributed along the ramparts, and though dejected, resolutely maintain the defence, under the direction of Mnestheus and other leaders.

118. Circum; adverbially; round about.- -122. Corona; the circle of defenders; the soldiery stationed along the walls.- -126. Alta; for clara; renowned.—133. Caput; Greek acc. limiting detectus.136. Buxo retains the final o. -Oriela; from Oricus or Oricum, a city in Epirus.142. Pactolos; a river of Lydia, the sands of which were said to be mingled with gold.- -145. Campanae urbi; Capua. The derivation of the name from Capys is, of course, fanciful. Both Campania and Capua have the same root as campus,

146-214. Aeneas forms an alliance with the Etrurians, who immediately set out with him in their ships, to carry succor to his beleaguered camp. The poet enumerates the ships and the forces on board, and mentions the leaders of the Etrurians. There are thirty ships, and the troops are arranged under four leaders, Massicus, Abas, Asilas, and Astur.


149. Regi; Tarchon, the Etrurian commander. See viii. 603.Libera fati; free in respect to fate; unhindered by fate; no longer held by


the prohibition of the fates, mentioned in viii. 502 sqq. For the genitive see Gr. § 213, R. 5, (4); Z. § 487.-155. Lydia. See on ii. 781.-156. Duci retains the final i.-15%. Subjuncta leones; joined as to lions under the beak; for habens subjunctos leones. Comp. iii. 428.- -158. Ida; perhaps a personification of Mount Ida, or perhaps Cybele the tutelar goddess of Ida is meant. The latter interpretation would suggest that the ornament on the prow of the ship was Cybele drawn in her chariot by lions.159. Hic; here, or in this ship.-169. Goryti; also spelled coryti; bow cases. sid bas aunased

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Etruscan warriors.

-180. Solo; in

-188. Crimen

-174. Chalybum; of the Chalybes. See on viii. 421.respect to soil, or territory; contrasted with ab origine.amor vestrum; your fault was love; to whom vestrum refers is doubtful. Perhaps the words are interpolated. They may refer to Cycnus and his sisters, and their love for Phaethon.-Formaeque insigne paternae; and a crest made in his father's form; explanatory of olorinae pennae. The orna ment on the helmet of Cupavo was the plumage of a swan, worn to com memorate the transformation of his father, Cycnus, into a swan.- -196. Saxum-minatur; threatens (to hurl) a huge rock into the waves; the centaurs were sometimes sculptured in the act of hurling rocks, as if in battle.

-202. Triplex; Virgil assigns to his native city a threefold origin; Etruscan, Greek, and, perhaps, Umbrian; while each of these three elements is represented in four towns, (quaterni populi,) making twelve in all, subject to

Mantua. The strongest element, however, vires, is Tuscan.-204. In se; Mezentius, by his cruelty, has excited the Tuscans to revolt against him. -206. Mincius; the river god, Mincius, is the figure-head of the ship. -207. Gravis; the term is transferred from the ship to its commander. Comp. v. 270, 271.-Centena arbore; for centum remis.

215-286. While Aeneas is pursuing his voyage in the moonlight, the nymphs into which the Trojan ships have been transformed appear to him on the water, and one of them, Cymodoce, informs him of the assault on his camp, and of the danger of his countrymen. He prays to Cybele, and directs his followers to be instantly ready for battle. On his approach to the camp, the Trojans on the ramparts raise a shout, and engage in the defence with still more vigor, while Turnus, nothing daunted, prepares to resist the new comers at their landing.

215, 216. Curru Phoebe pulsabat Olympum. See on iii. 512, v. 721.220. Cybebe; another form for Cybele, from the Greek Kußßn.- -221. Numen habere maris; to have the divinity of the sea; to possess the divine character or attributes pertaining to sea-goddesses.- -234. Hanc faciem refecit; has reproduced this form; has reproduced us, but in this new form.


-238. Jam loca jussa, etc. We must understand that the Etrurian cavalry have been directed by Aeneas to join the Arcadian cavalry of Pallanteum, and to proceed with them down the bank of the Tiber to some point appointed by him (loca jussa) near the place of his expected disembarkation. We learn from 362, 363, below, that this spot was at the junction of somě small stream with the Tiber. Turnus will of course aim to prevent the arrival of the allied forces at the Trojan camp.- -239. Medias opponere tur mas; to interpose his squadrons; i. e. between them and the camp.Ad frena; supply juncti.—254; 255. Propinques augurium; bring near the omen, or the promised event.- –265. Strymoniae; from Strymon, a river in Thrace.- –270. Capiti; supply Aeneae.—274. Ille; expressed for emphasis, in apposition with ardor. See on i. 3.- -277. Praecipere; for occupare; to anticipate them in getting possession of the shore.- -279. Perfringere; to break through (their ranks.)-281. Referto; reproduce; imitate.-283. Vestigia; acc. limiting labant.

287-361. The ships come to land in safety, excepting that of Tarchon, which is forced upon a reef and broken to pieces. Aeneas and his allies on landing are instantly engaged in the conflict.

288, 289. Servare-pelagi; to watch the retreat of the ebbing sea; so as to spring upon the beach when the wave had retired.-290. Per remos; others spring to the land by means of oars which they plant with one end in the sand, and seize near the upper end, so as to swing themselves over the intervening space between the ship and the shore.- -291. Spirant; heave, or boil.-292. Inoffensum; unresisted; i. e. by any bold, rocky bank. Tar chon seeks a point where the wave rolls up steadily increasing (crescenti aestu) to the beach, intending to take advantage of this movement to push his ships far on the land.- -295. Tollite; lift your ships; i. e. by a powerful stroke of the oars.- -304. Fluctus fatigat; this refers to the swinging

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