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zornuum. -8. Vastant―agros; strip the fields of their husbandmen.Urbem; Argyripa, which the hero, Diomed, founded in Apulia, on returning from the Trojan war, and fleeing from Argos and Aetolia to Italy.-10. Qui ut is; hence the subjunctives following. Gr. § 264, 5.- -11. Aenean; the subject of the infinitives, advectum (esse), inferre, and dicere.12. Regem se posci; that he is demanded as king; i. e. of Latium.—27. Alituum; a lengthened form of alitum. See Gr. § 83, R. 2.- -37. Revehis; who bringest back; for the Dardanian race sprung from Italy.—————Nobis ; for ad nos; plural for the singular.-41. Concessere; have come to an end.

-47. Ex quo; from which time; in thirty years from the time of the discovery of this omen. Others understand loco; "proceeding from which place Ascanius shall found," &c.—51. Pallante; Pallas was an ancient prince of Arcadia. Virgil, like other Roman writers who had studied the Grecian literature, following the Greek notion that there were Pelasgic settlements in Italy, derives the word Palatium from the Arcadian Pallantium, and Pallas, and hence supposes an Arcadian emigration to the valley of the Tiber.- -54. Pallanteum; the supposed original name of the city on the Palatine, of which Palatium would be a corrupted form.- -57. Recto fumine; by the direct course of the stream. Comp. vi. 900.- -65. Here (on the banks of this stream) my great dwelling-place, head of lofty cities, is destined to rise. The reference is to Rome, which may be regarded as already rising; hence exit. Servius understood by domus the palace of the river god, and caput, the source of the river; thus, my head-waters are from lofty cities; i. e. those of Etruria.66. Lacu; here, the bed of the river.77. Corniger; river gods were sometimes represented with the heads and horns of bulls; thus, Georg. iv. 371, Gemina taurino cornua vultu Eridanus. 78. Propius; more surely, more tangibly than in a dream.— -84. Enim; certainly; of course, as he ought, or as was to be expected. He follows the instructions of Helenus, iii. 437-440, and of Tiberinus, above, 60.

-87. Refluens; flowing back on his course, so as to stay the downward current. -89. Aequor aquis. See on v. 821.- -90. Rumore secundo; joined with celerant, it is commonly understood of the song of the oarsmen, chanted to the movement of their oars; with joyful shout. In some editions the words are joined with labitur, and then refer to the roaring of the water, which attends the swift passage of the keel. Secundo in either case denotes an accompanying or following sound, with the notion of favoring.-98. Procul lengthens the final syllable here.

102-183. Evander and his people are engaged, at the moment when Aeneas arrives, in celebrating a sacrifice to Hercules. Pallas, the son of Evander, at first threatens to resist the landing of the strangers; but their friendly character being ascertained, they are invited into the presence of the king, who listens with favor to the proposition of alliance, and promises assistance to the Trojans. They are then invited to join the Arcadians in their religious festival.

103. Amphitryoniadae. Hercules is so called from his step-father, Am

phitryon, the husband of Alcmena.- −104. Huic una; poetic construction for una cum hoc.—108. Tacitis incumbere remis—taciti inc. rem; ply their oars in silence.110. Quos; those who were attending the feast.

-114. Qui genus; who by descent; of what descent? genus, Greek acc. -Unde domo; for ex qua domo.-118. Bello superbo; by an unrighteous war; a war which is occasioned by their pride and arrogance in deny. ing us a shelter in their country.—130. Conjunctus Atridis; both the Atridae and Evander are descended from Jupiter; the Atridae through Tantalus, and Evander through Mercury.—132. Cognati patres; Aeneas is descended from Electra, a daughter of Atlas, and the mother of Dardanus; Evander from Maia, another daughter of Atlas, and mother of Mercury.— 133. Et fatis egere volentem; and have impelled me (to you) by my fates, (myself) willing (to obey); while I myself gladly obey their behest.146. Daunia; Turnus was the son of Daunus, and hence the term Daunia is not inaptly applied to the whole gens, or nation, of which he is at present the leading spirit. –149. Supra, infra; the upper sea is the Adriatic, the lower the Tuscan.- -151. Rebus spectata; tried by warlike deeds.-157. Hesionae regna; the realms of his sister Hesione; Telamon, king of Salamis, an island of Attica, married Hesione, the daughter of Laomedon, and sister of Priam.—159. Gelidos; Arcadia, as a mountainous country, is comparatively cold.-165. Phenei; Pheneus was an Arcadian town near Mount Cyllene.-169. Mihi; dat. of the agent; by me. Gr. § 225, ii.; Z. § 419.- -172. Quando; since.— –177. Praecipuum. Aeneas is honored above his followers by being placed upon a couch covered with the hide of a lion; the frame of the couch is of maple wood.- -178. Solie; dat. for -180. Viscera; the flesh; as in i. 211.reris; bread.-183. Perpetui; with long body.-Lustralibus; expiatory; pertaining to the expiatory, or lustral sacrifice.

ad solium.

-181. Laboratae Ce

183-279. Evander now explains to Aeneas the origin of this annual sacrifice to Hercules, by relating the story of Cacus, a giant of Mount Aventinus, whom the hero had slain on this spot.

190. Saxis suspensam hanc rupem ; this crag suspended on the rocks.191. Montis domus; the now empty cave on Mount Aventine, which had been the abode of Cacus.194. Semihominis; here sem-ho-mi-nis.200. Et nobis; to us also; as well to others who were suffering from monsters.- -Aliquando ; at length.—202. Geryone. See on vii. 662.203. Hac; this way. -204. Amnem; the bank of the river is meant.207. Stabulis; from the camp; i. e. from their resting and feeding place in the valley.- -209. Pedibus rectis; from their advancing feet; ablat. absolute.————212. Quaerenti; an indefinite dative, limiting the whole clause.

-215. Discessu; at their departure; ablat. of time.- -218. Custodita; though guarded.- -221. Aëril. The Aventine, even now, is quite a bold eminence, especially towards the river, though much diminished from its original height.-226. Paterna; his father's; Vulcan's.-228. The

final e in this verse is elided.

-235. Dirarum; carrion birds. -237. NItens; i. e. with his shoulders.245. Super; from above.-248. Insueta rudentem; roaring hideously.259. Vana; because they avail not against Hercules.- -260. In nodum complexus; forcing his body and limbs by his powerful grasp into a knot.-Angit elisos oculos. Hercules makes the monster's eyes start out by choking him.

–263. Abjuratae; the possession

of which he had denied.- -268. Ex illo; from that time.- -Primus auctor, etc.; Potitius the first institutor, and the Pinarian house, the guardian of the worship of Hercules, established this altar in the grove. Both the Potitian and Pinarian families were engaged from the first in this worship of Hercules at Rome.- -274. Porgite; for porrigite.- -276. Bicolor; referring

to the silvery color of the poplar

Silver goblet.

leaf on the under side and the green on the other.

280-368. After completing the rites of Hercules, Evander conducts Aeneas to the city, and points out to him the places of interest around, and entertains him for the night in his dwelling.

285. Salli. The Salii were appointed priests of Mars by king Numa; perhaps originally they were priests of Hercules.-288. Novereae; Juno.

-291. Occhaliam; destroyed by Hercules because Eurytus refused him his daughter Iole.Mille; here a round number.- -293. Nubigenas; the Centaurs were the sons of Ixion and a cloud.—302. Dexter; auspi cious. -315. That the aborigines of different countries sprung from the rocks and trees was a common notion.- -317. Parcere parto; to spare what -326. was acquired; to be provident. -322. Composuit; assembled.Decolor; of debased color; an age of baser metal than gold; i. e. the brazen age.- -329. Posuit; for deposuit; laid aside its name of Saturnia, and then Ausonia, and several others, which successively gave place to newer names.

-332. Diximus; we Italians called it. Albula (as it was originally called) lost its true name. -336. Carmentis; an Italian divinity, here assigned to Arcadia.- -338. The porta Carmentalis in Rome was at the foot of the Capitoline hill. The order of the words is et portam, quam Romani Carmentalem memorant.- -339. Honorem. The name of this gate was an honor to the nymph, dating from the earliest times.-342. Asylum; a grove on the Capitol, consecrated by Romulus as a place of refuge, soon after the building of Rome.- -343. Lupercal; a cave on the Palatine, sa cred to Pan; named after the Parrhasian manner of the Lycaean Pan; that is, named Lupercal from lupus after the analogy of Avxaîos, Lycaeus,

the Arcadian appellation of Pan, which is here fancied to come from λúkos Ovid, however, Fast. ii. 423, 424, derives the Greek term from Mount Ly. caeus in Arcadia. Parrhasio is from Parrhasia, a town in Arcadia.345. Argileti; the Argiletum was a spot at the foot of the Capitoline hill. The name was supposed to be derived from Argi and letum, and to commemorate the murder of Argos, a guest of Evander, who had been put to death by some of the people, without the king's knowledge. Evander calls the place to witness his innocence of the murder, testatur locum, while he recounts the history of it, docet letum.- -347. Capitolla; the Capitoline, afterwards covered with the buildings of the Capitol, of which the chief was the temple of Jupiter, roofed with plates of gold.— -358. Janiculum; the name of the hill opposite to the Capitol and on the right bank of the river; higher than any of the seven hills. This was supposed to be the site of an ante-historic town founded by Janus. Another town of the same period, called Saturnia, was supposed to have existed on the Capitoline hill. It is highly probable that these traditions were not unfounded.- -361. Carinis; the Carinae was a quarter or street of Rome on the Esquiline, occupied by wealthy citizens; hence lautae, elegant.— -367. Ingentem. Comp. vi. 413.

369-453. While Aeneas is reposing under the humble roof of Evander, Venus applies to her husband, Vulcan, for a suit of armor for her son; which the god of the forge, on rising from sleep, orders the Cyclops to make ready. He himself directs their labor in his workshop in the Vulcanian islands, near the coast of Sicily.

372. Aureo; au-ryo.- -375. Debita; fated; destined to destruction. Comp. ix. 107.-381. Constitit; is, or Aeneas, is the subject.—382. Eadem; the same; who, as just said, made no request for your aid during the siege of Troy.- --Sanctum mihi numen rogo; I ask of thy divinity which is sacredly bound to me; that is, as thy spouse.- -383. Filla Nerel; the daughter of Nereus; Thetis, who had obtained from Vulcan a suit of arms for Achilles, her son. The wife of Tithonus, Aurora, had secured the same favor for Memnon. See i. 489.385. Moenia; cities.- -391. Tonitru; Forbiger makes this an ablative of manner, cum tonitru; others of place; either in or forth from the thunder cloud. Join corusco with lumine.Rupta ignea rima; the fiery crack broken; the lightning-flash breaking; that is, breaking open the clouds themselves. Comp. iii. 199, ruptis nubibus. The lightning often appears like a zig-zag chink or crack suddenly running athwart the clouds; percurrit nimbos.- -395. Ex alto; far drawn; reasons remote.- -399. Decem alios; the fates would have permitted the siege of Troy to be lengthened; they had only decreed the destruction of the city sooner or later, without fixing any limit to the duration of the siege. -402. Electro; from λEKтрov, with the first syllable shortened. It was a mixture of gold and silver in such proportion (four parts of gold to one of silver) as to have the color of amber.- -403. Animae; the blasts of −40%, 408. Medio jam abactae curriculo; already conveyed from

the forge.. (beyond) the midst of her course. Comp. iii. 512.- -409. Tenui Minerva ;

with the scanty loom; the loom which brings but a scanty living to the poor. weaver.41%. Liparen; Lipara; one of the Aeolian or Liparian islands. The island of Vulcan is in the south part of the group, now called Vulcano, and containing the town of Vulcanello.-419. Aetnaea; like those of Aetna.- -Incudibus; ablat. of place; (made) on the anvil.421. Stricturae Chalybum; the masses of iron. The Chalybes were a people of Pontus, skilful workers of iron.- -422. Domus; in apposition with insula.423. Hoc; an old form for huc.- -425. Brontesque; for the quantity of the final e, here long, see Gr. § 283, iv. Rem. -426. Informatum; unfinished. -427. For the form of the fulmen see p. 523.- -435. Aegida; the accompanying wood-cut illustrates the form of the Aegis.- -436. Squamis-polibant; were ornamenting with polished golden scales.448, 449. Septenos-impediunt; they weld together orbs upon orbs (literally, orbs with orbs) seven in number. The shield is made of seven circular plates of metal joined plate upon plate, in order to secure the proper thickness and strength.453. In numerum; in order; each striking his


blow in turn, and in regular time.-Versant; while the blows are alternately given by two, the mass is turned from side to side on the anvil by the third workman.

454-553. Evander and Aeneas in the morning confer together. Evander advises Aeneas to seek the aid of the Etrurians, who have thrown off the authority of the wicked king Mezentius, at the same time placing under his command all the forces he himself can raise, and with them his son Pallas. While they are engaged in this conference the clang of gleaming armor and the sound of a trumpet are heard in the sky. Aeneas sends back a part of his followers to Ascanius with tidings of his success, while with the rest he prepares to depart into Etruria.

454. Lemnius; Vulcan, according to mythology, was cast from heaven and fell upon the island of Lemnos, where he was nurtured, and after

Vulcan at his forge.

wards worshipped as the tutelary deity of the island.- -456. Volucrum ; roof-swallows are meant.- -457. Artus. Gr. § 234, ii.; Z. § 458.458.

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