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symbols assigned by the Romans to Quirinus, the deified Romulus. For the government of the ablative, lituo, supply some such word as instructus, easily suggested by the following succinctus.-190. Aurea; here pronounced au-rya.—191. Avem. Circe, the lover (conjux) of Picus, transformed him into a woodpecker.

195-285. Latinus gives the envoys a kind reception, and Ilinoneus, on their part, makes known the condition and wants of the Trojans, and presents the gifts sent by Aeneas. Latinus promises them a peaceful home in Latium, and in obedience to the oracle offers his daughter in marriage to Aeneas. The envoys are dismissed with presents for themselves and Aeneas, and return to the camp.

196. Auditique-cursum; and not unheard of do you turn your course hither on the sea.- -197. Egentes; supply ipsos; or yourselves needing what. -203. Saturni gentem. In the time of Saturn, the golden age, men acted uprightly, not by compulsion, but from goodness of heart, sua sponte, and by habit inherited from that ancient deity.- -206. Auruncos senes; the Auruncian fathers. The Aurunci were an ancient tribe of Italians, situated between Latium and Campania.-Ut; interrogative; how.

can seat.

-20%. Dardanus. For the tradition, see iii. 107 sqq., and note.- -208. Threïciam Samon; the island of Samothrace, now Samothraki, in the upper part of the Aegean.—209. Hinc-ab sede; hence (namely) from the TusComp. huc, ii. 18.-Corythi. The Etruscan Cortona.-211. Addit; by receiving Dardanus as a god to be worshipped, the golden palace of Olympus adds one (numerum) to the altars of the gods.215. Regione viae; in respect to the direction of our voyage.- -219. Ab Jove. Comp. n. on i. 28.—225. Et siquem, ete.; both if the remotest land confines any one in the surrounding ocean, and if the belt of the torrid zone stretched between (in the midst of) four zones separates any one (from one part of the world), he (such an one) has heard how great, &c. Refuso, flowing round and round into itself, either enclosing islands, or the whole continent. Forbiger makes oceano the ablat. of situation. Its last vowel is retained here in scanning the verse. -232. —que continues the negation; and gratitude for so great a favor shall not perish.- -237. Precantia; pronounced here pre-can-tya.241. Repetit; hither he returns (retraces his way); i. e. Dardanus comes back hither in the blood of his children, the Trojans. This is the interpretation with our punctuation. With Heyne's, which connects repetit and urget by a comma instead of the semicolon, Apollo is the subject of both verbs.- -243. Dat; Aeneas is the subject.- -246. Gestamen; the array; explained by sceptrum, &c.-254. Sortem; the oracle.255. Hunc, illum; see on these pronouns, above, 128. Meditatur, or some similar verb suggested by volvit, is understood before the infinitives.-258. Quae occupet; which is destined to possess; such that it is destined to possess. -261. Rege Latino; as long as Latinus shall be king.-266. Tyranni; prince. There is here, as well as below, in 342, 448, no disparage. nent in the term.-- -271. Hoc Latio restare canunt; they predict that this

destiny awaits Latium.- -274. Numero omni; for the whole number; i. e. of the envoys.277. Ostro. The coverings of the horses are of purple cloth embroidered with gold.—282–284. Patri-furata creavit ; the cunning (daedala) Circe had bred these bastard horses by secretly putting a common mare to one of the horses of her father, the Sun-god. Thus she stole them from her father.

286-340. Juno, enraged that she cannot ultimately prevent the success of the Trojans, determines at least for the present to visit them with her wrath. She summons the fury, Allecto, from the lower world, to forward her plan of kindling strife between the Trojans and Latins.

286. Inachiis; Argos is termed Inachian from Inachus, its ancient king and founder.- -294, 295. Num-potuere; could they? was it possible that they should fall, &c.? No! they found a way through the midst of battalions and flames.- -297. Credo; I suppose, forsooth; in bitter irony.300. Ausa (sum); I have dared; i. e. even against the known decrees of fate.—304, 305. Mars-valuit. Pirithoüs, king of the Lapithae, invited all the gods to his wedding feast, excepting only Mars. On account of this slight Mars stirred up the Centaurs to make war on the Lapithae.—Lapitham; for Lapitharum.—305, 306. Concessit Calydona Dianae. Calydon, an ancient state of Aetolia, had neglected the worship of Diana, who therefore punished its king, Oeneus, and his people, by sending a fierce wild boar to ravage their land. 306. The accusatives Lapithas and Calydona are in apposition with the same words in the foregoing clause.310. Quod si; but if.31%. At this sacrifice of their people let the son-in-law and fatherin-law consummate their alliance.- -320. Cisseis; the daughter of Cisseus; Hecuba. The allusion is to the dream of Hecuba before the birth of Paris. As she dreamed that her offspring would be a fire-brand, and the cause of the destruction of Troy, so has Venus brought forth in Aeneas a like offspring, idem, one attended with the same destiny, who shall in like manner, by marrying a foreign princess, occasion disaster to the new or restored Troy, (Pergama recidiva,) and thus he shall be a second Paris to it.- -324. Allecto; Greek form of the accusative. See Gr. § 86.- -326. Cordi; are a pleasure. See Gr. § 227.—329. Atra; dark and black are common appellations of all objects connected with the lower world; including both the ghosts, the gods, and monsters; and even Proserpine. The Romans conceived the hair of the furies to be composed wholly of serpents.-332. Infracta; broken; from infringo; as in v. 784.- -336. Versare; to involve in, distract with. -339. Crimina belll; crimina, ex quibus bella oriantur; mutual wrongs and accusations which may lead to war.

341-405. The fury Allecto takes possession of the mind of Amata, and stimulates her to resist the marriage of Aeneas and Lavinia. Unable to dissuade Latinus from his purpose, Amata conveys Lavinia to the woods, under the pretext of celebrating the rites of Bacchus.

344, 345. Quam—coquebant; whom woman's grief and spite were fretting


-348. Quo monstro; for ut eo monstro; that by this monster.Fallit furentem; beguiles her in her frenzy; as in her excitement she does not perceive the serpent.- -354. Lues; the pest. Before she feels the full power of the serpent's spirit (vipeream animam) she has recourse to gentle entreaties. -360. O genitor; O (thou her) father.— -365. Quid; for qualis; what is thy honor? whither has thy good faith departed ?- -367. Latinis; for the Latins.- -370. Reor. Amata judges that Ardea, the city of Turnus and the Rutuli, being separate from (dissidet taken literally) and independent (libera) of the kingdom of Latinus, Turnus is a foreigner, externus, and that the gods so pronounce, dicere.—372. Inachus Acrisiusque. According to the tradition which Virgil follows, Danae, the daughter of Acrisius, and granddaughter of Inachus, landed in Italy, and married the prince of the Rutuli, Pilumnus. Thus her descendant, Turnus, is of Argive extraction.377. Immensam; in its whole extent. She roamed wildly (lymphata) throughout the city, in every street and byway, unrestrained by any sense of decorum, and therefore not keeping within the limited circle of her palace and royal walks. -383. Dant animos; give velocity; i. e. to the top.-385. Numine; the divine command.- -389, 390. Evoe; dissyllable; e-vwe, or eu-we.- -Solum-vociferans; exclaiming that thou (Bacchus) alone art worthy of the virgin.—Molles; the thyrsi are wreathed with vine leaves; hence soft or pliant, with reference only to the leaves.

-Sumere; the subject is eam, referring to Laviniam.- -391. Lustrare; moves around thee; that is, in the dances around thy altar.-Pascere crinem; unbinds her hair for thee; literally, feeds the hair; referring to the custom in the worship of Bacchus, of leaving the hair to hang loose. 405. Stimulis-Bacchi; everywhere urges with the incitements of Bacchus ; i. e. with a power equal to the real influence of Bacchus.

406-474. Allecto now proceeds to Ardea, the city of Turnus, and appears to him in his sleep under the form of an aged priestess. Failing at first to rouse his spirit against Aeneas, she assumes her real form. Turnus awakes full of fury, and summons his followers to war against the Trojans.

412. Avis; dat. for ab avis.-413. Fuit; has been; has ceased to be. Comp. ii. 325.- -421-425. Labores, periclis. The whole passage implies that Turnus has been the principal defender of Latium against its enemies, especially against the Tyrrhenians.- -427. Adeo; even. So important is the occasion that Juno herself has directed me to say this.- -428. Saturnia. See on i. 26.- -430. In arma; join with laetus; ready for arms; with a mind joyful in the expectation of battle. This is Wagner's interpretation. -432. Magna; according to some, the accusative after jubet; the power of the gods demands great achievements (of thee.) Some join magna with vis. -433. Dicto parere fatetur; consents to fulfil (obey) his promise. See above, 366.444. Quîs; for quibus, dat. after gerenda.——446. Oranti ; while still speaking. Orare is used also in its etymological sense in x. 96. -44%. Tot hydris. Comp. 329.450. Geminos. Two serpents were

made conspicuous on the heads of furies and of the Gorgons. See wood-.. cut, p. 568.—459. Corpore; for ex corpore.-460. Toro; he seeks the arms on his couch. Heroes kept weapons by them, even when in bed. See vi. 524.- -462. Ira super; and anger still more; anger on account of the preference of Aeneas as suitor for Lavinia.- −464, 465. Aquai amnis; the torrent of water; for the old genitive, see on iii. 354.- -467. Polluta pace ; since the peace has been violated; i. e. by Latinus in promising Lavinia to Aeneas.- -470. (He declares) that he comes (to the contest) a match (satis) for Trojans and Latins both.- -473. Hune-juventae; the wonderful grace of his beauty and youth moves one; admiration, that is, of Turnus, who is young and beautiful. Others are stimulated by the renown of his regal ancestors, (atavi reges,) and others by the memory of his former deeds in war.

475-571. Allecto turns now,to the Trojans, and finding Ascanius engaged in the chase, she causes his hounds to attack a stag which is the favorite of the family of Tyrrheus, the herdsman of king Latinus. The wounded stag flees to the house of Tyrrheus for shelter. The herdsman calls to arms, Ascanius is succored by his countrymen, and the first blood is shed. Allecto is then dismissed by Juno to the infernal regions, by the way of Lake Amsanctus.

477. Arte nova; with new device; with the intention of devising a stratagem of mischief additional to those already executed.- -483. Cornibus ingens; lofty with his horns; for the prose form, cornibus ingentibus.— 490. Manum; genitive after patiens. But Forbiger prefers to make it in the accusative after patiens as a participle.-492. Ipse; himself; sponta neously.- -Quamvis ; in the night however late.-494, 495. Fluvio secundo deflueret; was floating on the downward current.—Ripa; on the bank; at times reposing himself on the shore.-49%. Erranti deus; unaided his hand might have erred; but a superior power (perhaps Allecto is meant) directed the arrow.- -504. Conclamat; clamore vocat.- -505. Pestis; the scourge; Allecto. She has already made the rustics aware of the outrage. -513. Canit; sounds. -514. Intendit vocem; swells the blast.516, 51%. Audiit; the lake of Diana on the Alban mount, far to the southeast of the Tiber, and the Nar and Velinus far to the north-east, that is, the whole country far around heard the sound. The lake of Diana is now called Lake Nemi, near Aricia, now Ariccia, fifteen miles south of Rome. The river Nar runs between Umbria and the Sabine country, and falls into the Tiber. The lake Velinus was produced by the overflow of the river Velinus, and was led into the Nar by an artificial channel cut through a ledge of rock by the consul M. Curius Dentatus, B. C. 270. This produced the celebrated fall of Terni.- -524. Non certamine agresti agitur; the contest is not carried on in the rustic manner.- -528. Primo ponto; this is a more authentic reading than primo vento; and the sense is the same as if it were primum ponto; first begins to foam on the sea.——— -532. Fuerat; had been the oldest; until now, when his life ends; when he is struck by the fatal arrow.533. Vulnus; as in ii. 529, for the weapon itself. -Udae vocis; of the

moist (passage of) the voice. -541. Promissi potens; having fulfilled her promise; literally, mistress of her promise.-55%, 558. That (supreme) father would not be willing that thou shouldst wander too freely in this upper air.Amsancti. Amsanctus was a lake in the country of the Hirpini, a Samnite tribe in the Apennines. As it emitted noxious vapors, it was supposed to be one of the entrances to Hades. It is now called Lago d' Ansante, or Mufiti. -569. Rupto ingens Acheronte; vast by reason of the bursting of Acheron. Gr. § 274, R. 5; Z. § 637.—————571. Levabat; a customary action. Allecto was wont to relieve the world of her presence by descending through this opening.

572-640. The strife is continued by Juno. The shepherds hasten to Laurentum, and Turnus with them urges Latinus to war. The king, resisting in vain, leaves the control of things to other hands. On the refusal of Latinus, Juno herself opens the temple of Janus, as the signal of war. The Italians now make preparations for war, and their principal cities are described.

572, 573. Extremam manum; the finishing hand.- -Ex acie; from the battle ground. -577. Igni ; fiery passion; as in ii. 575.580. Attonitae Baccho; maddened by Bacchus. -581. Insultant; rush through; here a transitive verb. The husbands and sons of the Bacchanals, influenced by the name of Amata, importune for (fatigant) war.- -591. Datur; when no power is given (to the king) to overcome their mad purpose. -593. Malta; adverbially for multum.- -Auras inanes; the empty air; the air that can−595. Has poenas; punishment for these things. 598. Omnisportus; the port in which I am seeking my refuge is so near, that it is all (omnis) open before me, in limine; the passage may be translated, my haven of rest is all in view.

not answer his prayers.

-597. Seris; too late.





Temple of Janus.


-601. Protenus; perpetually; continuously from that time.-601, 602. Urbes Albanae; Alba had thirty colonies, which are here meant, as well as Alba itself. Alba was in fact the mother city of Latium. See Mommsen, ch. 3, p. 26.- -604. Getis; the Getae, a Thracian people dwelling on the Danube, who with the Dacians and other neighboring tribes were hostile to the Romans.605. The Hyrcanians, a Caspian tribe. See on iv. 367. Augustus sent an army against the Arabs in B. C. 24. The Indi sent envoys to Augustus to sue for peace, at the time of his threatened invasion of the Parthians. The latter people, or rather their king Phraates, daunted by the preparations of Augustus, B. C. 23, voluntarily sent back the standards which they had captured from CrasThis event is often mentioned by the poets as one of the most brilliant successes of Augustus.-60%. Belli portae. See on i. 294.- -609. Aerei ;


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