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in his mind; for the acc. see on i. 228.- -871. Nudus, ignota; to die, away from one's native land, was a great misfortune, but the greatest of all was to be deprived of burial; to be left uncovered on the ground. Palinurus, soon after his death, meets Aeneas in Hades, (see vi. 347-351,) and gives him the particulars of his fate.

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Arrival of Aeneas at Cumae. His descent to Hades and interview with the shade of Anchises.

1-155. Aeneas lands at Cumae, and immediately proceeds to the temple of Apc) on the Acropolis, to consult the Sibyl. Deiphobe the Sibyl, who is also priestess of Hecate, informs him of his future wars and hardships, and instructs him how to prepare for his proposed descent into the lower regions.

1. Sic fatur lacrimans.

These words closely connect the narrative of

the Fifth and Sixth Books. So Books vii., ix., and xiii., of the Odyssey, are connected immediately with those which precede them.-Immitit habenas; gives reins; in viii. 708, it is immittere funes.————2. Euboicis Cumarum ; Cumae, a city situated on the coast of Campania, was founded in very ancient times by a colony of Greeks from Chalcis, (now Negropont,) in the island of Euboea; hence the terms Euboean and Chalcidian are applied to the city of Cumae and to objects connected with it. Strabo calls Cumae the most ancient of all the Italian and Sicilian cities. After passing through many vicissitudes of fortune, it was at last utterly destroyed in the thirteenth century by the people of Naples and Aversa. Its site, marked by the ruins of temples and villas, is often visited by modern travellers. The following view of Cumae and its environs presents in the distance near the sea the abrupt height of the Acropolis, on which stood the temple of Apollo and grove of Diana. In its sides were excavated many subterranean passages, some of which communicated with the holy place of the oracle, or grotto of the Sibyl. These caverns are still in existence, and have been cleared out and explored to some extent, though mostly filled with ruins and rubbish.

-3. Obvertunt. On landing, the prow of the ship was turned towards the water, and the stern towards the shore, that the ship might be ready to put to sea again.- -Dente tenaci; with tenacious fluke; in i. 169, morsu is used instead of dente.- -4. Fundabat; held to the bottom, or secured; equivalent to fundo affigebat. Observe the imperfect interchanged with the historical present.-5. Emicat; springs or darts; as in v. 337.-7. Abstrusa in venis silicis. Comp. i. 174. Fire and food are first thought of or .anding.- -8. Tecta rapit; part quickly penetrate the forests, the dense dwellings of the wild beasts, and point out the discovered streams. Rapit, like corripere, i. 418, is equivalent to cursu rapit, and means here hurries into or through. Running water (Alumina) must be used for purification before they can approach the shrine of Apollo.- -9. Arces; for the singular, which is used in the 17th verse; the Acropolis, on which stood the tem

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ple of Apollo, who is therefore called altus. The temple is surrounded by a grove consecrated to Hecate or the infernal Diana.- -10. Horrendae procul seereta Sibyllae; the solitude of the awe-inspiring Sibyl at some distance; at a distance, namely, from the temple; it was entered at the side of the hill. See above, note 2.- -11. Cui, etc.; to whom the Delian prophet imparts (by inspiration) great intelligence and a great spirit. Thiel and others interpret the passage as translated above; but Heyne prefers to take inspirat in the sense of incitat; in which case cui is equivalent to cujus, and the translation becomes, whose great mind and spirit the Delian prophet inspires. For Delius, see on iii. 162. Mens, when used in connection with animus, denotes the intellect, and animus in contrast with it includes all the other powers and operations of the soul.- -13. Triviae; Hecate. See on iv. 511.-Aurea Tecta; the golden temple. See on 9. -14. Daedalus. According to tradition, Daedalus was an Athenian, and the pioneer of Athenian art, though he is sometimes called Cretan, on account of his residence in Crete under king Minos, for whom he built the celebrated Labyrinth. Having offended Minos by aiding Pasiphaë in the commission of an unnatural crime, Daedalus was imprisoned with his son Icarus in the Labyrinth, from whence he effected their escape by contriving artificial wings with wax and other materials. Icarus flew too near the sun, so that the heat melted his wings and he fell into that part of the Mediterranean called, after him, the Icarian sea. Daedalus, flying towards the north, (ad arctos,) according to one tradition, landed safely in Sicily; according to another, which Virgil adopts, he first alighted on the Acropolis of Cumae.- -15. Pennis; with swift wings; ab, lative of manner. -16. Enavit; for evolavit; flew; so tranat, iv. 245.Ad; towards; not actually to the Arctic regions.- -17. Chalcidica. See note above, on 2.-18. Redditus; returning (literally, having been restored) first to this land; reaching the earth again first at this point. Redux, reddere, and kindred words, are used of objects coming back from the air or water to the land, at whatever point the land is reached again. Comp. i. 390.- -Sacravit; devoted. He suspended his wings in the temple of Apollo as a thank-offering for his preservation. Mementos and tokens of gratitude were thus hung up in temples by sailors and others who escaped from perils by sea, and a similar practice is still preserved to some extent in Italy.19. Remigium alarum; for the simple alas.-20. On the folds or valves foribus) of the dcor, Daedalus had represented in raised work, or bas-reliefs of gold, some of the most striking events in the history of Theseus and Minos. Each of the two parts of the door was divided into panels, and

Hecate, or Trivia.

every panel was adorned with one of these designs; those on one side representing scenes in Athens, those on the other, scenes in Crete. Historical grouping, both in bas-relief and painting, was as much distinguished in Virgil's time by unity and simplicity of design as now, or as in the best periods of art; and in the Aeneid Virgil appears uniformly to conceive of works of art according to the standard of excellence which had been attained in his own age.- -Letum; supply erat.- -Adrogeo; Greek genitive; 'Avdpwyew, from 'Avdpóyews. See Gr. § 54; Z. § 52, 3. Androgeos was the son of Minos, king of Crete, and when on a visit to Athens, was murdered by the Athenians through envy of his success in the public games. Minos made war upon the Athenians and compelled them to sue for peace, which he granted on condition that seven of their young men and seven of their maidens should be sent to Crete every year to be devoured by the Minotaur.Poenas; as a penalty.—21. Cecropidae; the Athenians are so called from Cecrops, the traditionary founder of Athens.- -Miseram. See Gr. § 199, R. 2; Z. § 360.—Septena; literally, in sevens; seven of each sex. -22. Stat urna; the lots had been drawn from the urn in order to decide who among the Athenian youth should be the victims; and these with their parents and friends were represented in attitudes expressive of agony.- -23. Contra; on the opposite side; that is, on the other fold or valve of the door.-24. Hie; on the side of the door just mentioned, or in Crete, which is represented on this side.- -Crudelis amor; cruel pas sion; because cruelly excited by Venus in the mind of Pasiphaë. translate crudelis, unnatural, monstrous.- -Tauri is an objective genitive.

But some

-Supposta; for supposita.-Furto refers to the artifice of Daedalus, who, according to the fable, constructed the image of a cow, in which Pasiphaë concealed herself.- -25. Mixtum genus; the Minotaur, or progeny of Pasiphaë, was half man and half bull.—26. Inest; is carved or represented on the door.-Veneris monumenta nefandae; a memorial of unnatural lust; monumenta is for the singular, and in apposition with Minotaurus. -27. Hic; here (too); on this same side or valve of the door, where the above-described scene in Crete is represented, is also another scene in Crete; namely, the Athenian hero Theseus, after slaying the Minotaur, tracing his way out of the Labyrinth by the guidance of a thread prepared for him by Daedalus at the intercession of the princess (regina) Ariadne, daughter of Minos, who had become enamored of Theseus. See Classical Dictionary, on Theseus and Ariadne.Ille; that (far-famed.) Gr. § 207, R. 24; Z. § 701.-Labor; elaborate structure.- -Domus ; genitive.Error. Comp. v. 591.-28. Reginae; princess; as i. 273. Thus there were represented on the door in all, two scenes at Athens and two in Crete; the first was the murder of Androgeos, the second the deliv ering up of the fourteen Athenian youths to be conveyed to Crete, the third Pasiphaë enamored of the white bull of Neptune, the fourth the Labyrinth, so represented as to show the Minotaur within just slain by Theseus,

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