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Virgo is in apposition with illa; she the virgin.— 611. Concursum; the assemblage at the tomb.- –612. Relictam; left by the men.—— -613. Secretae; apart; separated from the assembly which was engaged in the games; for the ancient custom did not suffer women to attend public spectacles.Sola acta; on the lonely strand; lonely because all the Trojan men were absent. -Troades; from Troas; a Trojan woman.-615, 616. Heu—maris; alas, that so many waters, that so much of the sea remains for the weary voyagers! For the infinitive, see on i. 37, desistere.618. Medias; as medios, i. 440.——620. Tmarii; of Tmaros, a hill in Epirus.Beroë, according to 646, was a Rhoeteian, that is, a Trojan. Those who wish to hold the poet to historical precision must imagine a marriage between the aged dame and Doryclus while Aeneas was on his visit to Helenus; thus affording the Epirote an inducement to emigrate; or else we must resolve the difficulty by substituting some other word, perhaps Ismarii, for Tmarii; which would make the husband a Thracian instead of an Epirote.


-621. Cui; as one to whom. See Gr. § 264, 8; Z. § 564. As Doryclus had been a person of high descent, therefore his wife would now have influence; and for this reason, as well as because she was disabled by sickness from being present with the rest, Iris assumes her form. Some good authorities refer cui to Beröe rather than to Doryclus.- –622. Dardanidum ; genit. as i. 565.-Matribus; dative after infert. Comp. xi. 36.O miserac. The same sentiment as in i. 94, iii. 321.- -Achaica; like Argiva, ii. 254, a specific for the general term, Graeca.―624. Traxerit; for the mode, see on cui, 621, and comp. i. 388.- -626. Septima; this seems inconsistent with the statement in i. 755. Forbiger quotes Gorsraû's explanation; the seventh summer commenced with the departure of the Trojans from Sicily, and their speedy arrival in Carthage. This same summer (as Virgil employs aestas) is not yet over; that is, winter has not yet set in. -Vertitur; is closing; finishing its revolution. Comp. iii. 284.- -627. Quum; since traversing the waters, since traversing all lands, (encountering) so many perilous rocks and vicissitudes of the weather, we have been wandering while we pursue over the great deep the ever-receding Italy. Comp. iii. 496. Quum is sometimes joined with the present indicative, to denote that an action has been going on, and is still continuing. Arnold's Lat. Prose, 488, d, (1).— -628. Emensae; an instance of the zeugma.- –630. Fraterni ; the country is called fraternal, as in 24, on account of the relationship between Aeneas and Eryx.- -631. Jacere; instead of quominus jaciamus. Gr. § 262, R. 11, n. What prevents us from founding walls? Jacere, ponere, extruere, muros, or fundamenta.- -Civibas; to our countrymen.-632. Nequidquam; snatched from amidst the enemy in vain; for we have failed to secure for them a new abode.- -633. Nullane jam; shall no walls now any more be called the walls of Troy? that is, are we now at length to give up all hope? The particle jam has the force of now (at length) no more. Comp. 194; i. 556, iii. 260. Shall I nowhere see the Hectorean rivers, Xan

thus and Simois? Hectorean is a more stirring word than Trojan, because Hector is dear to them, and his heroic deeds are associated with these two rivers. Comp. 190. They had hoped to find a new fatherland where old names should be revived just as they were by Helenus in Epirus.635. Quin agite; but, come on! Gr. § 262, n. 9; Z. § 542.– 636. Nam, etc.; for the form of the prophetess Cassandra seemed, in a dream, to give me burning fire-brands; saying, here seek Troy, here is your home.- -638. Jam tempus agi res; even now is it the moment for action; literally, for things to be done is seasonable; the infinitive is the subject of est, and tempus is the predicate. The prose form would be tempus est res agendi. See Gr. § 275, iii. n. 1; Z. § 598 and 659, n.- -639. Mora; supply sit.- -Tantis; so great; namely, as this dream.- Quatuor arae; there were four altars on the shore, erected to Neptune, as some understand, by the captains of the four ships, before engaging in the race.- -641. Prima. Comp. i. 24, ii.


-642. Sublata, etc. With her right hand raised on high, putting forth all her strength, (connixa,) she brandishes and hurls (the fire) from far.644. Iliadum; from Ilias.-646. Vobis; the dativus ethicus; our form of -expression would be, you have not Beröe here.- -Rhoetcïa; she is called the Rhoeteïan from the promontory of Rhoeteüm, near Troy. See on iii. 108.

–648. Qui spiritus illi; what a (godlike) air she has. -651. Quod, etc.; because she alone (of all) was deprived of such a festival; munere is here the festival in honor of Anchises.654, 655. Oculis malignis spectare; began to look with angry eyes. The infinitive is historical.—————Ancipites, ambiguae ; uncertain, hesitating.- –655. Miserum amorem ; strong desire. Miser is not unfrequently applied to love, in the sense of great or deep, with the acces sory notion of pain-producing. -657. Paribus alis. Comp. iv. 252.658. Arcum; the track of Iris as she mounts to heaven is the rainbow.

-659. Tum vero. When it was manifest that a goddess had been advising them, they were the more stimulated to execute their purpose.———660. Focis penetralibus; from the sacred hearths; i. e. of their temporary dwellings by the sea-shore. The fire-place of a house is penetralis, in the penetralia, where is the home altar, and sacred part of the dwelling.- -Frondem; boughs.- -662. Immissis Vulcanus habenis; the fire rages with unbri lled fury.663. Pictas; painted. The whole ship was painted; hence called μTorάpņo by Homer; the stern is also sometimes spoken of separately as adorned with painting. Comp. H. O. 1, 14. The fire spreads over the benches, among the oars, and to the sterns, i. e. over all parts of the ships.Abiete; for ex abiete; made of fir. The word is scanned as a trisyllable, ab-ye-te; as in ii. 16.- -664. Caneos; the seats. As before in the terms arena, theatrum, circus, so here Virgil employs a technical word which is not strictly applicable to the place. The semicircular seats of the real theatre rose tier after tier, like steps, and were divided by transverse alleys into equal compartments, which increased in width from the lowest to the highest tier, so that each division was in form like a wedge.——————661,

Quo tenditis.

665. Nantins perfert; reports as a messenger; translate, bears the tidings –665. Incensas naves; that the ships are on fire; the setting on fire of the ships. Gr. § 274, R. 5.- -667, 668. Ut-sie; even thus as he was; not laying aside his arms, and still mounted.669. Castra; the fleet; as drawn up on the shore. Comp. iv. 604.—Magistri; Epytides and others, guardians and instructors of the boys, directing them in the equestrian combat.- -670. Iste; that fury of yours. Gr. § 207, R. 25.– Gr. § 191-672. En. With this interjection there is an ellipsis of the verb esse or videre; hence it is followed either by the nominative or accusative, but usually by the former. Thus also it is used as here with the nominative of a pronoun: lo, I (am) your Ascanius. Comp. i. 461; see Hand's Tursell. vol. ii. 367. Ascanius, while uttering these words, takes off his helmet to verify them.673. Inanem; empty; a natural appellative of the helmet. Some understand, however, light, or mimic, helmet.674. Ludo; manner of ciebat; others connect it with indutus.- -675. Accelerat; here used intransitively; hastens.- -676. Diversa per litora ; along different parts of the shore.- -677. Sicubi; if anywhere (there are) hollow rocks, they stealthily seek them.679. Mutatae; transformed; “coming to themselves."Excussa; Juno, through Iris, had stimulated them to execute a mad purpose; her influence is now shaken off, driven from their breasts.

-681. Posuere; have abated; have laid aside.Udo; water has been cast on the outside, but does not penetrate into the closely packed calking of tow or oakum, through which the fire is stealing its way. -Lentus; slow.

-682. Carinas; put for the frames of the ships.———683. Est; eats. See on iv. 66. -Vapor; by metonymy for incendium.-684. Vires heroum; the strength of heroes. Aeneas, Acestes, and the commanders of the ships take the lead in the common effort to put down the fire.-685. Abscindere. Gr. § 209, R. 5; Z. § 599. The garment was torn off as a token of distress.

-687. Exosus (es). Gr. § 183, notes 1 and 3.- -Ad unam; all without exception. The full form in prose is omnes ad unum.- -688. Quid; adverbial acc. qualifying respicit. If thy pity, which is of old, has any regard for mortal sufferings. -Pietas; compassion; as in ii. 536.- -689. Da evadere; literally, grant to the fleet to escape the fire; the infinitive is the direct object, as an accusative after da.- -Classi; the remote object in the dative. Evadere takes the acc. also in ix. 560.- -690. Tenues; sinking; reduced. -691. Quod superest; that which (alone) remains; the only thing which remains to consummate my misfortunes, if my ships are now destroyed, is my own destruction by thy hand. Quod superest is referred by Jahn and Thiel to the whole remnant of the Trojans; that which survives of our race. But comp. xii. 643.691, 692. Morti demitte; cast me down to Hades. Comp. ii. 85.- -693. Effusis imbribus; rains being poured out. -694. Sine more is equivalent to praeter consuetudinem; without precedent; such as men never saw. Comp. viii. 635.- -695. Ardua terrarum et campi; the hills and plains.- -Aethere toto; from the whole heaven.

696. Turbidus aqua, etc.; a whirling shower intensely black with waters, and with thick driving winds. Turbidus refers to the agitation of the rain, now swept this way, now that, by the successive blasts. The winds that drive and rush violently without intermission, may be called densi, like densis ictibus, thick coming blows. See above, 459. They also increase the blackness of the clouds and rain by packing them, as it were, together.-697. Super, for desuper; from above. "The attempt of the Trojan women to burn the ships of Aeneas, when in Sicily, is also mentioned by Dionysius of Halicarnassus, 1, 52, and also by other historians." Ladewig.

Jupiter pluvius.

700-778. Aeneas in his perplexity is advised by the aged Nautes to leave a portion of his followers in Sicily, to form a new colony under the rule of Acestes. In a nocturnal vision Anchises appears to him, and approves of the counsel of Nautes, recommending that only the hardy and warlike youth should be conveyed to Italy. He then consults his captains, and Acestes. The new colonists are set apart, the ships are repaired, the new settlement is planted, a temple is consecrated to Venus on Mount Eryx, and all preparations being made for the voyage, the last farewells are exchanged, and Aeneas, with his diminished number of followers, sets sail once more for Italy.

701, 702. Curas mutabat versans; was revolving mighty cares in his mind, now this way now that, considering whether, &c.- -704. Unum; more than all others. -Tritonia. See on ii. 171.- -706. Haec; these; namely, both those which, &c. Varro states that the descendants of Nautes inherit ed from him the priesthood of Minerva. She inspired him with prophetic power, just as she is said by Callimachus (Hymn in Min. 121) also to have made Tiresias a prophet.- -708. Solatus; as a present participle. Comp. 1. 312.- -Isque; and so he; and therefore he. Z. § 333.- -711. Est tibi; you have.-Divinae stirpis ; Acestes is the son of the river god Crimisus. See above, 38.- -712. Volentem; not if he is willing, but since he is willing.713. Superant; for supersunt; those who are too many (for our remaining ships) their ships having been lost; referring to the men and women belonging to the four ships that were burned.- —716. Quidquid; whatever there is, &c. Indefinite pronouns and adjectives in the neuter gender are often used of persons.17. Habeant sine; suffer to have. See on 163.

718. Permisso nomine; the name of Acesta being allowed by you, though you yourself are the true founder of the city. Cicero, in Verr. iv. 33, 72, says that Segesta (the name then given by the Romans to Acesta or Egesta) was founded by Aeneas, and that the people from that circumstance held themselves bound to the Romans, not only as allies and friends, but also as kinsmen.719. Incensus; was roused to action; with our punctuation est is understood. Wagner puts only a comma after the participle, thus connecting with the following sentence: being roused—then truly.720. Animo. Comp. viii. 370. Jahn has adopted this reading, which is given by the Medicean and other manuscripts, as being better authenticated

than animum; in either case the sense of the passage is as follows: then indeed he is distracted in mind with all anxieties.721. Nox. Night is borne in a chariot. She is usually fancied by the poets to rise in the east at sunset and follow in the footsteps of the sun, but sometimes she was con ceived to rise in the west when the sun sets, attain the zenith at midnight, and disappear in the east when the sun rises. See Heyne's Excurs. ii. to Aen. Book ii.; comp. ii. 8, iii. 512.up (having ascended) in her chariot. the zenith.

-Bigis subvecta; having been carried -Polum tenebat; was in mid-heaven; -728. Pulcherrima; translate in the antecedent clause; the most excellent counsels, which, &c. See on i. 419.- 730. Dura atq. aspera cultu; hardy and savage in habits of life.- -731, 732. Ditis domos ; the abodes of Pluto. He is called the Dives, Dis, or Пλоúтwv, because his realms are the interior of the earth, which was regarded as the source of all riches. -Ante; first; i. e. before you proceed to Latium.—732. Averna per alta, etc.; seek an interview with me through deep Avernus. See Gr. § 92, 1. The passages to the lower world most frequently mentioned were those of Taenarus in Laconia, and Avernus on the bay of Naples. Avernus is the name of a small lake, occupying the crater of an ancient volcano. A cavern on the side of the lake was supposed to communicate with Hades.—734. Tartara tristesque umbrae; hendiadys for the gloomy shades of Tartarus. See on i. 61. Tartarus was that part of Hades which was set apart for the confinement of the guilty. For the declension of Tartarus, see Gr. § 92, 1. -735. Colo; I dwell amidst. The ō is not elided.- -Sibylla. See iii. 736. Nigrarum; black victims were sacrificed to the infernal gods. See vi. 243 sq.-Sanguine; an ablative of instrument or means. By slaying many black victims she will secure an entrance for you.--738. Torquet cursus; she has passed the zenith and is turning her course down towards the horizon.-739. Saevus; pitiless; for it breaks off my interview with you. Ghosts and dreams can visit the earth only in the night, and must flee before the dawn. Thus the Ghost in Hamlet, 1, 5:


Fare thee well at once!

The glow-worm shows the matin to be near.

-741. "Quo" deinde "ruis ”—inquits Jahn and Thiel follow Servius in thus joining deinde with inquit; Aeneas exclaims: whither do you hasten, &c. Wagner puts the adverb with ruis; whither do you hasten so soon? without longer delay?—Proripis; supply te.- -743. Sopitos ignes; he renews the fires on the domestic hearth, that he may offer incense to Vesta and the Penates. It seems to have been usual to perform such an act of worship after the appearance of a vision, just as in the case of prodigies. Comp. iii. 177.744. Larem; perhaps the deified Anchises, but more probably the Pergamean Penates are meant.-Canae; the venerable, the ary, because she was one of the most ancient deities; the only one, per aps, who was really and originally common to Greece and Italy.-- -Pone

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