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Some take prona literally; inclining, or sloping, downward, towards the shore; such being the appearance of the surface of the water when seen from land. 215, 216. Exterrita tecto; frightened from her home (in the hollow rocks.)- -Plausum pennis dat ingentem; claps aloud her wings.— Ingentem is said in contrast with the still motion of the bird which immedi ately follows; the noise in itself is not ingens.218. Sic Mnestheus; sc Mnestheus, so the Pristis herself.—218, 219. Ultima acquora; the farthest part of the course, at the goal.—220. In scopulo alto; on the high projecting rock; procurrentibus saxis. Comp. 204. Alto is said relatively to the general level of the surrounding sea.- -221. Vadis; the shallows about the rock.- -224. Consequitur; overtakes.- -Cedit; she falls behind; allows the other ship to pass her.- -227. Cuncti; all the spectators.- -Sequentem; Mnesthea or illum understood.- -228. Studiis; with ardent ap

plause.- -229. Proprium; the crew of the Scylla regard the victory as already their own.— -Partum ; (already) won; which they have secured.—— 231. Hos alit; success strengthens these; the crew of Mnestheus. Comp. succesu acrior ipso, 210. The same idea is contained in the following words: possunt quia posse videntur; their very prospect of victory increases their power; they can (so much the more) because they think they can.—————— -232. Fors―forsitan; perhaps; as in ii. 139.- -233. Ponto; to (or towards) the sea; for ad pontum. Comp. i. 6.- -Utrasque; for utramque or ambas; so below, 855, and vi. 685. The plural is properly used only when each of the two objects referred to is plural.- -234. In vota; to his vows; to bear witness to his vows. A vow or conditional promise was attached to a prayer; some offering was to be made on condition that the gods should fulfil the wishes of the suppliant. If the prayer is answered, the suppliant will then be bound to fulfil his promise,-bound by his vow-reus, or damnatus, voti; the genitive voti iu this phrase is under Gr. § 213, R. 1, (adjectives denoting guilt or innocence,) and § 217, R. 3, (b); Z. § 446, note 1. The expression votis vocare, to call with vows or prayers, (see i. 290, where votis is merely the manner,) must be distinguished from in vota vocare.235. Aequora; the accusative after curro, I traverse, taken transitively. See Gr. § 232, (2); Z. § 383.—238. Porrieiam ; a term used especially in religious language. Varro de re rust., 1, 29: exta deis quum dabant, porricere dicebant.- -Liquentia; the i is short in the first syllable. Comp. i. 432.- -240. Nereïdum; the Nereids were the daughters of Nereus and Doris, said to be fifty in number.-Phorci; Phorcus; the son of Pontus and Gaia, and brother of Nereus.—Panopea virgo; the virgin Panessa; one of the nymphs conspicuous in their number.241. Ma

with his great hand; as 87. Gods and heroes were larg mere men.- -Portunus, or Formnus, was the Roman name of the Grecian ertes. His peculiar office was to protect vessels coming into port. m pater is applied to most of the deities, as here to Portunus.join

ship) understood.- -243. Fugit, condidit;

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this combination of the historical present with the perfect, without any important difference of meaning, is frequent in poetry.Alto; receding; deep inland; withdrawing back far from the sea.- -244. Ex often signifies according to; growing out of, originating from.Cunetis; all, that is, who had been engaged in the contest. -246. Advelat; less commonplace than cingit.- -247, 248. Op

tare, ferre; for optandos, ferendum; he presents. several bullocks, three of which are, to be chosen by each of the four (some understand three) commanders for his own crew.- -248. Vina-talentum; he gives wine and a great talent of silver to be carried; also to each of the four ships.250. Auratam; interwoven with gold; auri subtemine.- -250, 251. Quam-cucurrit; Melicertes, or Portunus. freely translated, "around which ran a waving border of Meliboean purple in two broad stripes."-Plurima, literally, very much, agreeing with purpura, refers to the width of the border.Macandro duplici; in a double maze; in two meandering and parallel lines. The Meander is a river of Asia Minor, remarkable for its winding course.

-Meliboea, (used here adjectively,) was a town on the coast of Thessaly. -252. Intextus; embroidered upon it. Two scenes are represented on the mantle; one the chase, in which Ganymede is hunting the stag on Mount Ida; in the other the eagle of Jupiter is bearing Ganymede up to the sky.254. Anhelanti similis; like one panting; the picture is life-like.

-Ab Ida; join with rapuit.- -255. Jovis armiger; the eagle was represented as bearing in his claws the thunderbolts of Jupiter; just as in our national ensign he bears a bunch of arrows.- -256. Longaevi; the old men, guardians of the youth, are stretching their hands in despair towards the eagle as he ascends, while the dogs, resting on their haunches, bark furiously at the supposed bird of prey.-25%. In auras; because they are looking upwards.-258. Qui deinde; Mnestheus.- -259. Hamiş consertam sq. See on the same words, iii. 467.-260. Ipse; Aeneas.- -261. Ilio alto; an instance of hiatus. The o is made short. See Gr. § 305, (2).

-262. Habere; for habendam.-Viro; in apposition with huic; to him, T a hero.-266. Lebetas. Gr. § 86.-267. Aspera signis; embossed with figures; caelata.-269. Taeniis; scanned here as a dissyllable. The wreaths were formed of leaves held together by fillets, which also bound them to the head. See on 110.-270. Arte implies both skill and labor. 271. Ordine debilis uno; literally, crippled in respect to on one row; but nearly all the best commentators take ordine here for latere; in respect to one side; for all the oars on the left side were lost or broken. By a natural turn of language the terms rescued and crippled are applied to the com


mander himself, Sergestas, instead of the ship. So now we often hear nau tical men, when watching a vessel at a distance, say, "he has lost his top

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mast," ," "he's coming round," and the like, having in mind the captain as representing the vessel.. -272. Irrisam; disgraced.- -273. Qualis. Comp. i. 430, and note.-Saepe; as in i. 148.- -Viae in aggere; not on the raised part of the road, but simply on the raised surface of the road. The highway, especially with the Romans, is an agger, a post road so constructed as often to rise above the ground on either side.- -274. Obliquum; lying across the track.-Ieta; join with gravis; heavy with his blows; i. e. who deals heavy blows.-275. Saxo; with a stone; join with both adjectives, seminecem and lacerum; mangled and half killed with the stone.

-276-279. Nequidquam-plicantem; in vain he throws forth long wrths with his body, while attempting to flec; in one part fierce, glowing with his eyes and stretching high his hissing neck; (the other) part crippled b the

wound, holds him back (though) struggling (to force himself forward) on his twisted coils (nodis), and winding himself into his own folds.—279. Nixantem refers to the unwounded portion of his body first described; with this he vainly struggles to pull himself along, not by gliding or creeping in the usual manner of snakes, but by throwing himself into contortions; each knot, undulation, or coil, serving as a sort of lever. The snake often makes this convulsive effort when wounded. Thus the ship is crippled on one side, so that with her remaining oars she is incapable of advancing; and here ends the resemblance to the snake. But yet, (tamen,) notwithstanding the loss of a part of her oars, and her inability to advance with the aid of those that remain, she is brought into the harbor slowly with the help of her sails.- -282. Promisso munere. No particular reward has been mentioned in the narrative, but we may infer from 305, that in the ship race also none was to go unrewarded.- -284. Datur lengthens the last syllable here.- -Operum Minervae; the use of the needle and distaff.-285. Nati; supply dantur, suggested by datur.

286-361. Description of the foot-race. Aeneas chooses a circular meadow, encircled by wooded hills, as a circus or race ground. He invites all who wish to make trial of their speed in a foot race to present themselves. The most prominent competitors are Nisus, Euryalus, Diores, Salius, Patron, Helymus, and Panopes. Nisus takes the lead, Salius is next, and third Euryalus, followed by Helymus and Diores. Near the goal Nisus falls down, but gives the victory to his friend Euryalus by tripping up Salius. Helymus takes the second prize and Diores the third. The idea of the foot race is suggested by Il. xxiii. 740-797.


286. Hoc misso certamine; this contest being finished; literally, despatched.287, 288. Quem-silvae; which woods on curving hills surrounded on all sides; which wood-covered hills encircled.- -288. In valle theatri; in the midst of the valley which resembled a theatre; theatri limits valle, not circus. Circus means here race course, or stadium.-290. ConThe construction and sense are very doubtful. If it be taken as a dative for in consessum, the translation will be, whither the hero proceeded in the midst of many thousands to the assembly, and sat down on a high seat, (exstructo.) But Servius and some others after him have taken it with exstructo to signify elevated seat, though that is an unauthorized meaning of the word.-291. Qui has for its antecedent eorum; animos eorum qui -294. Nisus-pueri; Nisus distinguished for his affectionate love for the boy (Euryalus.)- -298. Patron was perhaps one of the persons sent by Helenus to accompany Aencas.- -299. Tegeaeae; Tegacan; from Tegaea, a town in Arcadia.- -300. Helymus was a friend of Acestes, mentioned above, 73.- -301. Acestae. See i. 195.- -306. Gnosia; Cretan.-Levato lucida ferro; glittering with polished steel; i. e. at the point.—30%. Caelatam; embossed with silver; having a silver handle embossed or carved with figures.Ferre, for ferrendam, as above, 248, 262, et al.- -308. Praemia; prizes; to be distinguished here from honos, the present which was to be common to all; whereas the prizes are only three in number.


309. Caput; a Greek accusative limiting nectentur. See on i. 228.Phaleris insignem; adorned with trappings; these were straps of leather or bands of metal, mounted with silver or golden ornaments, and fastened about the neck and head of the horse.-311, 312. Amazoniam, Threïciis. These are mere appellatives here, signifying such a quiver and such arrows as Amazons and Thracians use; for both races were renowned as archers.

-312. Lato auro; an ablative of description after balteus; Gr. 211, R. 6; a belt of broad gold; that is, broad and gilded.Circumplectitur. The belt (as seen in some antique representations of the quiver) passed round the quiver, and the two ends were joined together by the buckle or brooch.

-313. Tereti gemma; of, or with tapering jewel; a jewelled clasp; the ablative like auro above. Translate, around which passes a broad gilded belt, and a buckle with smooth gem fastens.314. Argolica galea; some Grecian helmet, which had either been captured or received as a present by Aeneas. See ii. 389, iii. 468.- -315. Locum capiunt; each one takes his place for starting. Comp. above, 132.- -316. Corripiunt spatia; they rush forward on the course. Comp. above, 145, and i. 418.—————Limen; the starting-point.- -317. Nimbo similes; like a storm.- -Ultima signant ; mark the farthest point; that is, with the eye; for without fixing the eye on the goal they may turn from a direct line.- -318. Corpora; for the persons themselves. 319. Fulminis alis; than the wings of the thunderbolt; than the winged thunderbolt. The thunderbolt was represented by the ancient artists, not only emitting rays of light, and flashing fire from each extremity, but also with wings, to denote its swiftness.-320. Longo proximus intervallo; so Cic. Brut. 47, 173: Duobus summis, L. Philippus proximus accedebat, sed longo intervallo tamen proximus. Line 320 is spondaic.- -321. Deinde is joined with sequitur understood; post with relicto governing eum understood.- -323. Quo sub ipso; close behind whom, ever. him; Forbiger understands ipse here, and in iii.. 5, to mean directly, imme diately.- -324. Calcem terit jam calce; and even now rubs heel with heel, i. e. foot with foot; he is even now running almost abreast with Helymus, lacking only a pace of it.- -325. Spatia plura; for plus spatii. The present subjunctive after si here is substituted for the imperfect, for the sake of greater animation. Comp. i. 58.- -326. Transeat, relinquat; the poets sometimes use the present subjunctive instead of the pluperfect." Madvig, 347, b, obs. 3.- -326. Prior; the comparative in preference to primus, as only two, Helymus and Diores, are referred to. Ambiguum; Heyne regards the adjective here as masculine, translating, would have left him (Helymus) uncertain (of the victory.) Forbiger quotes Il. iii. 382, as sustaining this interpretation. Others take ambiguum as an indefinite neuter; thus the sense would be, he would have left it (the thing, or the result) · uncertain. -327. Spatio extremo; in the farthest part of the course; the ultima mentioned in 317. So Peerlkamp, followed by Forbiger. Others understand the point from which they had started, which would be the ter

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