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Fatalia; destined.

-83. Quicumque est; whatever (river) it is; for they Quaerere; supply me or mihi.- -84. Ady

have only heard the name.tis; the inmost part of the shrine is in this case the interior of the tomb. The snake was looked upon as a token of good, and his form was supposed to be assumed by the guardian genius of a place, genius loci. In the present instance it is uncertain whether it is the genius of the place or the attendant spirit of Anchises.- -85. Septena; the distributive for the cardinal. The huge serpent drew his body out from the base of the tomb, forming coil after coil as he emerged and wound himself round the altar. Servius thought the seven coils typical of the seven years' voyage.————87, 88. Cui incendebant; we have the dative, cui, limiting the verb, instead of the genitive, cujus, limiting terga. Comp. i. 448. Whose back azure marks (adorned), and whose scales a brightness spotted with gold lighted up. The plural terga is happily chosen with reference to the multiplied coils of the snake. The description a little simplified would be: "whose scaly back was brilliantly marked with spots of azure and gold."- -89. Mille-colores. Comp. iv. 701. Prove the quantity and meaning of levia by scanning.-93. Depasta; which had been tasted (by him.)—94. Hoc-magis; on this account the more; because he regards it as a good omen.- -Instaurat honores ; commences anew the sacrifices; because they have been disturbed. So Ladewig. "Repeats the sacrifices made the year before." Forbiger.97. Nigrantes terga; with black backs; for the case of terga, see on i. 228. Black victims were offered to the Manes and deities of the lower world.99. Remissos; sent up; the Manes to whom sacrifices were offered, were supposed, when the spirit was invoked, (animam vocare,) to come back from the lower world, and partake of the sacrifice.- -109. Quae cuique est copia; according to the ability of each. All make their sacrificial offerings, and all partake in the feast which accompanies the sacrifice.

104-285. The appointed day having arrived, the games are opened with a race of Trojan ships. Four galleys enter the lists: the Pristis, commanded by Mnestheus, the Chimaera by Gyas, the Scylla by Cloanthus, and the Centaurus by Sergestus. The trumpet gives the signal for starting, and all push instantly for the goal, which is a rock far off from the shore, marked by a bough of ilex. Gyas in the Chimaera takes the lead, followed by Cloanthus in the Scylla; the Pristis and Centaur, under Mnestheus and Sergestus, side by side pursue the others. As they approach the goal, Menoetes, the old pilot of the Chimaera, fears the rocks, and keeps too far away. The Scylla takes advantage of the error, and shoots between the Chimaera and the goal, and having passed round it, turns back towards the shore, leaving Gyas behind. He in his fury casts the pilot overboard and takes the helm himself. Meanwhile Mnestheus and Sergestus are vieing with each other to pass the Chimaera. Sergestus at first has the advantage, but only by a part of the ship's length, and in his eagerness to round the goal at the nearest point, runs his ship on the rocks. The Pristis rushes by and now strives to overtake the Scylla. But Cloanthus prays to the gods of the sea, with whose aid his ship speeds to the land and receives the first prize, while that of Mnestheus takes the second, and the Chimaera the third. Sergestus with difficulty brings his ship to land, but receives a reward for the preservation of his ship and his


105. Phaethontis equi; the horses of the sun; Phaethon, as the son of Helion, or Sol, néλios paélwv, is sometimes put for Sol himself.- -108. Pars et parati; a part also (besides seeing the Trojan strangers) being prepared to enter into the contests. For the plural after pars, see Gr. § 205, R. 3, (1).—————110. Sacri; tripods are called sacred because they are so frequently chosen by devotees as offerings to the gods to be placed in their temples.Coronae; wreaths; we learn from 246, 309, and 494, that they were of laurel and of olive, and from 269, that they were ornamented with bands, or vittae.- -111. Palmae; branches of palm were to be borne in the hands of the victors.- -112. Talentum; a talent of gold and (one) of silver.—113. Tuba. The tuba or trumpet was invented by the Etrus cans, and not employed in the Homeric age. The trumpeter is Misenus. See iii. 239.Commissos lados; the beginning of the games. We have here the same usage of the participle perfect as above, 6. See note on that verse. -114-123. The race of galleys, instead of the Homeric chariot race, is an idea original with Virgil, and has produced one of the most entertaining passages in the Aeneid.—114, 115. Pares delectae; selected (by Aeneas) as equal; but not in respect to size; equal in sailing qualities, which in this case must have been learned by Aeneas from observation, and which must have been the result in part of the form and size of the vessel; but still more, perhaps, of the training, skill, and spirit of the rowers. Thus with us much depends on the "model" and size of the vessel, but also much on the propelling force and the management of it; and vessels, steamers, yachts, or club boats, are equally matched, or enter the contest on fair terms, when they are capable of attaining a degree of speed equal to the average of their class.116. Pristim; the name of the galley is indicated by the image of some animal or monster, used as the figure-head.—117. Mox Italus Mnestheus; soon afterwards the Italian Mnestheus; destined soon to become an Italian, and to introduce an Italian form as a substitute for his Trojan name. He was descended from Assaracus, and Virgil pays a compliment to the Memmii of Rome by deriving their name from such a hero. 118. Ingenti mole; Peerlkamp joins directly with ingentem; huge with huge bulk; comparing the Greek μéyas μeyédeɩ; comp. x. 842, xii. 640; but Wagner understands, the vast Chimaera of vast height.- -119. Urbis opus, for urbis instar; as great as a city. So Stat. Theb. vi. 86: Montis opus, cumulare pyram; to heap up a pyre as big as a mountain.Triplici versu; in triple tiers; there are three banks (ordines) of oars on each side of the ship. Vessels were not so constructed in the heroic times, nor until three centuries before the Peloponnesian war. Thucyd. 1, 13. –120. Terno ordine is an epexegesis, or repetition of thought in another form for greater distinctness.- -122. Centauro; feminine, as the name of a ship. See Gr. § 29, 2.—125. Olim; at times.—126. Cori, (or Cauri,) the north-west winds. 127. Tranquillo; when the sea is calm; ablative absolute, with mari understood. See Gr. § 257, R. 9, (2); Z. § 646; comp.

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i. 737.

-Silet; it is still; there is no noise of the waves dashing upon it. Unda; out of the wave. Comp. i. 535.-128. Campus and statio are in apposition with illa; a plain and a resort for the sun-loving sea-birds. 130, 131. Unde scirent; a relative clause denoting a purpose; that they might know from thence to come back, and there to fetch round their long courses. If the adverbs here were interrogative we should require ut before scirent, and the subjunctive instead of reverti and circumflectere.132. Sorte; there was a choice of starting places, for these would differ somewhat in direction from the goal; some naturally giving the outer and others the inner course.-134. Populea. The poplar was sacred to Hercules, because he brought it into the upper world when he descended to Hades to seize the dog Cerberus. Being sacred to Hercules, the god of toil, it was worn as a wreath by those who were about to engage in severe labor, such as that of rowing. Thus Horace, O. 1, 7, 23, makes Teucer put on a poplar wreath, when on the point of resuming his voyage, and encountering new hardships; "Tempora populea fertur vinxisse corona." Others understand the poplar wreath to have reference to the funereal character of the games.

136. Transtris. Comp. iv. 573.-137. Intenti; eager; their breathless suspense, as they await the signal, is well expressed by the same verb (intenti) as that which describes their attitude, with arms stretched to the oars, (intenta remis,) ready to make a long and powerful "stroke" at a moment's warning. 137, 138. Exsultantia cupido; throbbing fear, (the trembling hope of success,) and the intense desire of glory thrill their panting breasts.Haurit is understood by Thiel in the sense of penetrating deeply; for an excitement which pervades the whole man, is one by which he is also spent or exhausted; hence to say haurire for pertentare is only to put the effect for the cause. The same use of the verb is found in G. iii. 105.-140. Prosiluere; sprang forth from their places; the ships seem as animated as the horses in the chariot race.- 141. Versa is taken by For biger from verro, to sweep; but the usual rendering, upturned," from vertere, is stronger. Adductis lacertis; the means of versa thrown up by their straining arms; literally, by their arms drawn to (the breast); i. e. when making the stroke, or pulling the oar. Compare the passage with viii. 689.142. Pariter; side by side. Comp. ii. 205.- -143. Rostris tridentibus; the rostra or beaks were three metallic points projecting horizontally from the prow of the ship. 144. Non tam praecipites, sq.; not so swiftly, &c. Comp. Hom. Od. xiii. 81-85; Il. xxiii. 362-372.- Bijugo certamine; in the two-horse chariot race. -145. Corripuere; take (have taken) the plain; strike upon the track. For this sense of corripere, to hur ry upon, see also i. 418. The perfect here and in 147, are examples of this tense used to denote what is customary. -Effasi carcere; pouring forth from the barrier; literally, having been poured forth. The carceres are the stalls in which the chariots are confined until the signal is given for starting.146. Immissis; running at full specd.147. Jugis, for equis


Translate, nor thus (nor so vigorously as the Trojan sailors) do the charioteers shake the flowing reins over (to) the horses running at full speed, and bend forward to the lash; literally, inclining hang for or unto blows; for giving blows. Charioteers stood up and leaned over towards the horses;* so they are represented in ancient statuary.149. Consonat; is filled with the sound.- —149, 150. Inclusa litora; the shores shut in; wooded hills enclose the shore, and thus the shouting is the more loudly re-echoed.150. Resultant; reverberate. -152. Turbam inter fremitumque; amidst the crowd (the press of the ships) and confused shouting; Gyas shoots forward from between the other galleys, which are crowded together, while the din of voices and the noise of the oars add to the confusion.-153. Melior remis; superior in his oarsmen.- -Pinus; the ship.-154. Aequo discrimine; at an equal distance from the Scylla.-155. Locum priorem; they are running side by side, each striving to get before the other.157, 158. Junctis frontibus; with even prows.- -158. Longa sulcant vada carina; they furrow the briny waters with their long keels, (with the long keel.) Some editions have longe; far along; but comp. x. 197.-——————— -159. Metam tenebat; were nearing the goal; epexegetical.—160. Princeps ; foremost; i. e. in the race thus far.Gurgite; the boiling waves.- -162. Quo abis? whither are you bearing away so much to the right?- -Dexter here, like medius above, 76 et al., agrees with the subject, and designates the situation or direction.- -Mihi is the dativus ethicus. -Gressum; course. –163. Ama; hug the shore and let the oar blade graze the rocks on the left. For stringat, depending on sine, suffer, sce Gr. § 262, R. 4. They turn the goal to the left and gain time by making the turn as near to it as possible.- -165. Pelagi; of the deep water. -166. Diversus, for in diversam partem; a usage similar to that of dexter, above.—Iterum ; again cried (called back) Gyas with a shout, "steer for the rocks." The particle re signifies here back to the proper track.- -168. Respicit; he looks back and sees; literally, he looks back upon.- -Instantem tergo ; pressing upon the stern of his ship.-Propiora; the places or course nearer the goal.- -170. Radit iter; shoots along the left-hand way.- -Interior; between Gyas and the rocks. Comp. xi. 695.—Priorem; the one in advance of him; the just now princeps Gyas.- -172. Juveni; in the dative instead of the genitive.-174. Socium salutis; his comrades would be in danger without a pilot to guide the ship.- -175. Puppi ab alta; the pilot's seat was elevated above the deck at the extreme "after part" of the ship. 176. Rector, magister; helmsman, pilot.- -178. Gravis; moving slowly.- –179. Jam senior; this is one reason for gravis; and ens; dripping.-181, 182re et rident; they laughed at ha when sinking and when swimmway, and they (row) laugh at him (seated on the Tock) and belching the salt waves from his breast.- -183. Hie; an ad

time; now. -Daobus; dative after accensa est, but not from any rning power here in the preposition ad.- -184. Mnesthei; for this

form of the dative, see Gr. § 86. The word is here a dissyllable.


-Superare depends on the phrase spes est accensa, for sperabant or caeperunt spera-185. Ante stands before locum without governing it; comp. super, ii. 348; the place before (that of the other); nor yet was he first by the whole keel preceding. -187. Rostro; with her beak; her beak is close opposite to the side of the Centaur.-190. Hectorei; Hectorean; a more exciting term than Dardanidae; for it reminds them that they are both kinsmen and companions of the great Hector.Sorte suprema; in the final overthrow. 192. Gaetulis syrtibus; on the African quicksands; these and the Ionian sea and Malean promontory are mentioned as the most trying dangers they had met with. Malea, now St. Angelo, the southern promontory of Laconia, was so dangerous that it became a synonyme for dangerous navigation. Taubmann quotes the proverb used by Erasmus: Maleam legens, quae domi sunt oblivisci; to forget the dangers at home, while coasting by Malea.-193.-Sequacibus undis; on the waves (of Malea) closely crowding on each other.-194. Prima; used substantively; rà πpwTeia; the first prize. Mnestheus; even I Mnestheus, a Trojan prince, ask nothing more. -195. Quamquam; for the aposiapesis or interruptio, see on i. 135.-Hoe; win this; so far as this; referring to the preceding words pudeat extremos rediisse; thus far conquer, friends. Others make hoc agree with nefas; put down this disgrace, friends; forbid this shame.-199. Subtrahitur solum; the surface of the sea is drawn beneath them; their speed is so furious that the water itself appears to be in swift motion, like a river, and to sweep away beneath the vessel. Solum is applied to the surface of the sea. 199, 200. Tum-rivis; from the Iliad, xvi. 109, 110.-201. Ipse casus; chance itself.-202. Furens animi. Gr. § 213, R. 1, (a); Z § 437.203. Iniquo; too narrow; there was not room enough between the Pristis on his right and the rocks on his left.-201. Procurrentibus ; rocks jutting out; but covered by the water, and hence caeca, as they are called in 164.205. Murice; the oars striking (having struggled) on the jagged rock were broken with a crash. Crepuere here expresses our conversational term were smashed. Murex, a kind of shell-fish which terminates in a sharp point; hence applied to sharp-pointed rocks.206. Illisa; the prow having been dashed on the rocks hung suspended. Whenever the waves receded or returned, the other part of the ship vibrated up and down, or from side to side, but not the prow.207. Magno clamore morantur; they delay with a great outcry; the idea is that finding themselves suddenly delayed in the race, they express their vexation and alarm in confused arations at the same time they strive to push the galley from the rocks gamer up the broken oars from the under -211. Agmine remorum, 101 remigio; with the movement of the or -Ventisque vocatis; and having invoked the winds; he employs therefore both sails and oars. Prona maria, for aequora secunda; favorable waters; that is, the memes now unobstructed by any rock or ship in that clear and open son

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