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beauty.558. Omnia, vocem, colorem, crines, membra; the Greek acc.; -que loses its final vowel here. Gr. § 307, 3.—————560. Hoc sub casu; at this crisis.—561. Circum stent deinde pericula; what dangers immediately await you? deinde, as in vi. 756, 891, of the time immediately coming.566. Jam-videbis; presently you will see the sea agitated with her ships. If you linger until dawn, Dido, in her fury, will order her fleet to attack your ships, and to set them on fire.-569. Eia, age; away! away!Varium et mutabile; see Gr. § 205, R. 7, (2); Z. § 368; woman is always a fickle and changeable creature.- -571. Subitis, with reference to the sudden appearance and vanishing of the divine form, meant here by umbris.573. Praecipites; swift, for swiftly; join with vigilate and considite transtris; awake, take your places on the benches.—574. Citi; quick; used as praecipites, in place of the adverb. Observe the greater vigor of the adjective as compared with the adverb.-575. Tortos funes; the twisted ropes. Quisquis es; it was only a vision resembling Mercury. -578, 579. Sidera coelo dextra feras; render the stars in the sky propitious. The stars were supposed to influence the weather.- -581. Habet; possesses. -Rapiuntque ruuntque; they lay hold, and they rush to and fro; seizing upon the ropes, arranging the sails and rigging, hastening to their places at the oars. -582. Deseruere; they have (even now) left the shores.—583.

Annixi; plying the oars.

584-665. Dido, at dawn, perceiving from a watch-tower, that the Trojans are already on the sea, uttering a terrible and prophetic curse on them, rushes frantic into the interior of the palace, ascends the funeral pyre, seizes the sword formerly given to her as a present by Aeneas, and saying a few words, partly in grief for her misfortunes, and partly in pride at her success in establishing a kingdom, plunges the weapon into her body.

584. Spargebat. The imperfect is used with reference to the following sentence, regina—ait, to which it stands virtually related as an adverbial expression of time: was sprinkling, when the queen, &c.- -585. Tithoni. Aurora, the goddess of the dawn, according to the myth, married Tithonus, one of the sons of Laomedon.- -586. Speculis; from the watch-tower; the same as arce ex summa, 410.- -Albescere ; to dawn; lit., whiten. Gr. § 187, ii. (2).—587. Aequatis; with steady sails; with the wind blowing steadily and favorably from behind, so that the yards lie across, perpendicular, or nearly so, to the sides of the vessel.- -588. Vacuos; deserted.Sine remige; without a sailor; this defines vacuos; forsaken; no sailor, not an individual, being left.- -589. Pectus percussa decorum; smiting (having smitten) her fair breast. Comp. tunsae pectora, i. 481. For the Greek accusative, see on i. 288.- -591. Illaserit regnis; shall he have set at nought my royal power? The plural is meant to convey the notion of power and dignity with more fulness; the future perfect is equivalent to "shall he successfully insult?" both insult and escape.- -Advena; that a stranger and adventurer should do this, is still more intolerable.. -592. Tota ex

urbe; will not all my people join in the pursuit? Supply alii, some, before expedient; corresponding to the following alii, others. The incoherent expression is natural in the excitement of the moment.- -593. Navalibus ; from the docks.- -Ite has the more force from its position at the end of the verse, where it is unusual to place a word of two syllables after a long pause. This irregularity, and the very roughness of the verse thus produced, are in admirable keeping with the spirit of the whole scene.―― 594. Citi. See on the same word, 574.-Tela; the best recent editions give this word rather than vela.595. Mentem mutat; unseats my reason.

-596. Facta impia; the impious conduct of Aeneas towards her, his treachery, is understood here by several of the best commentators. But Heyne refers it to the violation of duty, or the impiety, as Dido regards it, which she was guilty of towards Sychaeus, in yielding to the love of Aeneas; see 552; now thy impious conduct affects thee! now my unfaithfulness is meeting its just punishment. This seems to me the more obvious interpretation.- -597. Tune decuit. Thou hast no power now to destroy the Trojans; they are already safe: thou shouldst have destroyed them at first, instead of sharing thy throne with Aeneas. Then it would have been fitting, but now thy commands are madness.—Sceptra dabas. Comp. above, 214.- -598. Quem; the antecedent is ejus, understood with dextra and fides. Behold the right hand and faith of him who, &c.—599. Humeris. See ii. 708.- –600. Non potui abreptum divellere? translate the participle as a finite verb; could I not have seized his body, and torn it in pieces? Comp. i. 69.- —602. Patriis epulandum ponere mensis; she might have murdered Ascanius, as Atreus did the sons of Thyestes, or as Procne, the son of Tereus, and have caused the body to be placed on the table as food for his father.- -603. Fuerat, for fuisset; see Gr. § 259, R. 4; Z. § 519, b; but the result of the contest would have been uncertain.- -Fuisset is concessive; suppose it had been.- -604. Metai; whom had I to fear, when resolved to die?- -Castra; the camp; where their ships were drawn up on land. Naval camps were defended by a wall on the land side.- -605. Foros; the hold, or hatches; the interior of the ships.-605, 606. Implessem, exstinxem; for the contraction, see Gr. § 162, 7, (a), (c); Z. § 160; comp. i. 201.606. Cum genere; Thiel understands: with the whole race, all the surviving Trojans; Ladewig: with the family or kindred of Aeneas only; after destroying Aeneas and Ascanius, she would then have cast herself into the flames, to escape the vengeance of the other Trojans. -Super; moreover; comp. i. 29; I should have cast myself moreover intc the flames.- -607. Sol, the witness of all things on the earth, is invoked, like the stars, 520.-Flammis; beams.608. Interpres; Juno, as Juno Pronuba, is the agent and witness of her woes.- -609. Hecate. See on 511. -Ululata; whose name is shrieked.- -610. Dirae. See 473.-Di; those deities that pity and revenge such unhappy lovers as Dido. Comp. 520, 521.611. Accipite haec; attend to these wrongs; accipere in the

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sense of animis accipere.- -Meritum malis advertite numen; literally, turn your deserved power to my woes; give heed to my griefs, for I deserve your pity. Peerlkamp and others refer malis to the Trojans, as the evil or false ones, who deserve punishment; which, however, does not seem to be the natural interpretation of the passage.— -612. Si, with the indicative here, is an expression of her conviction that so it must be; almost equivalent to quoniam. Perhaps Virgil has in mind the idea, not uncommon with the ancients, that, on the verge of death the future becomes more clear, and thus Dido sees with certainty that which awaits Aeneas. Ladewig quotes Cic. de div. i. 30, animus appropinquante morte multo est divinior, and refers to Hector's prophecy of the death of Achilles, Hom. Il. xxi. 338 sq. The prophetic curse of Dido was fulfilled in the dangers and losses which Aeneas met with in the war with Turnus, who, with his brave Rutulians, came near destroying the Trojans. Aeneas was on this occasion obliged to leave Ascanius and his followers in the camp near the Tiber, and to seek help from Evander. He perished in the fourth year after finishing the war and making a treaty with the Latins, and was finally deprived of burial (the heaviest curse of all) because his body could not be found.- -613. Caput; for the person; the impious one.— -Necesse est ; it is inevitable. Either the infinitive or subjunctive may follow this phrase.- -614. Hic terminas haeret; the omission of et before this clause is allowable, and even a beauty, if we consider the manner in which the line would naturally be pronounced. Ladewig refers terminus to the ending of the wanderings of Aeneas-his fated arrival in Italy; but it is usually understood as meaning the limit of thingsthe fixed order of things. Thus the sentiment would be: if this order of things is fixed (by the fates), so that my prayers, so that the gods cannot affect it; yet let the gods fulfil my wishes in regard to the subsequent fortunes of Aeneas.- -618. Funera; on his return from Evander, he witnessed the havoc which had been made in his army.- -Sub leges pacis iniquae ; under the terms of an unequal peace; the chief disadvantage of the Trojans in the peace made with the Latins, was the loss of their separate nationality, and their language.-619. Luce, for vita.-620. Ante diem; before the time usually allotted to the life of man; prematurely. It is said by some that he was drowned in the river Numicius, and that his body was never found. But Livy, l. 1, c. 2, says he was buried on the bank of the Numicius. -Mediaque ; —que is said by some to connect ante diem, (taken as an adjective immaturus;) and inhumatus; others connect cadat, and a verb implied in inhumatus; neque humetur.- -621. Populis; to the Carthaginlans and Romans. There were actually several treaties made between the two nations, the first B. C. 509; but after the Romans had extended their power over Italy, and had come into collision with Carthage in Sicily, trea-. ties between the two nations were observed only as long as they were too much exhausted to renew hostilities.625. Exoriare; arise thou some avenger; she seems to see and address the future avenger. The allusion is

to Hannibal, whose intense hatred of the Roman nation was the immediate cause of the second Punic war, in which he brought the republic to the verge of ruin.— -Ex ossibus; not descended from her, but rising up to represent her, and to re-embody on the earth again all her hatred to the Trojan race, as if he had risen from her very ashes.- -626. Qui sequare; that thou mayest pursue; to pursue.-627. Nunc olim; now or hereafter.

-628. Litora litoribus; (our) shores against (their) shores, waves against waves, (our seas against their seas.)—629. Ipsique nepotesque; let themselves (those of the two races now living) and their descendants carry on war. -que at the end of the hypermeter, verse 629, is omitted in some editions. Wagner thinks it indicates that the passion of Dido exhausts and interrupts her in the midst of her words.631. Abrumpere lucem; to end her life by breaking the thread of the fates, as said below, 697, ante diem, before her time.- –633. Patria; in her native land; in Tyre.- -Cinis, for sepulcrum. -634. Mihi; join with cara.- -635. Properet; the subjunctive is used after dic when it signifies a command.- -636. Piacula; offerings of atonement; meaning here the sacrifices which were to aid in setting her mind free from Aeneas, or in restoring him to her; so Anna understands the object.- -Monstrata; directed by the sorceress.- -638. Jovi Stygio; Pluto; Ζεὺς καταχθόνιος.- -639. Est animus, for est mihi in animo; it is my will. When the image of Aeneas, and all that pertains to him, (see 508,) are consumed on the funeral pyre, the end promised above, 487, 488, she pretends, will be secured.- –641. Studio; with zeal; in many editions the reading is anili studio. -643. Maculis. Peerlkamp says that history proves Virgil correct in this description. During the French revolution the faces of those who were about to suffer death by the guillotine were observed by the attendants to be marked with red and livid spots.-644. Genas. See on i. 228.645. Irrumpit; rushes into the inner court of the palace.————647. In usus; a present not asked for these uses; implying that in some happy moment she had begged of Aeneas the sword which he had used in the Trojan war. -649. Mente; in thought; in recalling the past.

-651. Dum sinebat; dum relates to dulcis; dear while the fates and the deity permitted.- -652. Accipite; when she sinks down dying it will be upon these mementos of Aeneas that she will fall.- –653. Vixi; I have lived; my life is closed.- -654. Magna, for clara; illustrious; her shade retains the glory which attaches to her character as a successful founder of a state.-656. Poenas recepi; I have exacted punishment from; or, simply, I have punished.- -659. Os; as oculos, i. 228. She impresses her lips upon the couch, just as Alcestis is represented as doing in the "Alcestis" of Euripides.- -660. Sic; thus; even by this violent death, and even though unrevenged. Sub umbras: sub terras, or sub manes.- -661. Hauriat, for percipiat; let the ruthless Dardanian see from the deep this fire, and bear with him the omens of my death; let him perceive that my funeral pyre is already lighted, and expect the fulfilment of my curse upon him, as the


author of my ruin. Comp. above, 385. The poet here removes us from the immediate scene of the suicide, and describes it indirectly through the spectators, or attendants of Dido, who witness the act from the court,below. -664. Comites; her female attendants; perhaps, first Barce, the nurse, and then others, summoned by her cries.

665-692. The news flies through the city, and Anna rushes, wild with grief, to the side of her dying sister.

666. Bacchatur, etc.; the rumor flies wildly through the horror-smitten city.-667. Femineo; the last syllable is retained, as in iii. 211.——675. Hoe illud fuit; was this, then, the end of that preparation?-Me; did you seek to deceive even me, your sister?-676. Iste; in its appropriate signification, as relating to the second person; that pyre that you directed me to prepare. See 494, 495.678. Vocasses; O, that thou hadst called me to the same end; a pluperfect subjunctivé expressing a wish is also found, x. 854. It might, however, be translated here as a condition: if you had called.681. Sie posita; when thou wast lying thus. Comp. ii. 644.Crudelis; Anna thus calls herself in the excess of grief. Her absence from her sister at this last crisis, even though involuntary, seems, at the moment, like a sin against her sisterly duty.-682. Exstinxti, for exstinxisti. See on 606.683. Date, vulnera lymphis; give (water) that I may wash her wounds with water; lymphis in the ablat. Some omit the comma, and put lymphis in the dative. 684. Super is for insuper. 685. Ore legam; if any last remaining breath still linger, let me catch it in my lips; this was the office of the nearest relative present at the bedside of the dying.686. Semianimem; four syllables; semyanimem.-Stridit; gurgles. 692. Ingemuit reperta; the light being perceived, she groaned; mourning at the last moment to leave the world.


Dido's death.

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