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Fronde; namely, the laurel, which was sacred to him.- -Fingens; his statues represent the hair neatly arranged.- -Auro; in a golden diadem.

-Tela sonant humeris; the arrows in the quiver upon his shoulders rattle as he moves along.-149. Haud segnior; not less glorious.151. Ventum (est); they came; literally, it was come. For the tense after postquam, see on i. 216.- −152. Dejectae; comp. x. 707; driven down from the summit of the rock; so dejectae is understood by Wunderlich, Thiel, and Peerlkamp. Others translate it, having cast themselves down.—153. Decurrere; perfect tense.- -154. Transmittunt cursu, for transcurrunt; the reflexive se is sometimes omitted after transmittere, as often after trajicere.

-Cervi. See on i. 185.—154, 155. Agmina glomerant; gather their dusty herds; i. e. in leaving the mountains they come together in herds; thus in prose the form would be montibus relictis as a subordinate proposi tion, instead of the co-ordinate montes relinquunt.—158. Votis; join with optat as an ablative of manner.- -162. Passim; in disorder; literally, here and there. -164. Amnes; torrents; instantly formed by the rain.- -166. Prima; for primum; first, or in the first place. Tellus and Juno both foster marriage rites.- -167, 168. Conscius connubiis; witness to the nuptials; referring both to the lightning and the air. For the dative after conscius, see Gr. § 213, R. 7; Z. § 437, n. 2.- -168. Ulularunt; the flashing of the lightning, and the howling of nymphs, are tokens of calamity.———170. Specie famave; by propriety or report.

173-195. Fame, a monster whose form and character are described, reports the alliance of Aeneas and Dido to Iarbas, a powerful Gaetulian prince, who is a suitor for the hand of Dido, and from whom she had purchased the right to settle in Africa.

173. The following description of Fame is in imitation of Il. iv. 442, 443. -173–175. Fama-eundo. Fame, an evil, than which no other flourishes swifter in motion, (moves with greater swiftness,) and gains power (more rapidly) by travelling. In other editions there is a colon after ullum.176. Primo; at first; when a rumor first springs up, it is reported with something of doubt and timidity.-177. Solo; on the ground.—178. Ira irritata; provoked by the vengeance of the gods; by the punishment which the gods inflicted upon her children, the Titans, in hurling them down to Hades. The poets often confound the giants with the Titans; as here Cocus and Enceladus; the first of whom was a Titan, and the other a giant. -179. Perhibent; they relate; perhibere is said of traditions.- -181. Cui limits sunt, (understood after oculi,) and sonant. To whom there are as many sleepless eyes underneath (the feathers), to whom as many tongues ana as many mouths resound, (who) pricks up as many ears as there are feathers on her body. For every feather there is an eye, a tongue, and an ear.—————— 184. Coeli medio terraeque, for inter coelum et terram: medio is a noun, or agrees with loco understood; medius, for inter is thus used also in prose; Caes. B. G. i. 34· locum medium utriusque.-185. Stridens refers to the rushing sonad of kar wings. So Horace says of winged Fortune, O. i. 34,

15; Hinc apicem rapax Fortuna cum stridore acuto sustulit. Schmidt refers stridens to the sound of the voice: "Like an owl, whooping all night long."

-186. Luce; by day.-Custos; as a guard; that she may detect every thing.Teeti here, as opposed to turribus, palaces, signifies the common dwelling. Rumor busies herself in spying out the affairs both of the common people and of the great.- -188. Nuntia; in apposition with illa; a messenger adhering as much to the false and malicious as the true.—189. Tum; now; while Aeneas was at Carthage.—190. Gaudens. Rumor specially delights in slanders concerning public characters.—192. Cui viro; to whom, as a husband.—Dignetur; subjunctive in the oratio obliqua. Gr. 266, 2; Z. § 603. —193. Hiemem fovere; a bold expression for hiemem inter voluptates transigere; they were spending the winter in pleasure, and mutual endearments.——Quam longa (sit); as long as (it is); i. e. the entire winter. Comp. viii. 86.- -194. Regnorum; the kingdoms of both; that of Dido, as well as the future kingdom of Aeneas.- -195. In ora; we should have expected diffundit in aures, or spargit per ora; the poet means to include both ideas.

196-218. Iarbas calls upon Jupiter, his reputed father, to avenge the insult cast upon him by Dido in rejecting his offers of marriage, and receiving Aeneas, a mere fugitive from Asia.

196. Iarban. Iarbas, or Hiarbas, a powerful king of Numidia, pretended to be the son of Jupiter Ammon, or Hammon, whose worship he introduced throughout his dominions. Iarbas had sold the site of Carthage to

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Dido, and was one of her suitors.-198. Garamantide, for Libyca; Libyan. The Garamantes were a people dwelling in the country now called Fezzan.-200. Vigilem; perpetual; always burning on the altars.- -201. Excubias; watch-fires; in apposition with ignem ; the fire was keeping, as it were, never-ending vigils in the service of the gods.- -202. Variis sertis; with ever-renewed garlands. Fresh garlands were usual on the occasion of every sacrifice and festival; hence it is implied here as well as in pingue that the sacrifices were very numerous and constant.- -Solum and limina; accusatives after sacraverat. –203. Amens animi; furious. For the genit. see Gr. § 213, R. 1, (a); Z. § 437.—————204. Media inter numina; in the midst of the images of the gods; "in the divine presence;" in the temple. A temple consecrated to a particular deity, contained usually only the statue of that deity; a pantheon, on the contrary, contained the statues and altars of all the great gods, Jupiter's being the most conspicuous.- -205. Supinis; outstretched.

Jupiter Ammon.

-206. Nunc. Hitherto the worship of Jupiter has been unknown in this country; it is I, Iarbas, who have honored Jupiter by establishing it here.

-207.

-Maurusia; Moorish; used here to include the people of Iarbas.Epulata; after partaking of the festive banquet.-Lenaeum honorem; the libation of wine.- -209. Caeci; without aim; without purpose; blind; are -210. Inania murmura the lightnings, after all, not under thy direction ?

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Phrygian or Trojan youth.

and do they (the lightnings) mingle vain thunders?-do they occasion thunders, which also are not tokens of thy displeasure. and for which, therefore,

none need stand in fear of thee? -212. Pretio. See i. 367.-213. Leges, for imperium; dominion over the place; so Heyne; but others understand by leges, the conditions or terms, on which the place should be held; and the latter has the advantage of making the scorn of Iarbas the more pointed. She was so humble that she submitted to his terms in making her first settlement on the shore.-214. Repulit makes the inseparable re long. Gr. § 285, R. 3, (b).— -215. Paris; the term is applied to Aeneas in contempt of his nation, as well as of his present connection with Dido. Iarbas would claim to be another Menelaus.-Semiviro; the Romans in the republican period despised the dress of the Phrygians as effeminate. —216. Maconia; more strictly a Lydian country, but distinguished by the same habits of dress as Phrygia, whose inhabitants wore a peaked cap with lappets passing round the face, and meeting under the chin. See head of Priam, p. 395. In the cut on the preceding page the lappets are folded up on the temples.Mentum; the Greek accusative, (see i. 228,) to be joined with subnixus. Some editions have subnexus, fastened under, instead of supported.-Madentem; anointing the hair with perfumed oils was also a custom of Asiatic origin.- -217. Potitur; here of the third conjugation, as iii. 56; Gr. § 177; Z. § 210.—218. Quippe ; forsooth.- -Inanem ; empty; that brings me no real advantage; referring to his supposed relation to Jupiter.

219-278. Jupiter sends down Mercury to reproach Aeneas for his forgetfulness of his destiny and duty, in lingering so long in Carthage, and to require him to prepare immediately for his departure.

219. Aras tenentem; to be taken literally; in earnest supplication the worshippers laid hold upon the altars as if thus to come into close contact with the god of the altar.- -220. Moenia; Carthage.- -223. Vade age; hasten. Comp. iii. 462.- -Pennis; with your wings; referring to those on the sandals and on the cap of Mercury.- -225. Exspectat; is delaying. -228. Ideo; for such a purpose; namely, as that of dwelling at Carthage. Bis. Aeneas was rescued by his mother from Diomed, see on i. 97 sq., and Il. vi. 311, and again when in danger of perishing in the sack of Troy; see ii. 632, 633.—Vindicat; the present tense implies has saved, and is still protecting.- -229, 230. Qui regeret; such an one as should govern. Gr. § 264.- -231. Proderet; should propagate. Supply et. For the subjunctive imperfect as a future, after past tenses, see Z. § 496, 5.232. After accendit supply eum.9 -233. Super; on account of.in contrast with Ascanius.- -234. Pater; does he a father envy? Spe does not lose its vowel here.-236. Ausoniam ; Italian; his destined Latin descendants.- -237. Hic nuntius esto; let this be the message from me. -239. Talaria; winged sandals.- -242. Virgam; the caduceus, or wand, around which two snakes were coiled, the emblems of peace.- -244. Morte resignat; opens the eyes (of the deceased) from death; he conveys the dead to Hades, and thus unseals the eyes of the dead in conducting them to Hades. The true interpretation must remain doubtful. The one to be pre

-Ipsc,

-235.

ferred next to the above is that of Jahn, followed by Ladewig, which refers re to the foregoing dat somnos adimitque; thus: he closes and opens the eyes in (ordinary) sleep, (and) again he closes the eyes in death.- -245. Illa fretus; depending on this; sustained by this.- -246. Apicem; the summit. 247. Vertice. See on i. 741. Ovid describes the changing of Atlas into a mountain. Met. iv. 631-662.-Duri; much enduring. Comp. iii. 94.

-248. Atlantis; of Atlas, whose pine-bearing head continually encompassed by dark clouds, is lashed both by wind and rain.-Cui may be translated by whose, and might have been in the genitive limiting caput, but, as a dative, limits cinctum; the head being surrounded to whom. Piny is a frequent appellative of mountains.- -250. Tum; at the same time; then moreover.- -Mento; de is omitted.- -251. Praecipitant; rush down; se is omitted, as in ii. 9.- -252. Nitens; poising himself.-—————-Cyllenius ; Mercury is so called from his birth-place, Mount Cyllenus, in Arcadia. Mercury first rests on Mount Atlas, and then darts down to the point for which his flight was first directed. Milton has caught from this his description of the descent of Raphaël. Par. Lost, v. 266.- –253. Toto corpore; with his whole weight; allowing the weight of his body to have its full effect, without any resistance from the wings.-254. Avi; some bird, of the kind that feeds on fish, and hence is accustomed to dart down swiftly to the water, when it has caught sight of its prey.-255. Humilis, like sublimis, agrees with the person or thing whose situation is indicated.-256258. Haud aliter-proles. The authenticity of this passage is denied by Heyne, Wagner, and other commentators, and defended by Jahn, Wunderlich, and others of equal note. Ladewig follows the latter in regarding the verses as in keeping both with the manner of Virgil and Homer. Comp. above, 149, 150; Odyss. v. 51-54. Instead of ad governing litus some editions have ac.-————— -257. Secabat has the same termination as volabat in the foregoing verse. Such οἱμοιοτέλευτα are occasionally met with in the poets. See iii. 656, 657, v. 385, 386, vi. 844, 845.- -259. Tetigit; for the Mercury conveying the message of Jupiter. tense, see on i. 216.--Magalia. See on i. 421.-260. Tecta novantem; for nova tecta aedificantem.-262. Tyrio ardebat murice; was resplendent (glowed) with Tyrian purple. Murex was a shell-fish found on the coast of

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