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comp. ii. 34.-264. Honores; sacrifices. Comp. above, 118.—265. Minas; turn away their curses; prevent their fulfilment.- -266. Fanem; the hawser, or cable, which moors the ship to the shore.

267-277. The Trojans sail by the islands of the Ionian sea, Zacynthus, (Zante,) Dulichium, (Neochari,) Same, (Cephalonia,) Neritos, Ithaca, Leucate, (Santa Maura,) and reach Actium in Acarnania on the bay of Ambracia

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267. Exenssos laxare rudentes; equivalent to excutere et laxare rudentes; comp. 257; to uncoil and let out the ropes; those by which the sails were unfurled, and held in their places.-269. Vocabat. Virgil generally makes the verb agree with the nearest nominative. Comp. below, 552, i. 16, 574, ii. 597.-270. Zacynthos; now Zante. They coast along the west side of Greece to Buthrotum. Heyne compares with this passage, Od. ix. 24: Aovλίχιόν τε Σάμη τε καὶ ὑλήεσσα Ζάκυνθος. Dulichium is now Neochari.271. Same; afterwards Cephalenia, now Cephalonia.-Neritos; probably a small island near Ithaca; though some understand it to refer to the mountain of that name on the island of Ithaca.—272. Ithacae; Ithaca, the home of Ulysses, and of his father Laertes, is on the east side of Cephalonia, and now called Theaki.—274. Leucatae. The promontory of Leucata or Leucates, now cape Ducato, at the south end of the island of Leucadia, or Santa Maura.- -275. Et aperitur Apollo; and (after we have passed by Leucadia) the temple of Apollo comes into view. This was situated on the promontory of Actium, near the town of the same name, at the entrance of the Ambracian gulf; shipwrecks frequently occurred here, and hence the temple is said to be dreaded by sailors.-276. Fessi. Comp. 78.

278-289. At Actium they celebrate games in honor of Apollo, and leave a shield suspended on the door-post of the temple, with an inscription to commemorate their visit.

278. Insperata. Because they have encountered such dangers on the sea, and sailed so near the homes of their enemies.- -279. Lustramër Jovi; we perform lustral sacrifices to Jupiter; literally, we are purified to Jupiter. It is now the fifth year since the sack of Troy, and Virgil takes the opportunity to represent the Trojans as performing a lustration according to the practice of the Romans; thus referring that custom to their Troian ancestors. The lustral offering is made to Jupiter as supreme, and as representing all the gods. Of course, offerings are also made to Apollo. Augustus had ordered quinquennial games to be celebrated in honor of Apollo at Actium, to commemorate his decisive victory achieved there, in B. C. 31, over Antony and Cleopatra. By representing Aeneas as performing lustral games at the same place, and as thus being the founder of the Actian games, he pays a high compliment to Augustus.-Votis; for sacris; we light up the altars with sacrifices. Ladewig, however, makes votis, like Jovi, in the dative; for sacrifices.- -280. Celebramus litora ludis; for the prosaic form, celebramus in litoribus ludos; Gr. § 323, 4, (3); we celebrate the Trojan games on the Actian shores.- 281. Oles labente;

ablat. absol. The oil with which they were anointed flowed from their bodies while wrestling.—Palaestras; the games of the palaestra.--284. Circumvolvitur; the sun is completing its great circle; is bringing the year to its close; the accusative, according to Thiel and others, is governed by volvitur as a deponent verb. Comp. Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 125, agrestem Cyclopa movetur. See Gr. § 232, (2). Navigo, curro, vehor, volvor, are followed by the accusative in poetry. Great circle, is the annual circle or imaginary orbit of the sun.- -286. Aere. See on saxo above, 84.-Gestamen Abantis; the equipment of Abas; carried by Abas. This was an ancient king of the Argives, one of whose descendants, Virgil imagines, was slain by Aeneas at Troy; thus leaving to the victor his shield as a trophy, which is now fastened upon the door-post, (facing the visitor, adverso,) so as to meet the eye of one entering the temple. Shields were often suspended in temples as votive offerings, and it is as such a token of reverence and gratitude that Aeneas thus presents the shield of Abas in the temple of Apollo.- -287. Rem; the fact merely that it is an offering made by Aeneas.- -Carmine; with the verse; the verse following.- -288. Aeneas; supply dedicavit; Aeneas consecrated these arms (taken) from the victorious Greeks.

290-505. Aeneas sails again to the northward, and lands at Pelodes, the seaport of Buthrotum, in Epirus. At Buthrotum he has an interview with Helenus, the brother of Hector, and Andromache, formerly the wife of Hector, and more recently the slave of Pyrrhus, but now the wife of Helenus. By a wonderful combination of events, Helenus and Andromache have come to be the rulers of Chaonia, a part of Epirus. Just before parting with Aeneas, Helenus, who is a priest and prophet, gives him instructions and warnings about his future course; informing him that his new kingdom is to be planted, not on the nearest (or Adriatic) shore of Italy, but on the farthest (or Tyrrhenian) shore; that he must pass round the peninsula, shunning the new Greek colonies, established by Idomeneus, the Locri, and Philoctetes; that he must not enter the traits of Scylla and Charybdis, (the straits between Italy and Sicily,) but sail round Sicily by the south, and enter the Tuscan sea from Drepanum; that he must seek an interview with the prophetess or Sibyl at Cumae, (near Naples,) who will give him directions for his future guidance.

291. Phacacum; the people of Phacacia, afterwards Corcyra, and now Corfu; celebrated in the Odyssey.- -Abscondimus; we lose sight of; or pass rapidly away from.- -Arces; heights, or mountains. -292. Legimus; we coast along the shores, &c.—Porta; dative.- -293. Chaonio; the harbor is so called because situated in Chaonia, a region of Epirus. The name of the port pertaining to Buthrotum was Pelodes, now Armyro.—Buthroti; Buthrotum, or Buthrotus, now Butrinto, situated on high ground at some distance inland from the port. The genitive of geographical terms instead of the case in apposition, (urbem Buthrotum,) is mostly poetic.295. Helenum; Helenus; one of the sons of Priam, renowned as a prophet, (comp. Hom. Il. vi. 76.) Being made prisoner by the Greeks, he was carried by Pyrrhus, the son of Achilles, to Epirus. That the son of the principal enemy of the Greeks should now be a king in Grecian cities fills Aeneas with surprise. The position of the words aids the contrast of ideas.

Per; for in, where there is the idea of several individual objects contained within a great extent of space.- –296. Conjugio; for conjuge.————297. Patrio marito; a husband of her own country; i. e. of Troy, the country which had become hers by marrying Hector.- -Iterum cessisse; has again become subject to, or fallen to the lot of. Comp. cessit, 333, xii. 17. Helenus is her second Trojan husband; hence iterum, a second time.- -299. Casus tantos; such fortunes; such as those which have made a Trojan prince first a captive and slave, and now a king in Greece, and the husband of one who has been both the wife of his brother Hector and of Pyrrhus. The infinitives after amore, as in ii. 10.- -300. Progredior; Aeneas goes attended with a part of his companions only, and without Ascanius. Afterwards the Trojans are all entertained by Helenus.Portu. See on 292.

-301. Quum forte; not and thereupon, as in 10, in which sense it would have been followed by the present or perfect, instead of libabat, but as by chance, or at the moment when by chance.Solemnes dapes; annual funeral sacrifices; not solemn, in our acceptation of the term.- -302. Falsi Simoentis; the feigned, or counterfeit, Simois. Helenus and Andromache had indulged their love of country by applying Trojan names to this stream and to other objects in their new kingdom. See below, 335, 336, 349, 497.——— 303. Andromache, daughter of the Cilician king Eëtion, and formerly wife of Hector.—304. Hectoreum ad tumulum; at the tomb of Hector; this was a cenotaph, or tomb without the body, or ashes of the dead. Hector's real tomb was at Troy. For the possessive adjective, see on i. 200.-—————Viridi quem cespite inanem sacraverat; which, (formed) of green turf (and) empty, she had consecrated. For the ablat. see on 84.- -305. Geminas aras. See on 63.—Causam lacrimis; an occasion for tears; because the tomb and the altars would remind her of Hector.- –307. Magnis monstris; terrified by the great prodigy. To her the sudden apparition of Aeneas and his followers was the more likely to seem supernatural, because her mind was on the deceased Hector, and the scenes of the Trojan war in which Hector and Aeneas had been associated together.- -309. Longo tempore; for post longum tempus. The ablative is not unfrequently so used. See Z. § 480. -310. Vera; real; natural, or living.-Te; addressed to Aeneas.Facies; form; dost thou, as a real form, a real messenger, present thyself?

-311. Recessit; has departed from thee. The sense is: if thou art dead, and comest from the lower world, and from the assembly of Trojan heroes there, tell me where in that world is my Hector?- -313. Clamore; with loud lamentations. –314. Subjicio; scarcely do I utter in reply.- -Et

hisco; and much agitated I speak in faltering accents. Hiscere is to open the mouth with the effort, but almost without the power, to articulate.316. Answer to the question in 310.- -Vera; realities. -317. Dejectam conjuge; deprived of such a husband.- -318. Excipit; attends thee; literally, catches or overtakes thee. See on excipiet, i. 276.- -319. Hectoris Andromacho, etc.; once the Andromache of Hector, dost thou keep the mar

riage ties of Pyrrhus? The wife of the principal defende: of Troy, are you now united with Troy's bitterest enemy? Not said in reproach, but in grief that her hard fate is such. Ladewig adopts the conjectural reading of Peerlkamp in this passage. Thus: Aut quae digna satis fortuna revisií Hectoris Andromachen? Pyrrhin' connubia servas? For the genitive, Hectoris, see Gr. § 211, R. 7; Z. § 761. E in the interrogative ne is some. times elided as here in Pyrrhin'.- -320. Dejecit. She feels humiliated, though innocent of any voluntary misconduct, and therefore she answers with downcast looks. She is the victim of necessity and fate, but she cannot escape some sense of shame in the thought of her connection with Neoptolemus.-321. Virgo. The allusion is to Polyxena, the daughter of Priam. She was slain as a sacrifice at the tomb of Achilles, who had been enamored of her, and had sought her hand in marriage..- -323. Jussa; when commanded; the participle indicates the cause of felix.Sortitus ; allotments, distributions by lot. Compare the style of this passage with that of i. 94 sqq. -325. Nos; for ego; in contrast with Polyxena.- -Diversa. As above, in 4.—326. Stirpis Achilleae; for filii. Achillei; Pyrrhus. -327. Servitio enixae; having borne children in slavery. The tradition was that she bore three sons to Pyrrhus; Molossus, Pileus, and Pergamus.328. Lacedaemonios; Hermione was the daughter of Menelaus of Lacedaemon, and of Helen, the daughter of Leda. Her grandparents, Tyndareus and Leda, had promised her in marriage to Orestes, but her father gave her to Pyrrhus. Orestes, already frantic with the consciousness of having murdered his mother, (scelerum Furiis agitatus,) and still more maddened at the loss of his betrothed, (ereptae conjugis,) came upon Pyrrhus at Delphi, where he was worshipping at the altar erected to Achilles, (patrias aras,) and slew him.. -329. Famulamque. The particle que here connects famulo and famulam, in the sense of etiam, or et ipsam; gave me to Helenus a slave, (being) also myself a slave.- -332. Excipit. See on 318.- -Patrias ; equivalent to patris.- -333. Morte. Thiel makes this an ablative of time; at the death.- -Reddita; being delivered up. Ladewig says, being given again to a king; i. e. to king Helenus after king Pyrrhus. Helenus as a prophet had saved Pyrrhus on his homeward voyage, and thus won his gratitude.—335. Trojano Chaone. Chaon was a friend or brother of Helenus, for whom he is said to have sacrificed his life. The name of Chaonia, however, appears to date farther back than the time of Aeneas.336. Pergama Iliacamque arcem; the second term merely defines the first by epexegesis. Comp. i. 2: Italiam Lavinaque litora; and i. 569.- -Jugis; ablative of situation.—339, 340. Quid; supply agit; how fares the boy? -Superat? survive; as in ii. 643.- -Et vescitur-quae tibi jam Troja; and does she breathe the air of life, who (was married to thee) when Troy had been already (some time besieged.) Many editions have quem, referring to Ascanius, instead of quae, referring to Creüsa; and the idea, in that case, may be: whom (Creisa bore) to thee when Troy was already (sur.

rounded by the Greeks.) The supposition that Virgil left the line unfinished in order to express the emotion of Andromache is, perhaps, the most absurd explanation of the many which have been given of this passage. The verse, with the reading quem, may be thus completed: obsessa est enixa Creusa.

-341. Ecqua. Gr. § 137, R. 4; Z. § 136 at the end, and note.- -Tamen. Perhaps, according to the interpretation of Wagner, the poet fancies that some sudden exclamation, or gesture of grief on the part of Aeneas makes Andromache aware that Creüsa is lost. Tamen would then signify yet though she be dead.- -342. Ecquid; merely an emphatic interrogative particle; see Gr. § 198, ii. R. a and b; Z. § 351; do then his father, &c.? Do their characters, and the knowledge that he is related so nearly to them, stimulate him to noble conduct?- -343. Avunculus. Hector, according to Appolodor. iii. 12, 5, was the brother of Creüsa.- -344. Fundebat. This verb is so used also in v. 234, 842, and vi. 55.—345. Incassum; in vain; for grief cannot restore the dead.- -Fletus; lamentations.- -347. Suos; his countrymen.— -348. Multum; adverbially; abundantly, copiously.349-351. Trojam, Pergama, etc. shallow stream with (or of) the name of Xanthus. For the ablat. see Gr. § 211, R. 6, (1).-Amplector. It was the ancient custom to embrace and kiss the threshold, the gate and the door-post, either on leaving or returning to the ancestral roof. Comp. ii. 490. The Trojan names, in this instance, bring Aeneas to his home again.-352: Teneri. After the interview between Aeneas and his friends above described, all the Trojans are invited to share in the hospitalities of king Helenus.- -354. Aulai medio ; in the midst of the atrium, or court. See on i. 505; Gr. § 43 ; Z. § 45, n. 2. -Libabant pocula; they poured out cups of wine in libations. So remarkable a meeting required special honors to the gods. For pocula, see p. 360. -355. Impositis auro dapibus; having placed the feasts (or sacrifices for the gods) on golden chargers; as at a Roman lectisternium.- -Pateras tene. bant. They held the goblets while making libations. These religious ceremonies open the banquet given to the-guests.- -357. Tamido; swelling; that inflates.- -Carbasus; canvas; perhaps from the Sanscrit karpâsa, signifying cotton. Gr. § 92, 3.- -359. Interpres divum; interpreter of the divine counsels. The knowledge of future events was derived either from direct inspiration, or from signs. Helenus had both gifts. He receives the direct influence of Apollo, like the Pythia on the tripod at Delphi, or like the priests in the oracular grotto of Claros, in Ionia; he also understands the warnings of the stars and the notes and the flight of birds; that is, he is a prophet, an astrologer, and an auspex.- -362, 363. Prospera religio; auspicious augury. Religion is the observance of sacred rites and duties. As these include the consulting of oracles, and the other modes of ascertaining the future, religio is here for augury.- -Numine; for oraculo; by revelation; by divine tokens; the clause is explanatory of the foregoing.The infinitive for the subjunctive after suaserunt; comp. 144, above. See

See on 302.- -Arentem-rivum; the


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