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-125. Bacchatam; in the passive signification; there is no corresponding English term; Naxos revelled on its hills; Naxos, where Bacchus is worshipped on the hills. Comp. G. ii. 487. This island is the largest of the Cyclades. It was noted for the cultivation of the vine, and for the worship of Bacchus.- -126. Niveam; referring to the white marble of Paros, which rendered that island conspicuous from a distance on the sea.- -127. Cycladas; for the declension see Gr. § 86. Aeneas has particularized some of the Cyclades, and some of the Sporades, and now sums up the whole in the terms Cycladas and terris.-Legimus; we traverse. Comp. ii. 208; G. i. 327. It governs the foregoing accusatives, Naxon, &c.—Concita; aroused by, rushing by. This reading rests on the best authority. The idea is that the number and proximity of the islands render the sea, thus pent up and interrupted in its currents, rougher and more dangerous. The reading consita, given in many editions, means studded.-128. Vario certamine; as they approach more nearly the term of their voyage, they encourage one another to still greater effort. Their shouts and other tokens of encouragement pass from ship to ship; we may translate: with various signs of emulation; or by enallage, (Gr. § 323, 3, (b),) the various shouts of the sailors arise in emulation. Certamine; in the emulation to reach first the desired home.-129. Petamus. See on 134, below.- -131. Curetum; the Curetes were priests of Cybele, who worshipped the goddess with wild dances, accompanied by the clashing of their arms. They are often confounded with the Corybantes.-133. Pergameam; supply urbem. The real name was Pergamum.- -Cognomine. Comp. i. 275.- -134. Arcem attollere tectis; to build up the acropolis with roofs; that is, to make a citadel with buildings raised one above another; so Forbiger. Others make tectis the dative; to erect a citadel for (that is, for the defence of) their dwellings. Ladewig adopts this interpretation in his last edition. The infinitive after hortor is poetic. Comp. above, 129.-135. Jam fere; these words must be taken together; even now. Comp. v. 835-838. Hand's Thursell., Vol. 2, p. 694.-Subductae. See on 71.-136. Connubiis; here a trisyllable; connubyis.- –137. Jura domosque dabam; I was administering justice and assigning dwelling places. Comp. i. 507.wasting.- -Membris; to (upon) our bodies. the region of the air being infected; i. e. the phere pertaining to Crete.—139. Satis; upon our crops; same construction as membris. Lucretius teaches that in a pestilence first the air is infected, then the earth and water, and finally living creatures. Lucr. 6, 1089.- -140. Animas; for vitas.- -141. Steriles; an instance of prolepsis; as 30.-Exurere; historical infinitive; began to burn up.—Sirius; the dog star. Its rising, which occurred in the hot season, was supposed to produce the drought of that season. -142. Seges. Gr. § 300, exc. 2; Z. § 28.- -143. Ortygiae. See above, 124.144. Ire. See on 134.ablative absolute, with remenso, as pelago remenso, ii. 181; the sea


-Tabida; in an active sense; -138. Corrupto coeli tractu ; region, or tract, of the atmos

being recrossed.- -Veniam precari. The favor to be asked of Apollo is a revelation, informing them what end, &c.; the clauses introduced by quam, unde, and quo being thus dependent on the idea of responding or instructing implied in veniam.—145. Fessis rebus. Comp. i. 452.—Ferat, like da in 89, is said of Apollo as being able to relieve them by declaring what the fates decree concerning them.— -146. Tentare; to seek for.—147. Nox erat. Observe Virgil's favorite method of introducing an impressive incident. Comp. ii. 268, iv. 522.- -Terris; ablative of situation.- -148. Phrygii. See on ii. 68.- -150. Visi; it was a dream; as in ii. 270.Jacentis; supply mei, limiting oculos.- -151, 152. Se fundebat gives more fulness of meaning than lucem fundebat. -Insertas fenestras; openings left, or constructed in the walls.- -154. Delato; when, or if, conveyed to Delos.- -Dicturus est; is on the point of saying;. would say. Gr. § 162, 14; Z. § 498.—155. Ultro; of their own accord; without being first invoked. This condescension is in return for the piety of Aeneas in saving the images of the penates amidst such dangers.-156, 157. Secuti, permensi (sumus.) -158. Idem; for iidem; it is used here in the sense of etiam. See Gr. § 207, R. 27; Z. § 697.————In astra. Wagner makes in with astra ferre, tollere, &c., an actual apotheosis, and this passage would accordingly refer to Romulus, as well as Julius and Augustus Caesar, the nepotes of Aeneas, who were carried up to heaven, and called divi. —Ad, with sidera, astra, coelum, denotes either an actual apotheosis, as i. 259, or an exalting to great glory, as below, 462, vi. 130; comp. vii. 99, 272. But Thiel refers the expression here to the glory of the descendants of Aeneas in general; not to their being literally exalted to heaven.- -159. Magnis (viris).- -160. Para. Aeneas was not actually to build the great city of Rome, but only to prepare the way for it by founding Lavinium.—Fugae; the voyage. -Ne linque; shun not. -161. Non suasit; did not point out. -162. Delius. Apollo is so called from Delos, his native island.- -Aut. See on ii. 779.- -Cretae; for in Creta. Gr. § 221, R. 1; Z. § 398, note 1. -163-166. See the same lines, i. 530–533.- -167. Nobis; the penates identify themselves with the Trojans.-Dardanus. The brothers Dardanus and Iasius were natives of Corythus, now called Cortona, a city of Etruria. They migrated from Italy to Samothrace, and from thence Dardanus passed over to the Troad, where he married the daughter of Teucer, and received with her a share of the kingdom, which thus took the name of Dardania. The later name of Troy was derived from his grandson, Tros.168. Pater; this term applies to Iasius as being, in common with his brother, an original member of the family, or one of the patriarchs.- -170. Requirat; let him (Anchises) seek; Anchises is recognized as the chief adviser and director of their movements.- -171. Dictaea; another term for Cretan, from Dicte, a mountain in the eastern part of the island.- -173. Nec soper erat; nor was that a deep slumber; it was not a dream such as might attend a deep sleep, leaving but a vague and feeble impression; it was like a real

vision, seen by one when awake. That he was really as kep, and that this was a dream, though a preternatural one, and meant to be a warning, is evident from the words agnoscere videbar; I seemed to recognize.Illud ; the regular construction would be ille; but the indefinite neuter is sometimes used instead of the pronoun in agreement with the following noun. See Madvig, § 313, obs.; comp. vi. 129.— -174. Velatas comas; their veiled locks; i. e. bound with the vittae or fillets. See ii. 168, 296.- -175. Gelldus; the effect of fear.- -Corpore; from my body. Lucret. 6, 945: manat e toto corpore sudor.- -176, 177. Supinas manus; my suppliant hands; the palms upward.- -177, 178. Munera intemerata; libations of unmixed wine.

-Focis; on the hearth; the altar of the penates.Laetus. Join with facio, not honore; I joyful, or joyfully, inform. Comp. 169.- -Perfecto honore; the libation having been made. -179. Ordine pando; I narrate.

-180. Prolem ambiguam; the twofold lineage; i. e. the descent both from Teucer of Crete and from Dardanus of Italy.-180. Agnovit governs both prolem, parentes, and the infinitive deceptum esse, as direct objects.

-181. Novo; of the present day, modern; it was natural that at this late day Anchises should be liable to err in deciding which of the early homes of his ancestors the oracle meant.- -Veterum locorum; an objective genitive after errore; in respect to ancient places or ancestral seats. Veterum is in contrast with novo.— -183. Tales casus; such fortunes; namely, as that we should wander so far and settle in Italy.-Cassandra. See on ii. 246. -184. Repeto; for memini.- -Portendere; supply eam; that she prophesied. See on ii. 25.- -185. Vocare; that she mentioned.- -187. Crederet, moveret; questions of appeal; who could believe? whom at that time could Cassandra as a prophetess move? See on ii. 8.- -188. Moniti; warned; i. e. by the vision.- -189. Dicto; the command of Anchises.190. Quoque; also this settlement as well as the one in Thrace.-Paucis relictis; a few (of our number) being left. In Virgil's time, Pergamum, and the supposed descendants of the Trojan colonists, still existed in Crete.191. Trabe; trabs, pinus, and rates are frequent in poetry for navis.Carrimus; we traverse. Comp. i. 67, v. 235; ́see Gr. § 232, (2); Z. § 383.

192-266. The Trojans, having set sail from Crete, are driven about by a storm for three days and nights, and on the fourth reach the Strophades, small islands west of the Peloponnesus, where the Harpies dwell. The Trojans are annoyed by the IIarpies and make an assault upon them. Celaeno, one of their number, pronounces curse upon the Trojans, and they leave the island in terror.

193. Apparent coelum-pontus; the connective sed must be supplied before coelum.- -194. Caeruleus; dark. Comp. above, 64.-Adstitit; a livelier word than surrexit.- -195. Noctem; for darkness, as i. 89.-Inhorruit unda tenebris; the wave became rough in the dark shadows; the sca became boisterous or bristling, and was overspread with the gloomy shadow of the clouds.- -199. Abstulit. Comp. i. 88.-Ingeminant abrupt. unb. igues; the lightnings continually flash from the severed clouds. The clouds

themselves are fancied to be divided by the lightnings.- -200. Caecis; for tenebrosis; dark; completely shrouded in darkness.- -201. Discernere ; even Palinurus says that he cannot distinguish the day and the night; that he does not perceive when the day ends and the night begins in the heavens.- -202. With nec supply dicit, which is occasionally omitted, as here, after negat.- -Meminisse; for scire; supply se; and says that he does · not know his course in the midst of the wave.— -Palinurus; the pilot of Aeneas. -203. Tres adeo soles; three whole days; three, even so many.Incertos caeca caligine. The days are called uncertain in which their way is uncertain on account of the profound darkness. Comp. vi. 270.- -206. Aperire montes; to disclose its mountains; to bring its mountains into view. -Volvere fumum. Thus the Trojans suppose it to contain the dwellings of men. -207. Remis insurgimus. They exchange sails for oars, in order to have the ships more under their command as they approach the shore, where there may be rocks and shallows. Insurgere rem. corresponds to our "spring to the oars." Comp. 560, v. 189.- -208. Caerula; the adjective is used substantively; the azure deep. Gr. § 205, R. 7, (2).————209. Strophadum. The Strophades, now called Strivoli, are two small islands situated in the Ionian sea west of the Peloponnesus and south of Zacynthus. The Harpies are said to have been driven thither from the kingdom of Phineus in Thrace by the Argonauts, Zetes and Calais, the sons of Boreas. The name of the islands is derived from σrpépei, as the pursuers of the Harpies, by the command of Jupiter, here turned back to Greece.- -210. Stant;

are situated; a lively substitute for sunt, as incedo, i. 46, and colitur, above, 73.- -211. Insulae Ionio in magno. The last syllable in Ionio is not elided, but shortened. See Gr. § 305, (2); Z. § 9.-212. Harpyiae, (trisyllable,) äpπviai (åрTá(w,) the plunderers.Aliae; the others whose names are known were Ocypete and Aëllo. -Phineia. See on Priameïa, ii. 403.213. Clausa. The house of Phineus was shut to the Harpies when they were expelled by the Argonauts. They had tormented Phineus by constantly devouring or defiling all the food that was placed upon his table.- -215. Pestis et ira; plague and curse. -216. Virginei volucrum vultus; the faces of the winged creatures are virgin like. They have wings and human faces.−220. Laeta; fat.-221. Nullo custode; ablat. absol.: there being no guard. They were sacred to the Harpies, and left to feed, as was usual with sacred animals, without a herdsman.-222, 223. Divos-Jovem. We devote a portion of the prey as a sacrifice to the gods, out of gratitude for our preservation.for in partem praedae. Comp. i. 61.


-In partem praedamque; hendiadys

-221. Toros; couches, or seats of


-Dapibus. Gr. § 245, ii. 4.- -225. Subitae, instead of the adverb subito. -Horrifico lapsu; in terrific flight, or descent; ablat. of manner.

-226. Clangoribus perhaps refers to the loud flapping of their wings on alighting. Comp. i. 397. But Wagner compares Hom. II. iii. 5, κλayyŵ TaίYE TÉTOVTαι, and understands their discordant cries, indicated also in vox dira, 228.220, 230. Comp. i. 310, 311.-231. Aris; altars erected for the sacrifices mentioned in 222, 223.- -232. Diverso coeli; from an opposite part of the heaven. Gr. § 205, R. 9; Z. § 435.scuris.- -233. Pedibus; instead of manibus. See 217, Edico; I direct; as a verb of commanding, followed by the subjunctive (ut) capessant, and, as implying I announce, also followed by the infinitive, gerendam esse. -236. Haud secus ac; not otherwise than.- -Jussi; supply

-Caecis ; for obabove.- -235.



facere.- -236, 237. Tectos, latentia. Instances of prolepsis. See on i. 637.- -239. Specula; some high rock serves as a watch-tower.The trumpeter of the fleet. See vi. 162 sq.- -241. Obscenas; all that betokened evil was obscenus. Comp. below, 367, iv. 455, xii. 876; Ladewig. -Foedare; to mutilate; in apposition with proelia. See on i. 703.242. Nec vulnera tergo; nor wounds on their bodies. Comp. i. 635.Sub sidera; towards heaven.- -244. Semiesam; trisyllable here; sem-ye-sam. -246. Infelix; ill boding.—Rumpit describes her fury; pours this curse from her breast.——247, 248. Bellam etiam pro caede bellumne; war also in return for the slaughter of our oxen, &c.—war? One outrage, the slaying of our oxen, is not enough, but instead of atoning for that, making some suitable return, you now attack the owners of the oxen too. Laomedontiadae. Sometimes a reproachful epithet, as Laomedon was base, comp. iv. 542; but not always so. See vii. 105, viii. 18, and 158.249. Patrio regno; out of our father's dominion; for the Harpies were daughters of Pontus or Poseidon. But patrio may mean their own, that assigned to them by Jupiter.- -251. Pater omnipotens. Jupiter was the source of all the attributes of his children, and thus imparted to Apollo the gift of prophecy, and the power to inspire others with prophecy.- -252. Furiarum. Not the Furies, strictly so called, but of such beings as the furies.-Pando; supply ea, the antecedent of quae; Gr. § 206, (4); these things I disclose.- -253. Ventis vocatis; having propitiated the winds. Comp. above, 115, and v. 59.254. Italiam. See on i. 2.256. Nostrae caedis; of our slaughter; our attempted slaughter.-257. Ambesas. See on submersas, i. 69.—Subigat; after antequam. Gr. § 263, 3; Z. § 576.25%. Malis, not mălis. This prophecy is attributed, in vii. 123, (where it is fulfilled,) to Anchises.- -259. Gelidus. Comp. 30, above.- -260. Jam amplius. Comp. above, 192.-Armis; nor do they now wish any more-to seek security with arms, but with vows and prayers.- -261. Jubent; for volunt.- -Exposcere may be translated seek.- -Pacem is not improper in connection with armis, any more than with votis precibusque; for we can either fight for, or pray for peace. 262. Sive-sen sint. Z. § 522;

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