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fatis Venerique datum; ix. 135.- -292. Hac; with this; with mine. For the subjunctive imperf. and plup. after si, see Gr. § 261, 1; Z. § 524.293. Sacra; supply sua; her sacred things and her household gods. A limiting word pertaining equally to two substantives is sometimes expressed only with the last. Comp. surgentem, i. 366. The penates of Troy are those which pertain to the whole state in common, as distinguished from those of individual families.- -294. Comites; as companions; in apposition with hos.- -His; dative.- -Moenia; for urbem.-295. The order is: quar magna, ponto pererrato, denique statues. Comp. iii. 159. Rome is the great city referred to; for Aeneas, in establishing the dynasty in Italy which ultimately built Rome, is the virtual founder of Rome itself.—296, 297. The vision seems to bring the small figure of Vesta, (as one of the penates,) the fillets, and other things which pertained to her worship, from the penetralia, or sanctuary of the house; thus indicating that Aeneas will soon be called upon to take charge of this and the other penates of Troy.————— 298. Moenia; the city.- -Miscentur; are confused. Comp. i. 124, iv. 160.

-Diverso luctu; with various sounds of woe; or, according to Heyne, with sounds of woe from various quarters. Comp. xii. 620.-299, 300. Secreta-recessit; stood apart and solitary; the house of Anchises was remote from the Scaean gate, where the enemy were chiefly assembled, and was also solitary, or without neighboring houses. Recessit, as refugit, iii. 536, denotes here situation without motion.- -302. Excutior somno; I am roused from sleep.- -303. Arrectis auribus. Comp. i. 152, ii. 206.- -304. Veluti quam; as the shepherd is ignorant (inscius) of the remote cause of the devastation around him, so Aeneas, at first stupefied by what he hears and sees, does not comprehend the origin and nature of the uproar. Comp. x. 405, xii. 521.- -Farentibus Austris; ablative absolute: while the winds are raging. Austris, for winds in general, as in i. 536.- -305. Rapidus montano flumine; (made) impetuous by the mountain flood; the ablative is the cause of rapidus, which is equivalent to qui factus est rapidus.- -306. Boum labores; by metonymy for segetes. -30%. Inscias; ignorant (of the cause.)――――308. Accipiens; hearing.-309. Fides; the truth, or the fact; namely, that the Greeks had got possession of the city; so fides is used, iii. 375, and Livy, vi. 13.- -310. Deiphobi. Deïphobus was one of the sons of Priam. His death is described in vi. 509 sq.- -311. Vulcano; for fire. See on i. 215.- -Proximas; next to the house of Deïphobus.- -312. Ucalegon; a bold metonymy for the house of Ucalegon. Comp. iii. 275. Ucalegon is mentioned as one of the Trojan princes in the Iliad, iii. 148. Sigea freta; the Sigean waters, or bay; so called from Sigeum, now Jenischeer, or Yenischehr, a promontory at the mouth of the Dardanelles, about five miles northwest of Troy.-313. Clamorque clangorque. Comp. i. 87. The tuba, though mentioned here, was not invented until long after the heroic age.-Nec sat rationis (est mihi;) nor have I enough of deliberation · I have not a clear purpose in (scizing) arms; not considering what is to



be done or gained by fighting. For the genit. see Gr. § 212, R. 4.——315. Bello; dative for ad bellum. Comp. iii. 540.-315. Arcem; the citadel. -Animi; the plural of animus usually denotes powerful emotion.317. Pulchrum; the predicate accusative after esse understood, which has mori for its subject: to die is glorious. Gr. § 205, R. 8, and § 269, R. 2; Z. § 597. Succurrit; for the more usual occurrit; it comes to my mind, that, &c.; in the midst of the excitement I have one thought only, namely, that it is glorious to die in arms.— -318. Ecce. Comp. 203.-Panthus ; mentioned in the 15th Book of the Iliad. The Greek form of the word is Πάνθους, Πάνθους, hence the Lat. voc. Panthu from the Greek πάνθου. See Gr. § 54, 5; Z. § 52, 2.——Arcis Phoebique; priest of the citadel only so far as he was priest of Apollo, whose temple, like those of the other tutelary gods, was on the citadel.-320. Sacra deosque. Comp. above, 293.Victos; as in i. 68.– –321. Cursu tendit; hastens; literally, holds (his way) with running.- -Limina; (my) threshold; the house of Anchises and Aeneas. The arrival of Panthus with the sacred things accords with the words of Hector's ghost: Troy commits to thee her gods. See 293.322. Res summa; the public welfare; our common cause; in what condition is the chief interest? Some understand: at what point is the principal conflict going on? Forbiger prefers the former interpretation.—Quam prendimus arcem? what stronghold do we (or are we to) seize? Since you, Panthus, have fled from the citadel itself, what stronghold is still remaining in our hands, or, for us to lay hold of for defence? This appears to be the most reasonable interpretation among the many which have been proposed

for this doubtful passage.- -Prendimus, for prendemus. "The present is

sometimes used for the future-when one asks oneself what must be done or thought on the instant." Madvig, § 339, obs. 2.—324. Summa ; final.

-325. Fuimus-fait; we have been Trojans, Ilium has been. This is an emphatic way of saying, we have ceased to be Trojans, Ilium no longer exists. See Gr. § 259, R. 1, (2), (a).- -326. Ferus; unpitying.—329. Sinon. See on 259.-Miscet; scatters all around.330. Insultans expresses the joy Sinon feels in the success of his stratagem, as well as his contempt for the victims of it.—Alii; others; opposed to that portion of the Greeks who have descended from the horse.- -Bipatentibus portis; at the open gates; more fully translated: at the gates having their double doors thrown open. Comp. 266.-331. Millia quot; supply the antecedent tot, the subject of adsunt understood: so many thousands are present as, &c. See on i. 430.Mycenis. Gr. § 255; Z. § 398.- -332. Alii; others; another portion of the same countless host meant by the first alii, the greater part of whom are still at the gate, while some of their number, the second alii, have already penetrated into the streets of the city. This is Wagner's explanation.Angusta viarum; for angustas vias; the narrow passages. See on i. 422; Gr. § 212, R. 3; n. 4; Z. § 435.—333. Oppositi; opposed, that is, to the Trojans who attempt to escape.

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Aeneas rushing to battlo.

334. Stat stricta; a lively expression for est stricta; suggesting the erect position of the blade. Mucrone corusco; an ablative of manner limiting stat.—Primi; those who are foremost, or nearest to the gate, and who are the first to attempt resistance.- -335. Caeco Marte; in the furious conflict. Caeco is not here dark, or nocturnal, for the scene is lighted up by the conflagration, and it is moonlight.-336. Numine divum; by the divine impulse; not by his own deliberate purpose, for he had not sat rationis in armis.- -337. Tristis Erinys; the dark fury; the gloomy spirit of conflict.- -339. Addunt se socios; join me as comrades. Comp. vi. 778. The names here given are invented by Virgil.- -341. Agglomerant; supply se; gather around.Nostro; for meo, as in 139. -Coroebus; the son of Mygdon, a Phrygian king, described by postHomeric poets as the accepted suitor of the mad Cassandra, and slain either by Diomedes or Neoptolemus.- -343. Insano; passionate, ardent; a common signification of the word; though some refer it here to the hopelessness of his love; frantic love.—344. Gener; as a (future) son-in-law.— 345. Furentis; prophetic. See on 246.- -346. Audierit; subjunctive under the same principle as above, 248.✈✈✈34%. Quos ubi vidi ; and when I saw them. Gr. § 280, iii. 1; Z. § 803.- -Audere; venturing upon. Gr. § 272, R. 5.348. Super; for insuper, moreover; as in i. 29. The connection seems to be this: besides the enthusiasm they already manifest, I seek to enkindle more, and so begin with these words. –His is regarded by Thiel as

an ablative of manner; comp. talibus, i. 559; by Forbiger and others as a dative for ad hos.- -349. Pectora; as animi, 144, for persons.- -Audentem; supply me.- -Si vobis-est. The protasis is in the indicative, since there is no uncertainty, and the apodosis, moriamur and ruamus are for the imperative. See Arnold's Lat. Prose, 435, foot-note g.- -Extrema; destruction; extreme perils.—350. Certa cupido; a fixed desire; implying both desire and resolve.- Sequi. For the inf. depending on cupido est vobis, see note on 10.- -Sit. Gr. § 265; Z. § 552. What is the state of (lit. to) our fortunes. -351. Excessere. The ancients believed that the capture of a city or country was preceded by the departure of its tutelary gods. Thus Horace, O. 1: Juno et deorum quisquis amicior Afris inulta cesserat impotens tellure. Adytis; ablative absolute with relictis. –352. Quibus; through whom; ablative of means. Gr. § 247, R. 4; Z. § 455.-Steterat; had flourished. Comp. v. 56, i. 268.- -353. Moriamur -ruamus. “Let us die, and (to that end) rush into the midst of the enemy.” Ladewig. Others take it for a striking example of the hysteron proteron. Gr. § 323, 4, (2). Comp. iii. 662.- -354. Una salus; predicate nominative: to hope for no safety is the only safety of the conquered.- -356. Raptores. See Gr. § 205, R. ii.; comp. i. 21.- -357. Exegit; has driven forth; i. e. from their dens.- -Caecos; blind; i. e. to all danger.- -359. Mediae. See on 218.- -360. Nox atra. The moon is at times obscured; as we learn from 397, 420, and 621.—Cava umbra. Comp. i. 516, v. 810, ix.

-Labores; ca


671, x. 636.- -361, 362. Fando explicet. Comp. 6, 7.lamities.-364, 365. Perque-Perque. See on i. 18. The repetition of the preposition gives emphasis.Inertia ; lifeless; referring to the corpses of the slain. Others, with Heyne and Thiel, refer it to the helpless bodies of old men, women, and children, and persons unfit for war. Observe the climax in vias, domos, deorum limina, throughout the streets, dwellings, temples.——Poenas dant sanguine; suffer punishment with blood; suffer death. Comp. 72.-367. Quondam; sometimes. Comp. 416, vii. 699, xii. 863. -369. Ubique; everywhere. Z. § 288.-Pavor. Gr. § 309, R. 1, (1). -Plurima imago; very many an image; meaning many a repetition of death, innumerable corpses, representations of death, everywhere seen; thus Ovid, Met. 10, 726, repetitaque mortis imago.- -371. Androgeos; Androgeus, a Grecian hero, not mentioned in Homer.-—Credens; supposing; supply nos esse.- -372. Ultro; at once, first; as in 279; without being first addressed.- -376, 377. Fida responsa; reliable answers.— -Sensit delapsus; having fallen he perceived (it); a Greek idiom for sensit se delapsum esse. G. § 271, n. 3; Z. § 612, at the end; Kühner § 310, 3.Retro repressit; withdrew or checked Comp. 169.- -379. Veluti, etc.; a comparison derived from the Iliad, iii. 33 sqq.- -Aspris; for asperis.380. Humi nitens; walking on (or along) the ground. Gr. § 221, R. 3, (1); Z. § 400, 2d paragraph.- -380, 381. Refugit attollentem iras; has fled back from him, throwing his angry head upward; "throwing his neck upward threatening wrath." Thiel. Iras is equivalent to iratum caput.Colla. Greek acc.- -Et densis etc.; and we surround them with our serried arms; the dative iis is understood; we are poured about (to) them. Gr. 249, R. 3; Z. § 418.--que connects the verbs circumfundimur and sternimus.- -385. Labori; conflict; like πóvos in Homer.- -386. Successu— animisque; exulting with success and with ardor; both are ablatives of cause; both success and boldness of spirit make the youth exult. In like manner confidence of spirit is assigned as a cause of exsultare, in v. 398. Hence it is unnecessary to suppose any zeugma here.—387. Qua. Comp. i. 401.388. Ostendit se dextra; for ostendit se dextram; shows herself favorable; dextra, adjectively, agreeing with fortuna.- -389. Insignia; martial ornaments; the arms by which the Greeks were distinguished from the Trojans; especially their helmets and shields, with their peculiar devices.

-390. Dolus; supply sit.—Requirat; a question of appeal. See on 8. 391. Deinde. See on i. 195.- -392, 393. Insigne decorum induitur ; puts on the beautiful device. Shields were often adorned with raised work in bronze, representing sometimes a thunderbolt, or some formidable ani. mal, or, as on the shield of Achilles, scenes from life and history. For the acc. instead of the ablat. after induitur, see Gr. § 234, R. 1; Z. § 458, 3d paragraph.- -394. Rhipens; dissyllable. See on i. 521.- -398. Hand numine nostro; not under a favorable divinity; literally, not under our own divinity. Noster and the other possessives sometimes have the force of se

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