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the common soldiery.-120, 121. Ima ossa; through our inmost bones. The marrow was regarded as the seat of animal heat Comp. iii. 308, ix.. 475.——————-Cui fata parent; (fearing) for whom the fates are preparing (death). This and the following question depend on metuentium implied in the foregoing cucurrit tremor.- -Quem poscat Apollo; whom Apollo demands (for the sacrifice;) i. e. who it is that the oracle of Apollo means.-122. Hic; here; as an adverb of time. Comp. ibi, 40; i. 728, et al.- -123. Protrahit; drags forth; Calchas pretends to be reluctant.- -Ea numina divnm; these commands of the gods; Ulysses demands of Calchas what person is meant by these divine revelations.- -124. Jam canebant; were already foretelling.125. Artificis; of the plotter. The cunning of Ulysses, as Sinon wished the Trojans to understand, was not exercised in devising the oracle, for that was authentic, but in turning the oracle to his private purpose by causing his tool Calchas to single out Sinon as the victim. -Ventura; what was to come. -126. Bis quinos. Comp. i. 71, 381, and note.-Tectus; with hidden purpose; covered in respect to his mind. So Heyne; but Henry, quoted by Forbiger, takes it literally, covered: "shut up in his tent."- -127. Prodere; to announce. -129. Composito; by agreement; for ex composito. Calchas had a private understanding with Ulysses, as to the individual who should be assigned to the altar.-131. Conversa (ea); equivalent to earum rerum conversionem; the turning of these things. See Gr. § 274, R. 5, (a); Z. § 637. They (readily) suffered the turning of those dangers, which each feared for himself, to the destruction of one unhappy wretch; because when once I was declared the victim they were all relieved from farther apprehensions. -132. Parari; were being prepared; historical infinitive.- -133. Salsae fruges; for mola salsa; the salted meal. Comp. iv. 517. Grain pounded, parched, and mixed with salt, was thrown upon the sacrifice.--Vittae; fillets, or twisted bands of white and red wool, adorned the heads both of the priest and of the victim.134. Fateor; I confess; the term implies that it might be considered culpable to have shrunk from a sacrifice demanded by religion. But Sinon knows that the Trojans will hold him guiltless, because he was unjustly doomed to the altar. -Vincula; "The cords with which he was bound when being led to the altar." Heyne. Others merely understand imprisonment, bonds.135, 136. Obscurns delitui; unseen I lay hid; hid and unseen. Comp. vi. 268.- -Dum vela dedissent; until they should have set sail; another instance of the pluperfect subjunctive used as a future perfect in narration. See on 94.- Si forte; if perhaps; the uncertainty is whether the Greeks would, after all, set sail without having made the appointed sacrifice of one of their own countrymen.- -139. Et poenas; the reading ad poenas does not rest on good authority. We must regard quos as an accusative of the person, and poenas as an accusative of the thing, under Gr. § 231; Z. § 393: from whom perchance they will both demand punishment on account of my escape, and will expiate this (my) fault by the

vii. 606.

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death of (my) unhappy (friends). Reposcere also takes two accusatives in -141. Quod; wherefore, as to which; as in Greek % for κað' & d. Gr. § 206, (14); comp. vi. 363.— -Te; addressed to Priam.—142. Per; the following clause suggests the object of per: if there is still any pure faith remaining anywhere among (to) men, by this I adjure thee. Comp. vi. 459; x. 597, 903.—Quae restet. Gr. § 264, 6; Z. § 561.— 143. Laborum; misfortunes; for the case see Gr. § 215; Z. § 442.——144. Animi; a spirit; put for the person himself.- -Non digna; undeserved.145. Lacrimis. Thiel and Ladewig make this an ablative of cause: by reason of these tears; others consider it a dative; to these tears; for illi lacrimanti.- -145. Ultro; Servius explains by insuper, moreover, not spontaneously, because it is his pathetic story which has called forth sympathy. For the infinitive after jubet, see Gr. § 273, 2, (d); Z. § 617.—148. Amissos; whom you have lost.—Hinc; henceforth; adv. of time.—Graios; for the case, see Gr. § 216; Z. § 439.————149. Haec edissere vera; declare these things to me true (truthfully); edissere imperative from e, dis, and sero.————— 150. Quo; whereto, for what purpose.- -151. Quae religio, etc.; what devotion (token of devotion) is it, or (if none) what engine of war?- -154. Aeterni ignes; perpetual fires; sun, moon, and stars. Comp. iii. 599; ix. 429.-155. Enses; the sacrificial knives. See page 596. All the holy objects Sinon appeals to, are witnesses of the outrage he has suffered, and that he is held by no tie of loyalty to his countrymen.-157. Fas; supply est.- -158. Ferre sub auras; to bring to the light; sub, up to.—159. Si qua tegunt; if they (the Greeks) conceal any thing. For the form of the pronoun, see Gr. § 138, 2; Z. § 136.-160. Promissis; the prose construction is in promissis maneas; abide by thy promises; comp. viii. 643; stare is more common than manere in this phrase.-163. Auxiliis stetit ; depended on the aid. Gr. § 245, ii. 5; Z. § 452, second paragraph.— Ex quo; from what time; relative to ex illo, below, 169.- -164. Tydides. See on i. 97.- -Sed enim; elliptical as in i. 19: but (their confidence failed) for, &c. For the position of the words, see on 73.-165. Fatale Palladium; the Palladium of destiny; so termed because the fate of Troy depended on its preservation.- -Aggressi; having attempted. The Palladium was a small image of Pallas which was believed to have fallen from heaven, and was guarded by the Trojans with great care, being even bound to the wall of the temple by chains, because the safety of the city depended on the possession of the


Diomedes and Ulysses.


-Avellere; to tear away; referring to the fact that the Palladium was bound.—168. Vittas; the fillets round the head of the image. Fluere, referri. Historical infinitives; comp. 98; translate: from that time the hope of the Greeks began to wane, and gliding down, to be carried back again. This metaphor seems to be drawn from a ship which the rowers have suddenly ceased to propel against the current, so that it again falls down the stream. Such is Wagner's explanation, which is sustained by G. i. 200. Others understand it differently.-171. Ea signa; these tokens; i. e. tokens of these things, or of her displeasure. Comp. iii. 505.- -Tritonia; an appellation of Minerva, either derived from the name of a stream in Boeotia called Triton, or from that of the Libyan lake Tritonis. Both of them are mentioned by different myths as places of her birth.-Monstris ; by prodigies.-172. Castris; ablative.—Simulacrum; the Palladium. -173. Luminibus arrectis; from her starting eyeballs.- -174. Ipsa; she herself; the image itself bodily, as opposed to its parts; not only the eyes glared, but the whole image was animated.- -Ter. See on i. 94. -Solo. Gr. § 242.-Dieta. See on i. 111.—175. Emienit; leaped up.-—176. Canit; declares, announces. As priests and prophets always made their revelations and uttered their prayers in metrical formulas, the verb cano, to sing or chant, comes to signify both prophecy, announce, and pray. Comp. 124. That an image should show such miraculous signs of anger, is a sufficient reason to the minds of the Trojans, as Sinon is well aware, for the advice of Calchas and the hasty departure of the Greeks. There is therefore no difficulty now in believing that the Greeks have actually gone, and that what Sinon adds about the destination of the wooden horse is reasonable and true.-178. Omina ni repetant Argis; unless they seek the omens again in Greece. Gr. § 254. They had before sailing for Troy taken the omens at Aulis; and they must now repeat the ceremony either there or in some other part of Greece. Perhaps Virgil has reference to the practice of Roman generals, who, under certain circumstances, went back to Rome to renew the auspices.- -Numen; the divinity; meaning the palladium itself; though some understand by the term here the divine favor; an interpretation inconsistent with the following line.- –179. Quod-avexere; which (says Sinon) they have carried away. This is not the statement of Calchas, which would have been quoted indirectly here and therefore in the subjunctive mode, but the language of Sinon himself. -180. Quod petiere-parant; as to the fact that they have sought, &c., (it is because) they are preparing. Gr. § 206, (14); Z. § 626, note, and § 627.-181. Arma deosque; reinforcements for war and the favor of the gods.183. Moniti; being instructed; namely, by Calchas.- -Pro; as a substitute for, in place of. Here Sinon comes to the most delicate part of his story; he must give a plausible reason both for the building of the horse, and for its vast size, and ne must make such suggestions as shall induce the Trojans to take it into the city.184. Quae piaret; to atone for. Gr § 264, 5; Z. § 567.

185, 186. The emphasis is on inmensom and coelo. They were not only advised to build this substitute for the Palladium, but to build it of vast dimensions, and to rear it to heaven, so that the Trojans might not get it into the city to serve as a new Palladium, and that they might be tempted through suspicion to lay violent hands upon it, and thus incur the anger of Minerva. 186. Roboribus; the means of attollere. Coelo; dative for ad coelum. Comp. 8.-187. Pertis; the way or route by which a motion proceeds is put in the ablative without a preposition. Gr. § 255, 2; Madvig, 274.-Moenia; for urbem.—Possit; the present subjunctive shows that jurit is the perfect definite: has ordered. Gr. § 258, i 1; Z § 512-188. Neu; for nere; or lest.—Antiqua sub religione; under their former worship; under the same religious security as that which they had enjoyed under the Palladium.—Nam violasset; for (said Calchas) iƒ your hand should riolate; this is the continuation, in the oblique form, of what Calchas had stated. Saying, thinking, &c., are often implied in the foregoing verb, as here in jussit. See Gr. § 270, R. 2, b; Z. § 620. For the infinitive and subjunctive here, see Gr. § 266, 2, and R. 4; Z. § 603. -190. Quod omen; which token, which ̧ruin; by metonymy for the destruction indicated by the omen.—Ipsum; Calchas.—193. Ultro. Forbiger interprets: from afar. But all the nations of Asia allied with Troy may, after the present occasion of hostility shall have been forgotten, be ded by a common impulse, and without provocation, to make war upon Greece. Hence the usual signification of ultro, spontaneously, may be taken here. —191. Nostros refers to the Greeks.—Ea fata; such fates; such destruction awaits the Grecian posterity if the horse goes into the city, as would fall upon the Trojans if they should injure the horse.-196. Credita res; the story was believed.- -197. Larissaens; derived from Larissa, an ancient city of Thessaly. Gr. § 128, 6, h.————198. Mille; a round number; Homer, Il. ii. 494, sq., makes the exact number of the Grecian ships 1186.-199. Hic. See on 122.—Aliud; another event. For the neuter adjective used substantively, see Gr. § 205, R. 7, (2), (3); Z. § 363. -Majus; even a greater incident than the adventure of Sinon.— 200. Improvida pectora turbat; according to Thiel: disturbs our minds already surprised; according to Heyne and others, an instance of prolepsis: disturbs our minds so that they become imprudent; so that they lose all discretion. Comp. i. 637, and below, 228.-Ductus sorte; though priest of Apollo, Laocoon was appointed by lot to offer sacrifices to Neptune, whose favor had been forfeited by the Trojans in conse quence of the treachery of their former king, Laomedon. See below, 610.

-202. Solemnes; used properly of the sacrifice itself, but applied here, as not unfrequently, to the place where the sacrifice is made, the sacrificial, or ritual altar.-203. Ecce. See on 57.-Gemini; for duo, with the additional idea of resemblance in size, appearance, and motion. Comp. i. !62.—A Tenedo. The serpents come from Tenedos, as an omen that the

army of the Greeks is coming from thence to the destruction of Troy.Per alta (maria); along the deep; join with incumbunt.- -204. Immensis orbibus; of, or with enormous folds; an ablative of description, limiting angues. Gr. § 211, R. 6; Z. § 471.- -205. Incumbunt pelago; translate in connection with per alta: swim along the tranquil waters pressing upon the sea. For the force of incumbere, and the case following it, see on i. 84. Pariter; side by side, or with an equal course. -Tendunt; supply cursum, as in i. 205.- -206. Arrecta; stretched or straining; not the same as erecta. -207. Sanguineae; bloody; of the color of blood.- -Pars cetera ; all except the head and breast.- -Pontum pone legit; courses the sea behind. 208. Comp. iii. 127.-Sinuatque; in connection with legit translate as a present participle, sinuans, curving. Comp. 224.—Volumine; for the plural; in folds; meaning the undulating curves made by the long bodies of the serpents, in propelling themselves over the waves. 209. Spumante salo; ablative of the instrument; by the foaming sea. In some editions it is punctuated as an ablative absolute.-Arva; the shores. -210. Oculos; the Greek accusative after suffecti. See on i. 228.212. Visu exsangues; terrified by the sight.-Agmine certo; in an undeviating course; indicating that they had been sent by a higher power expressly to destroy Laocoon, and were not merely seeking for prey. Agmen is also used of the motion of a snake in v. 90.215. Morsu depascitur; devours; de is intensive.—216. Post; adverbially for postea.-Ipsum refers to Laocoon.—Subeuntem ; going up to their aid. Auxilio is a dative of the end or purpose under Gr. § 227, R. 2; Z. § 422.- -218. Medium • supply eum; around his body; literally, him middle. See Gr. § 205, R. 17. -Collo; around his neck. For the dative, see Gr. § 249, R. 3;. Z. § 418. -219. Superant; rise above him.—Capite; for capitibus; with their heads. Comp. volumine, 208, and similar instances of the singular for the plural in i. 579; vii. 392; ix. 721; x. 334.- -Cervicibus altis; with their necks (stretched on) high.- -221. Vittas; Greek accusative; see on i. 228. -223. Quales mugitus; (such) bellowings as the bull raises when he has fled, &c. Taurus in prose would stand in the principal clause, thus: quales mugitus taurus tollit. Tales, agreeing with clamores, is understood as the antecedent of quales. Comp. i. 316, and 430. Determine the tense of fugit by scanning the verse. If Virgil was familiar with the famous statue of Laocoon, now preserved in the Vatican, he chose rather, with true poetic taste, to transfer the spirit of that great work to his description, than to adhere to the original in respect to all its details. In the poet's picture we have the old man alone in the folds of the serpents, the boys having been previously destroyed.-225. At; in transition. Comp. i. 267.- -226. Saevae; cruel; not as an attribute, but in a restricted sense; angry with the Trojans.Tritonidis. See on 171.-Arcem; for templum; it was situated on the highest part of the Acropolis.-- -227. Sub pedibus. The statues of Minerva are draped to the feet, and some of them, as the Minerva

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