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ibation of liquors; a small portion of the wine was poured upon the table as a drink-offering to the gods.-737. Libato (honore); the libation hav ing been made. For the participle alone in the ablative absolute, see Gr. § 257, R. 9; Z. § 647.—Summo ore; to her lips; the tip of her mouth; as prima ord. G. iii. 399.—738. Bitiae; ́a Tyrian or Carthaginian nobleman. Increpitans; challenging; calling upon him to drink the pledge.—Impi ger; not reluctant.- -Hausit; drained; not received, as some translate it. 739. Se proluit; filled himself, drenched himself; as vappa prolutus; Hor. Sat. 1, 5, 16.- -Auro, for the golden goblet. Gr. § 324, 2.- -740. Proceres. Gr. § 94; Z. § 93, (a); supply bibunt.- -Cithara; with the harp; an ablative of manner. He sings, accompanying himself with the harp.Cithara is often used for any stringed instrument, whether pópμyš, λúpa, or BápBITOV. Strictly, it was the smaller instrument, formed of the tortoise shell and goats' horns, and sacred to Mercury, by whom it was invented.—— Crinitus. Apollo, the god of the lyrc, wore long, flowing hair, and hence his votaries are so represented. See ix. 638.- -741. Personat; sings aloud. -Docuit applies not to the music, but to the natural science taught him by Atlas. For one form of the lyre, see page 540.- -Quem is preferred to quae, which is given in some editions.- -Atlas; a Titan, said in ancient fable to bear the heavens on his head and uplifted hands; and so represented in the famous celestial globe of marble, preserved from ancient times, and formerly in the Farnese gallery at Rome. Virgil adopts here the idea that Atlas was a real personage, and an astronomer, and also, in iv. 247, that he was in some way petrified, or at least symbolized, in mount Atlas. 742. Hic refers to Iopas in distinction from Atlas.- -Labores; eclipses.—743. Unde; supply sint. Gr. § 265; Z. § 552.—Ignes; light nings; as in 90.745. Tantum; so much; so early; making the day so short in winter. -Oceano; for in oceano.— -Vel quae mora; or what delay opposes the backward nights;. referring to the summer nights, which are backward in coming, being hindered, as it were, by the lingering day. Comp. G. ii. 478-482. This form of expression was natural to the ancients; for they conceived of night as a goddess riding in a chariot. Natural phenomena were often the subject of Greek and Roman poetry.—747. Ingeminant plausu; redouble with applause; for redouble their applause. This verb is thus used as a neuter in iv. 531, v. 227, G. i. 133; and with an ablative following, ix. 811.- -748. Nec non et; as in 707.- -750. Observe the fine effect of the repetition, and reversed arrangement of words in this verse, bringing the same word at the beginning and end. Other examples are xii. 29, E. vii. 4, G. iv. 342. For the case after super, see Gr. § 235, (3), and note on 680.- -751. Filius Aurorae; Memnon. See 489.752. Quantus; of what stature. For heroes were conceived to tower above common men. The inquiries of Dido are made partly with the interest naturally inspired by the subject, and partly with the desire of prolonging the enterLainment in the society of Aeneas.-753. Imo age; but nay, (these discon

nected details do but irritate our curiosity,) recount to us from their first beginning the wiles of the Greeks.Origine does not refer to the beginning of the siege of Troy, but to the final stratagem which led immediately to the sack of Troy. For it is with this stratagem of the wooden horse that Aeneas begins his narrative in the Second Book.-755, 756. Septima acstas―sep→ timus annus. See introductory note to Third Book.

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Aeneas recounts to Dido the capture and sack of Troy.

1-249. After a brief introduction Aeneas enters upon his narrative, which begins with the story of the wooden horse. The Greeks, now in the tenth year of the siege, disheartened by their ill success, resort to stratagem. On the night which precedes the burning of the city, they pretend to give over the siege, and to take ship for their homes; leaving upon the plain, before the walls of Troy, an immense movable fabric of wood, made to resemble a horse, and of such size that it can be carried into the city only by enlarging the gate, or breaking down a portion of the wall.

Within this fabric are concealed many of the Grecian chiefs, while the army, under the command of Agamemnon, instead of continuing the voyage, is lurking behind the island of Tenedos, a few miles from Troy.

The Trojan multitude issues from the gates, and, gathering round the strange image, hesitate whether to convey it into the city, or to destroy it.

At this moment the cunning Sinon, who has purposely suffered himself to be made prisoner, is brought before king Priam, and by his artful story gains the confidence of the king, and leads him and his people to believe that the wooden horse, once placed within the citadel, will become, like the Palladium, the safeguard of Troy. The device of Sinon and the Greeks is aided by Minerva, who sends two serpents to slay the priest Laocoon for attempting to destroy the image consecrated to her. This prodigy confirms the Trojans in the purpose already formed, and by means of ropes and rollers they convey the wooden horse through the city to the citadel.

1. Conticuere; they became silent; a completed action, and hence in the perfect tense. The imperfect, tenebant, expresses an action continuing. Comp. i. 441-447; see Z. § 500, n. 1.- -2. Toro ab alto; see i. 700; high, not in a distinctive sense, but as a common characteristic of banqueting couches. -3. Renovare; supply me. The subject would not be omitted here in prose. See Gr. § 273, 2, d; Z. § 617.—4. Ut; interrogative how, as in i. 466. The question depends on dolorem, which implies here the recollection which causes pain; the painful memory. Others supply narrando before ut: you order me to renew unutterable grief by recounting how, &c.-Lamentabile; ill-fated.- -5. Quae que; and (the things) which; the antecedent, ea understood, is in the same construction as dolorem.6. Fando; while uttering; a gerund in the ablative expressing the relation of while and equivalent to a present participle. This usage also occurs occasionally in prose. See Madvig, § 416, obs. 1.-7. Myrmidonum Dolopum. The Myrmidons and Dolopians were Thessalian soldiers, followers of Achilles, and, after his death, of his son Pyrrhus or Neoptolemus. They are specified here as being the most bloodthirsty enemies of Troy. For the increment in these words, see Gr. § 287, cxc. in o 2 and 6.-8. Temperet;

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could refrain; the subjunctive under Gr. § 260, R. 5; Z. § 530; see also Gr. § 145, note 4. After temperare in this sense the dative sibi is understood. See Z. § 414.- -Et; and besides; it introduces an additional consideration, as in i. 48; not only do you impose upon me a painful and difficult task, but moreover the night is too far spent for me to enter upon it.

Homer says,

in the Iliad,

-Coelo; for de coelo.- -9. Praecipitat; supply se, as in ix. 670, xi. 617, and translate swiftly descends. Gr. § 229, R. 4. On the journey of Night through the heavens see on v. 721; comp. also iii. 512, and below, 250. -Suadent; invite. Comp. iv. 81.- -Cadentia; declining.-10. Amor; eupply est tibi; if such a desire possesses you. The infinitives cognoscere and audire depend on the phrase amor est tibi, which has the governing power of cupis, or vis. See Gr. § 270, R. 1, c; Z. § 598, 2d paragraph.- -11. Supremum laborem; the final disaster.- -12. Meminisse-refugit; though my mind shudders to recall it, and has (hitherto) shrunk from it with grief. Some understand the perfect here as an aorist denoting an habitual action. For examples of the perfect joined with the present, see x. 726, 804.14. Labentibus; the present denoting an action which has been going on and is still continuing; Gr. § 145, 2: so many years (having passed and still) passing away.-15. Instar; an indeclinable substantive in apposition with equum, and governing the genitive. It may be translated as large as. See Madv. § 280, obs. 6.- -Divina Palladis arte. The Greeks were indebted to Minerva both for the plan, and for the wisdom to execute it. in Ody. viii. 493, "they made the horse with Minerva;" and xv. 71, "through the counsel of Minerva they took Troy." The actual builder of the horse was Epeos. See below, 264.-16. Intexunt; they construct. This verb is used like the simple texere (see 186) in the description of wooden structures, and especially of ships. Comp. xi. 326.Abiete; an ablative of means; it is scanned here as a trisyllable, ab-ye-te. Gr. § 306, (3); Z. § 611; comp. parietibus, below, 442.- -17. Votum; supply esse. The Greeks indicated by some inscription on the image that it was a votive offering, or votum, to Minerva, and was intended to secure through her favor a safe return to their country.-18. Hac is equivalent to in equum; lateri refers more definitely to the interior of the horse; both terms limit includunt. Translate as if it were written hujus in latus; into (in) his body. Comp. Cic. Phil. 2, 13, 32: me in equum Trojanum includis. The accusative with in, or the dative, is not unfrequently substituted for the ablative after includere, condere, and abdere, as in such verbs the notions both of motion and rest are mingled.-Virum corpora; for viros.Penitus complent; they fill to its inmost depths.-20. Milite; with soldiery; used collectively, like custode, i. 564. So also frequently eques and pedes. -21. In conspectu; in sight; i. e. of Troy.-Tenedos; Tenedos is a small island, about five miles from the shore, and opposite Troy.--22. Opum; for the genitive, see on i. 14; comp. v. 73.-23. Nunc tautum sinus; at present there is only a bay; literally, there is so much (as) a bay

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