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paragraph. Madvig, § 283, gives signum erumpendi, occasio pugnae, materia jocorum. The apposition, auxilium, denotes the purpose of thesauros : for help; that they may serve to aid; nouns in apposition are not unfrequently so used, as laetitiam, below, 636.- -Recludit, equivalent to effodit; digs out of the earth (i. e. in the dream the ghost seems to do so.) For verbs compounded with re governing the ablative, see above, on 126, and comp. 679, ii. 115, iv. 545, v. 99, 178, 409, ix. 32.—361. Crudele; deadly; that impels to bloody revenge.- -362. Metus acer; urgent fear; that rouses to instant flight.- Quae forte paratae; that happened to be ready; already launched and prepared for different destinations.- -363. Auro. Gr. § 249, R. 1.-364. Pygmalionis opes; not actually the property of Pygmalion, but wealth which he had expected to secure by murdering Sychaeus.—365. Devenere. They arrived at, or reached.- -Locos. See note on 2, and Gr. § 237, R. 5, (a).- -Nunc is not, like jam, used of the future or the past, but of the actual present. Hence cernes, which is found here in many editions, is rejected by Wagner for cernis, which is the reading of the best manuscripts, and which Wagner explains by cernere licet, cernere potes; where you now can see.- -Mercati (sunt); they bargained for.

-367. Byrsam. The citadel of Carthage was so called, according to the Greeks, (whose explanation Virgil follows,) from Bópoa, a hide; because the colonists cut a bull's hide into strips in order to measure the ground which they purchased from the natives for the acropolis of their new settlement. The real meaning of byrsa, however, seems to be citadel; being a corruption of the Phoenician word bosra.- -368. Possent. Gr. § 266, 3; Z. § 549. Venus makes the statement not as her own, but as the condition expressed by the parties themselves in their bargain.Tergo; for corio, hide, as v. 405, and frequently elsewhere.- -370. Quaerenti; the present participle to express an action which had been going on and was hardly completed, as volvens, 305.—Talibus; supply verbis.- -371. Imo; Gr. § 205, R. 17; Z. § 685.- -372. Dea; Aeneas feels that she is something more than a simple huntress, notwithstanding her disavowal.- -Pergam and vacet, 373, (were I to go on; were there leisure,) would here be regularly followed by the subjunctive present in the apodosis; but the indicative, componet, is substituted for componat, in order to express the absolute certainty of the conclusion in the mind of the speaker. See Madvig, § 348, d., and Arnold's Lat. Prose Comp. § 56, a.- -373. Et vacet; and if (you) were at leisure.— 374. Ante; before I should conclude.- -Vesper; Vesper; the god of evening. He is represented by the evening star, and his office is to close the portals of the sky, or Olympus, when the sun with his chariot has entered in; and thus, as it were, he puts the day to rest (componere): Vesper, having closed Olympus, will terminate the day. Comp. G. 1, 450.——375. Troja-vectos; having sailed from ancient Troy over various seas. Vectos, as in 121.- -376. Trojae. Gr. § 204, R. 6; Z. § 425.- -Iit. Gr. § 259; Z. § 517; Arnold's Lat. Prose, 437.--377. Forte saa; by its own chance;

as opposed to the idea of any foresight or plan of ours.--Oris; dative, for the usual prose construction, ad oras. Comp. 512, 538, 616, and iii. 715.

-378. Raptos-veho; this is one principal proof of his piety.- -380. Italiam patriam ; Italy my fatherland; because Dardanus, my ancestor, was born in Italy.Et genus ab Jove summo; and (I seek) my ancestry (which is) from highest Jove. Genus is the accusative. Dardanus, the father of the Trojans, was the son of Jupiter.- -381. Bis denis. See note on bis septem, above, 71.- -Conscendi; I embarked on; literally, I climbed. For the term Phrygian, see note on 182.- -382. Data fata; the fates decreed. See ii. 771-784, iii. 94-98, 154-171, and note on 205.-Secutus, for sequens. See note on comitatus, above, 312.—383. Vix septem; barely seven; even this small number hardly saved.—Euro, for vento.-385. Europa pulsus; comp. 233, clauditur orbis terrarum. -Querentem = ut quereretur; not suffering him to complain any more. -387. Quisquis es. Gr. § 259, R. 4, (3).—Hand-coelestibus; not odious to the gods. Gr. § 222, R. 1; Z. § 409.- -388. Qui adveneris; since you have come; the relative clause denotes a reason. See Gr. § 264, 8, (1); Z. § 564.389. Te perfer; convey thyself, proceed. The common form is confer; but per implies that he is already on the road.Limina, for domum, the palace of Dido. Gr. § 324, 3.- -390. Reduces; brought back to land.Classem refers to the twelve missing ships.- -391. Tutum, fn the neuter gender, is often a substantive; safety, a place of safety.—Versis aquilonibus. The winds having changed. Aquilonibus, as quite often, for the general term, ventis; comp. v. 2.- -392. Vani; false; pretending to a knowledge they did not possess.- -Docuere. For the indicative after ni, see note on iit, 376.- -393. Adspice. She calls his attention to a flock of twelve swans, corresponding in number to that of the missing ships, which during the conversation has been pursued by an eagle, and is just alighting safely on the ground. The swan was sacred to Venus. Perhaps the following translation of this much vexed passage may be of service: Behold flying joyfully in a company, twice six swans, which the bird of Jove (an eagle) was (even now) dispersing in the open heaven; now (at this very moment) you see them (videntur; literally, they are seen) in a long line either alighting on the ground (capere terras), or looking down upon the ground already occupied (by their companions). As they on coming back (into a flock) sport with flapping wings, and have been wheeling swiftly through the air (cinxere polum), and have uttered their cries, not otherwise (rejoicing) are your ships and the manly band (pubes) of your countrymen either occupying a harbor, or entering (a harbor) with full sail. Large birds of this kind fly in a long line, and those in advance are often seen to alight first, while the others continue a little while hovering above, and circling swiftly round in the air, before they settle down with their companions. The points of resemblance between the birds and the ships are these: the swans have been scattered by the eagle, the ships by the tempest; both swans and ships have come

together (reduces) again; a part of the swans are actually alighting, while the rest are on the point of alighting; so some of the ships are already furling their sails, or actually discharging their crews upon the shore, while the rest are coming into the harbor under full sail; the swans have manifested their joy in their escape by wheeling about the air in rapid flights, by flapping their wings, and by loud cries; in like manner the crews of the different ships, as they come together, interchange congratulations, and join in jovial songs, as they enter the harbor, or touch the land. Perhaps, says Ladewig, Virgil wrote the above verses in the following order: Aspice-cycnos; Ur reduces illi-alis; Et coetu-dedere; Aetheria-aperto; Turbabat-longo; Aut capere-videntur; Haud aliter, etc.-Tuorum; of thy countrymen ; not a partitive genitive, but a limiting noun denoting that which goes to make up pubes, the manly band.-Tenet portum; holds, is in, a harbor. For the singular number after collective nouns, see above on 212.401. Qua; where; by what route. Gr. § 255, 2.-402. Avertens; supply se. Comp. 104.- -403. Ambrosiae. The gods are described by Homer, and

the other ancient poets, as employing per-
fumed unguents. These, as well as the food
of the gods, were termed ambrosia. Ambro-
sial came at length to be used as an attribute
of any thing beautiful or pleasing, pertaining
to divine beings.Vertice; from her head.
-404. Vestis defluxit. Her dress had been
girded up like that of a huntress, but now
suddenly fell around her person in graceful
folds.Imos. Gr. § 205, R. 17.-
Incessa patuit; was evident by her gait. The
gliding movement of a god is compared by
Homer (II. 18, 778) to that of a dove skim-
ming along on motionless wings, just above
the surface of the ground. Comp. v. 649.

[graphic]

-Dea. In scanning this verse the final vowel of dea is retained. See Gr. § 305, (3); Madvig, § 502, b.-407. Crudelis tu quoque; thou also cruel; as well as Juno and the other unfriendly powers. For the position of quoque, see Gr. § 279, 3, (d); Z. § 355.408. Dextrae. Jungere and miscere are followed by the dative, by the ablative with cum, or by the ablative without a preposition. For the government of the infinitive, jungere, see Gr. § 269, (b); Z. § 597.409. Datur. For the quantity, see Gr. § 290, (a).-Veras; without disguise, sincere. Comp. vi. 689.410. Moenia. The walls of Carthage, of which Venus has just spoken.- -411. Obscuro

sepsit. Enclosed them, (Aeneas and Achates,) as they walked along, with dim air. This fancy is not unfrequent in the ancient epics; as Odyss. xiv. 39–43.——412. And the goddess surrounded them with the thick covering of a cloud; a poetic repetition of the idea contained in the foregoing verse The compound circum-fudit is separated by tmesis. Gr. § 323, 4, (5). For the construction of the cases after circumfundo, see Gr. § 249, R. 3; Z. § 418.413. Neu, for neve, or lest.-414. Moliri; to occasion.- -415. Ipsa, contrasted with Aeneas.- -Paphum. There were two cities called by this name, Old and New Paphos, both in the western part of Cyprus. Old Paphos, now Kukla, or Konuklia, was renowned for the worship of Venus, who was hence styled "the Paphian."-416. Laeta. No longer tristis (see 228) since the interview with Jupiter.Sabaco. This term was applied to incense, because it was brought chiefly from that part of Arabia Felix which was inhabited by the Sabaei.- -417. Thure. No victims were slain at the shrines of Venus; she was worshipped with incense and flowers.Sertis. See illustration, page 547. The ancients were accustomed to hang festoons of leaves and flowers around the temples from pillar to pillar, and also about the altars. Lersch.

418-493. Aeneas soon comes in sight of rising Carthage, and wonders at the energy of the colonists who are rapidly constructing fortified walls, public and private edifices, streets, arsenals, and docks. He enters the newly erected temple of Juno, and is both surprised and consoled on discovering there, painted on the walls of the temple, the principal incidents of the siege of Troy; including the battles in which he himself had been conspicuous.

418. Interea. While she hastens to Paphos, in the mean while Aeneas and Achates take their way to Carthage.Corripuere; rapidly pursued; literally, seized. Comp. v. 145.- -Qua. Comp. 401, and note.- -419. Plurimus; very high. On the position of the adjective after the relative, see Arnold's Lat. Prose Comp. 53, and Gr. § 206, (7), (b); comp. ii. 278, v. 728.420. Arces. This refers to the fortifications of the Byrsa, or citadel of Carthage.- -421. Molem; the massive structure of the works. Magalia quondam; formerly huts; i. e. where huts formerly stood. Gr. 204. Aeneas might infer from the huts remaining in the neighborhood, that others had once covered this ground also. Perhaps, however, the words are thrown in by the poet, and not to be regarded as the thought of Aeneas. -422. Strata viarum; for stratas vias; the paved streets. Gr. § 212, R. 3, note 4; Z. § 435. The genitive here is partitive in form, but not in sense. "In the poets and later writers the partitive idea often disappears, and only the quality of the thing is expressed." Madvig, § 284, obs. 5. -423. With our punctuation, ducere, and the following infinitives, depend on instant; a construction which occurs again, ii. 628, and x. 118; see Gr. § 271. Thus also Horace, O. 2, 18, 20, urges summovere; and Cic. Verr. 2, 30, 59. Translate: the Tyrians earnestly press on to build, &c. Pars; in apposition with Tyrii. Gr. § 204, R. 10; Z. § 367; comp. E. 1,

64-65.425. Optare; to select. Comp. iii. 109.- -Concludere sulco; supply eum, it: to enclose (the place chosen) with a furrow; i. e. a plowed line marking, according to the Roman custom, the limits of the estate, or, as we should say, "house-lot." Some understand here a trench for the foundation wall of a building. The pronoun is, when in the same oblique case as the foregoing noun to which it refers, is omitted. Gr. § 207, R. 26, (d); Z. § 766.—426. Jura sometimes for judicia, courts, and hence put here by metonymy for judices. Others take it in its proper meaning, and translate: make laws and choose magistrates, &c.; considering legunt an example of the zeugma. Gr. § 323, 1, b. 2; Z. § 775. It is not necessary to suppose that every thing mentioned here is actually seen by Aeneas. The poet wishes to convey to the reader an idea of the intense activity of the colonists. They are building a city, with its docks, fortifications, public edifices, and private houses, and organizing a state, all, as it were, in a day. Hence the sentence, jura legunt, &c.; they choose judges, magistrates, and a reverend senate naturally comes in as a part of the picture.-427. Alta; deep.- -429. Rupibus; from the quarries. The African marbles are celebrated. Theatres did not exist at the period of the foundation of Carthage; but Virgil seems here, as well as in the account of the paintings below, (466-493,) and not unfrequently elsewhere, to have had his own times and the customs of his own nation in view.- -Scenis. This is a dative after some participle omitted, (as ens,) instead of a genitive limiting decora. Gr. § 211, R. 5, note. The dative stands with substantives, where also the genitive could be used; but the dative does not limit the substantive.— Alta; lofty; this word means extending vertically, up or down, according to the point of view: Lofty ornaments for the future stage. -430. Qualis. See on 316. Gr. § 206, (16); the antecedent being supplied, the sentence will be, talis labor eos exercebat, qualis labor apes-exercet. The English idiom omits the noun (labor) in the second clause, preferring to express it in the first: such labor (employed them) as occupies the bees in the fresh summer, &c.-431-432. Fetus adultos; the newly matured swarms.Liquentia. The first syllable is long here. Comp. v. 238, ix. 679.—433. Stipant; store.. -Neetare. Gr. § 82, exc. 1, (b).- -434. Venientum; for venientium. -Agmine facto; having formed a battalion.—436. Fervet opus; the work glows; is briskly pursued.—Thymo. Honey produced from thyme, such as that of Hymettus, has a very strong odor of the herb, and a different flavor from that which we are accustomed to in America. The latter, indeed, has little or no odor. The accusative, Thymum, would be used in prose after redolere. Gr. § 232, (2); Z. § 383, 2d paragraph. Thymo by some is joined with fragrantia as an ablative of cause, and redolent, in that case, is used ~bsolutely; emits odor. -437. Jam; even now; in contrast with the fortune of Aeneas; for his promised walls of Lavinium (258) are not yet begun.- -438. Suspicit; looks up to; the opposite of despicere. Comp. above, 224.- -439. Dictu. See on visu, 111.-440.

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