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nold's Lat. Prose, 249, note.Gentis limits fortissime under Gr. § 212, R 2; Z. § 429.- -97. Tydide; Diomedes, son of Tydeus, consp.cuous in the Trojan war. His contest with Aeneas is described in the Iliad, v. 239-318. Aeneas was saved on this occasion by Venus.- -Occumbere; supply morti; to die.-Campis; the ablative of situation. See on Italiam, 2.- -98. Mene non potuisse; for the exclamatory infinitive see note on 37. Translate: that I could not have !99. Saevus; valiant; not cruel here.————Acacidae; Achilles, who was the son of Peleus and the grandson of Aeacus; hence called both Pelides and Aeacides.Telo jacet; literally, lies by the spear; i. e. lies slain by the spear. Gr. § 248, ii.—100. Sarpedon, a Lycian prince, son of Jupiter, was slain by Patroclus before the walls of Troy. His body, by the command of Jupiter, was conveyed to Lycia. See Iliad, 16, 680–683. But Aeneas here has in mind, both in respect to Sarpedon and Hector, the time when they were still lying slain on the field.—Ubi tot Simois. The poet has before him the passage in the Twelfth Book of the Iliad, 22-23. The Simois was a river near Troy, which flowed into the Scamander. Correpta sub undis ; hurried away beneath its waves.102. Jactanti; to him uttering; or, as he utters. The dative, jactanti, limits the whole proposition, procella adversa ferit, and denotes the object whose interest is affected. See Gr. § 222, 2, (b); Z. § 408. Jactare here indicates violent emotion; comp. ii. 588, ix. 621, x. 95. As he utters such words, a blast, roaring from the north, opposite (to the course of the ship), strikes the sail. -Aquilone; from the north; see note on Italiam, 2, above. Some with Thiel make Aquilone an ablative of cause; a blast rendered loud and furious by the north wind.-104. Tum proram avertit; Jahn prefers the reading proram to the nominative prora. With the latter sese must be supplied. Gr. § 229, R. 4; the prow turns itself away. With the accusative avertit has for its subject ea, referring to procella; it turns the prow away; that is, because the oars are broken and cease to hold the head of the ship to the wind, it turns aside.- -Et undis dat latus; and exposes the side to the waves; the ship falls into the trough of the sea and is immediately struck by the whole weight of a mountainous wave, breaking upon its side.-105. Cumulo; in a mass; join with insequitur as an ablative of manner.- -Praeruptus; precipitous; not broken. A preci pice is called praeruptus, because it is formed by the breaking and falling away of the rock and earth in front. The term is applied here to the towering wave, not as being already broken, but as steep and abrupt, like a precipice.- -106. Hi; those in one ship: his; those in another. Not hi-illis, these-those, because both parties are conceived to be equally near to the spectator. Comp. below, 162, hinc—hinc.—Dehiscens; yawning; de is intensive; see Gr. § 197, 7. -10%. Arenis; the sands, not of the shore, but of the bottom of the sea; the agitation reaches to the lowest depths. -109. Saxa-aras; Gr. § 230; Z. § 394.- -Quae-fluctibus. Supply sunt. The rocky islets referred to are the Aegimuri, 30 miles


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north of Carthage.- -110. Dorsum immane; an immense reef.-Mari summo; at the surface of the sea; an ablative of situation.- -111. Bre via et syrtes; shoals and quicksands; not the so-called "Syrtes" major and minor on the African coast.- -Miserabile; Gr. § 205, R. 8.- -Visu, Gr. § 276, iii.; Z. § 670.—114. Ipsius refers to Aeneas. The in the genitive here is short as in unius, v. 41.- -A vertice for desuper; from above; from the point to which the wave has risen so as to stand vertical to the ship, and to descend perpendicularly, or "right down' upon the -Pontus, equivalent to fluctus; like our nautical usage of the word sea;" as in the expression, "a sea strikes the ship."- -115. In puppim; comp. in latus, 82.-Excutitur magister; the helmsman is struck from his seat. The helmsman or pilot of Orontes' ship was Leucaspis. See vi. 334.- -116. Illam; it; the ship, in contrast with the persons on board. -118. Rari; here and there; it refers particularly to the voyagers themselves seen struggling in the sea here and there, less numerous than the arms, planks, and valuables floating all about per undas. -121. Qua vectus (est) Abas, (the one) in which Abas sailed. -122. Vicit; has overpowered; either by driving them away at the mercy of winds and waves, or by casting them on rocks and sands. It does not mean destroyed, for all were saved except the ship of Orontes.- -Laxis compagibus; the joints being loosened. Gr. § 257, R. 7; Z. § 645.- -Omnes; supply naves.- -123. Imbrem; here for aquam; a poctic usage of the word.--Rimis fatiscunt ; start open in cracks.

124-156. Neptune hears the storm raging on the surface of the sea, and is indignant Chat Aeolus has sent the winds to invade his dominion without his authority. He rises in his chariot to the top of the waves, rebukes and disperses the winds, and rescues the Trojan ships.

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124. Misceri; to be agitated.- -125. Emissam hiemem; a storm to have been sent forth," namely, from the land, by Aeolus.-126. Stagna; the waters near the bottom of the sea are not disturbed by ordinary winds; hence they are called here standing, or still waters. These are now throum up, literally, poured back, from the bottom to the surface, by the violent agitation of the whole mass of waters. Translate thus: In the mean time Neptune perceived with deep displeasure that the sea was agitated with a loud uproar, that a storm had been sent forth, and that the deep waters had been thrown up from the very bottom (imis vadis).—Vadis; the ablative after refusa. Wagner has shown that verbs compounded with re often govern the ablative. Comp. 358, v. 99, ix. 32, x. 330.——Graviter commotas; deeply indignant; not vehementer concitatus, violently agitated, or roused to fury; it is the deep and stern displeasure of a god, conscious of his supreme power, and calmly exercising his authority to restrain or punish, without any external excitement. Hence placidum caput, in the next verse, is not at all inconsistent with graviter commotus. Cicero shows the distinction between commotus and concitatus in Brut. 55, 202: (Cotta) impellebat animos

- tractando, ut idem facerent a se commoti, quod a Sulpicio concitati. They were moved by Cotta, roused by Sulpicius.- -Alto prospiciens; looking forth upon the deep; alto is the dative for in altum. Caesar gives us the prose construction, De Bel. Civ. 2, 5: prospicere in urbem. The dative also occurs below, 181, after the verbal prospectum, where we have pelago, for in pelagus. The translation sometimes given, "looking forth from the deep," is, therefore, incorrect; it would be the construction after suspicere rather than prospicere.—129. Coelique ruina; by the destructive force of the air, a forcible expression for the simple term ventis, which would have been the prosaic antithesis to fluctibus. Such departures from common forms of expression are essential to the poetic style in all languages.- -130. Fratrem. Neptune and Juno were both children of Saturn. Nor did the wiles and the anger of Juno lie hid from her brother. That this storm had been brought

Family of Tritons

about by the stratagems of Juno, was at once apparent to Neptune. The accusative after latere is mostly poetic.-131. Earum Zephyrumque. All the winds are implied here, though only two are mentioned.— -Ad se; Gr. § 225, iv. R. 1.-Dehine, is scanned as one syllable, d'hinc. Gr. § 306, (2); Z. § 11.- -132. Generis, does not refer to their origin, but to their character and power, as a class of beings. Has such confidence (assurance) in your race possessed you?——133. Jam; now at length; that is, having been presumptuous in other ways, has it now come to this?—135. Quos ego-. For the figure of aposiopesis, see Gr. § 324, 33; Z. § 758. "Whom I-." The remainder of the threat, will chastise, is left unexpressed, because it is better (now) to allay the excited waves.—Praestat; it is better; an imper

sonal verb.

-136. Post-luetis; hereafter you will expiate your deeds to me by a different punishment.-139. Sorte. The whole kingdom of Saturn was allotted to Jupiter, Neptune and Pluto; the former receiving heaven, Neptune the water, and Pluto the regions under the earth.- -140-141. Anla-regnet; let him display his power (se jactet) in that court, and rule supreme (regnet) in the shut up prison of the winds. This is spoken with contempt, which is implied especially in the expression clauso carcere, as contrasted with the wide dominion of Neptune.- -Eurus alone is mentioned by name, though vestras shows that all the winds are addressed.-142. Dieto; Gr. § 256, R. 9; Z. § 484.- -144. Adnixus is instead of the usual construction in the plural, adnixi; it refers both to the Nereid Cymothoe and to the sea god, Triton. Gr. § 205, Exc. to R. 2. The above is a representation of a family of Tritons from a beautiful antique gem.145. Scopulo. This is the same as the sara latentia, above, 108. For the case, see Gr. § 242.-146. Aperit syrtes; opens the sand; the agger arenae mentioned in 112.-147. Rotis; in his chariot.- -148. Ac veluti. The poet has in mind such scenes as often transpired in the Roman forum in his own day.- -Saepe implies quod saepe accidit; as often happens. Comp. x. 723.-150.

Observe the caesura here in the fourth foot. Arma refers to faces et saxa. Their fury seizes such arms as stones and fire. brands only; because no citizen was allowed to carry warlike weapons with in the walls of Rome.- -151. Pietate gravem ac meritis; revered on account of his religious purity, and (public) services.-152. Adstant; stand fixed.

-155. Invectus; borne along in the open air; the participle perfect used as a present; see Madvig, § 431, b.-156. Curra-secundo; gives the reins to his swiftly gliding chariot. Curru is the contracted form of the dative, currui. Gr. § 89, 3. Others regard it here as an ablative, joined with volans, supplying equis in the dative after dat.


157-222. Aeneas with seven of his ships lands in a secure haven, not far from the new city of Carthage. Leaving his companions a while, he ascends the neighboring rocks to obtain a view of the sea, in the hope of descrying the rest of his fleet. He falls in with a herd of deer, and thus secures food for his friends, whom he addresses, on returning, with consoling words.

157. Aeneadae. Followers of Aeneas. Gr. § ∙100, i. (3).- -Quae— litora. Gr. § 206, (3). The shores which are nearest. Supply sunt. See Gr. § 209, R. 4; Z. § 776.-158. Libyae. The country around Carthage was strictly Africa; Libya was the region between Africa and Egypt; but the poets use geographical terms with great freedom.-159. Secessa longo; in a deep recess. It is not likely that Virgil is describing a real scene on the African coast, though some have tried to identify the spot.

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160. Insula―laterum; an island forms a haven by the opposition of its sides. Lying along in front of the cove, and against (ob) the sea, it forms a natural breakwater.Quibus, the ablative, means of frangitur and scindit: by which every wave from the deep is broken, and divides itself into the deep windings of the bay; that is, rolls broken, and so with diminished force, into the haven. Heyne, however, understands by reductos sinus the receding curves" formed by the wave itself.—162. Hinc atque hinc; on this side and on this; on either side; not hinc atque illinc, because the two points are conceived to be equally near to the spectator.- -Gemini; two similar cliffs; two rocky promontories, forming the opposite extremities or headlands of the cove.- -164. Tum-umbra; at the same time a curtain of woods with glancing foliage, and a mass of trees dark with roughening shadow overhang from above. The rocky heights which form the sides and back part of the haven are crowned all around with dark masses of trees, whose foliage, agitated by the wind, and constantly varying in light and shade, is described as glancing in the light, or coruscating. Virgil applies the term scena, stage-view, to this landscape, because it resembles the stage of the Roman theatre, when prepared for the sports of fauns and satyrs. For on such occasions the side walls of the stage, which in the Roman theatre curved towards the middle, and the back wall, which was straight, were decorated with paintings or painted hangings of trees and glades to represent a sylvan scene.- -Silvis coruscis; an ablative of quality or description; usually rendered like the genitive: of flashing woods. See Gr. § 211, R. 6; Z. § 471, note. The usage is described by Madvig thus: The ablative of a substantive combined with an adjective (participle or pronoun) is subjoined to a substantive by way of description either directly or after the verb esse, to denote the quality and character of a person or thing. Madv. § 272. -165. Desuper; from above; in contrast with sub vertice.- -Horrenti; I prefer the literal meaning, rough, bristling, projecting, according to Wagner's interpretation, as more appropriate here than the translation gloomy, awe-inspiring, which is more generally given.-Nemus is added to scena by way of epexegesis, or more elaborate description.-166. Fronte sub adversa; beneath the brow of the cliffs opposite; opposite, namely, to one en

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