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34-49. Six years after the fall of Troy (see introductory note to Book Third) Aeneas and his followers arrived at Drepanum, in the west of Sicily, where they were hospitably entertained by Acestes, a prince of Trojan descent. During this visit Anchises, the father of Aeneas, died. The Trojans were now, in the seventh summer, setting sail again from Drepanum, joyful (laeti) in the hope of soon reaching Italy, the end of their wanderings. The narrative therefore begins in the middle of the adventures which form the subject of the poem. What had previously transpired is related by Aeneas himself in the second and third books.

34. In altum vela dabant; were unfurling their sails for the deep; ventis is understood after dabant: were giving their sails to the winds.-35. Salis; Sal is frequent for mare.—Aere; with the brazen ship. Sometimes the whole ship was coppered, but more frequently the prow alone, or the stern and prow. Aere is here used, as we often find trabs or pinus, for the ship itself. Some refer aere to the three projecting points of metal which formed the rostrum, or beak of the ship; but these were of iron. See Smith's Dic. Antiq., article rostrum. On the form of the ship, see woodcut, page 406; on the rostrum, page 598.-Ruebant is here transitive; ploughed or cut, as G. ii. 308; ruit nubem. Comp. x., 214.- -36. Aeternum servans vulnus; cherishing the eternal wound; the bitter grief mentioned in 25.37. Mene-desistere. Am I to desist from my purpose, defeated? A vehement question is often expressed by an infinitive standing unconnected. Gr. § 270, R. 2, (a); Zumpt, § 609, supposes an ellipsis of credibile est, or verumne est ?- -39. Quippe; because forsooth. The following sentence, Pallasne etc., in less excited style would have been affirmative with at tamen, instead of being expressed in the more forcible interrogative form.—Classem Argivum; a, not the, fleet of the Greeks. Virgil often uses the terms Argos and Argivi, for Greece and Greeks in general; as above, 24.————10. Ipsos; themselves, personally, as distinguished from the ships. Comp. iii. 619.Ponto. After mergo and submergo the ablative, either with sub o in, or without a preposition, is used. See vi. 342; also below, 584. Rams. horn's Gram., § 150, B. 4.- -41. Unius; of one only. Pallas was angry with Ajax alone, and friendly to the rest of the Greeks, whereas Juno was angry with the whole of the Trojan race. The i in unius is scanned short here, as frequently in genitives of this termination. Gr. § 283, exc. 4; Z. § 16.Ob noxam; the outrage offered to Cassandra by Ajax the less, or the Oilean Ajax, in the temple of Minerva, during the sack of Troy. See ii. 403-405. Pallas, enraged on account of this violation of her sanctuary, raised a storm against the fleet of Ajax, on his return from Troy, when passing near the Eubœan promontory of Caphareus, destroying the fleet, and killing Ajax himself with lightning. His body was then cast by the waves upon the rocks.——————Oiléì is a trisyllable; the genitive of the noun Oileus, not of the adjective Oiēūs. The genitive limits filius understood; the son of O-i-léus. See Gr. § 211, R. 7; Z. § 761. The other Ajax, called "the greater," was the son of Telamon.- -42. Ipsa signifies that Pallas did this herself, personally, without the interposition of any other divinity. Only Pallas and

Juno were allowed to hurl the thunderbolt. Comp. iv. 122, xii. 812.-43 Him breathing forth flames from his breast pierced (with the thunderbolt). -45. Infigo takes indifferently the dative or ablative. Comp. v. 504, ix. 746. 46. Ego, contrasted with Pallas.-Divum; for divorum. See on



superum, 4.-Incedo, is a majestic walk. Comp. 405. It is substituted here for sum to express in a livelier manner the conscious su periority of Juno.-Regina; Gr. § 210, (a).— 47. Soror. Juno and Jupiter were children of Sat-48. Praeterea; for posthac, hereafter.—-Aris; imponere takes the dative more frequently than the ablative. The indicative, adorat and imponet, has better manuscript authority here than the subjunctive, given in some editions. The indicative also expresses the idea more forcibly; surely no one henceforth adores, no one will bring sacrifice. The present is occasionally found for the future. See ii. 322. Junonis is more forcible than meum would have been. See on 354.

50-63. Description of the realm of Aeolus in the Liparæan islands.

51. Loca; Gr. § 204, R. 3.- -Austris; with furious winds; the names of particular winds are often put for the general term. For the ablative, see Gr.

250, 2, (1); Z. § 462; comp. ii. 238. The Auster was a south wind, dry, hot, and violent.52. Acoliam; one of the Lipari islands, north-east of Sicily;

perhaps Lipara itself. See the account of Aeolus in the Classical Diction. ary.- -Antro; join with premit; it does not denote the situation of Aeolus, but of the winds alone. They are represented as luctantes, struggling; that is, with each other. Comp. ii. 417.—54. Vinclis; by confinement; not, by chains. –55. Magno cum murmure montis; with the loud re-echoing of the mountain; the mountain resounds with the roaring of the winds, impatient at being thus confined, and furious to burst the barriers. Comp. below, 245.- -56. Arce. His palace was built on the summit of a mountain, and is called in 140 aula. Here Ulysses was entertained by Aeolus, or Hippotades, as described at the beginning of the Tenth Book of the Odyssey. Virgil conceives of the king seated on a throne in the open air. -58. Ni faciat, ferant verrant. For the present subjunctive, see Gr. § 261, 2; Z. § 524; also Madvig, § 347, obs. 1; comp. ii. 599, vi. 293, xi. 912. The present in these examples is used for the sake of greater liveliness, to represent as possible a thing which is believed in itself impossible or improbable.- -59. Quippe ; for, because; it is removed from its proper place, at the beginning of the sentence, by poetic license; translate, for should he not do this, they would swiftly bear away with themselves the seas and lands and deep heaven, and sweep them through the air.-60. Speluncis. For the case, comp. ii. 553; though the ablative also occurs after abdere.61. Molem et montes altos. An instance of hendiadys, for molem montium altorum. Gr. § 323, 2, (3); Z. § 741.- -Insuper; above or upon them; comp. iii. 579; though some prefer to render it moreover.— -62. Foedere certo; according to a determinate law. Gr. § 249, ii. Join with the infinitives.- -63. Premere; to restrain (them); eos, understood, is the object.- Seiret; subjunctive under Gr. § 264, 5; Z. § 567; who might, or that he might know.-Jussus; when ordered; that is, by Jupiter. 64-80. The address of Juno to Aeolus, and his reply.

64. Vocibus; Gr. § 245. To whom then Juno addressed these words. -65. Namque is elliptical here, like enim above, 19. It introduces the ground of her appeal to Aeolus: I come to thee,—for—. Comp. i. 731, vii. 195.-66. Mulcere and tollere are governed by dedit as accusatives, instead of being in the form of the participle in dus. Gr. § 274, R. 7, b; Z. § 53. The father has given to you to calm (the calming)—to raise (the raising of) the waves.-67. Tyrrhenum aequor; the Tuscan water; that part of the Mediterranean which lies between Italy and the islands of Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica: Aeneas was now entering upon it. For the accusative after navigat, see Gr. § 232, (2); Z. § 383; Madvig, § 223, obs. 4.68. Victos. The household gods of Troy, as its protectors, must be considered vanquished in suffering it to be captured and destroyed.69. Ventis ; strike fury into the winds. Gr. § 223.- -Submersas obrue puppes ; literally, the ships being sunk bury (thou) in the waves; a Latin idiom which should be turned into English by two independent verbs: sink and bury the ships in the waves; Gr. § 274, 3, (b).—70. Diversos; (their crews) asunder;

referring to the several ships' companies.- 71. Bis septem; a favorite mode of expressing numbers in poetry. See Gr. § 118, 5, (b).—Corpore; a limiting ablative of description. Gr. § 211, R. 6; Z. § 471. The ablative of quality or description is more frequent than the genitive.- 72. Quarum quae etc.; and Deïopea, who (is) the fairest of these in form, I will unite to you in lasting wedlock, and pronounce your own. The nominative, Deïopea (which is better authenticated here than Deïopeam, given in some editions), is put by attraction in the case of the relative quae, instead of the accusative, which would have been the regular construction. See Gr. § 206, (6), (b). Quarum is translated here as earumque; the relative is a closer and neater connective than and with a demonstrative or personal pronoun, which, however, the English idiom often requires instead of the Latin relative. See Arnold's Lat. Prose Comp., § 67, 536; Gr. § 206, (17). This preference for the relative in Latin often gives rise to the construction, which we have here, of two relatives or interrogatives in the same sentence; as, Cic. Brut. 74, 258: cujus penes quos laus adhuc fuit. So also the frequently recurring quae quum ita sint. The genitive is not governed by Deïopeam understood, but by the superlative, pulcherrima, as a partitive; Gr. § 212, R. 2. The form" quae (est) pulcherrima" is only a poetic substitute for pulcherrimam: the most beautiful of whom (namely), Deiopea, I will join, &c. Comp. x. 225. De-i-o-pe-a forms the last two feet of the verse.- -73. Connubio is scanned here as a trisyllable, connubyo, Gr. § 306; Z. § 11. Proprius is a strong word, denoting sure and perpetual possession. Hor. Sat. 2, 6, 5; propria haec mihi munera faxis.- –75. Pulchra prole; explained by Thiel as an ablative absolute; but it seems to modify faciat in the same way as if he had said enixa pulchram prolem; that she may make thee a parent, having borhe to thee (by bearing to thee) a fair offspring. Thus it is an ablative of means.

76. Haec. Supply ait or dicit, see Gr. § 209, R. 4; Z. § 772. Respondeo and dico are not unfrequently omitted.- -Tuus-labor; it is thy task to weigh what thou desirest; that is, I have not the responsibility of deciding whether that be right or wrong which you wish.-7. Explorare; to weigh; to look into the nature of a thing; referring here to its moral quality. Aeolus will excuse himself when called to account for trespassing on the dominion of Neptune, by pleading the command of Juno, and his duty to her. -Mihi etc.; it is incumbent on me to execute your orders. -Capessere; to lay hold of with energy, to execute; see Gr. § 187, 5.Fas; what is imposed by divine decrees; here a sacred duty.- -78. Tu mihi. In ascribing to Juno's intercession with Jupiter the power and dignity conferred upon Aeolus, Virgil has probably followed some ancient myth, in which Juno, as the impersonation of the air, was represented as exercising some influence over the winds and in the creation of a king under whose control they were placed.- -Quodcumque etc.; you secure to me whatsoever of dominion this (is), you secure to me my sceptre and Jove (i. e. by the favor of Jove), you grant me to recline at the feasts of the gods. Sceptra, as

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above, 57, and below, 253, et al., indicates the kingly power with somewhat more fulness than the singular number. The form of the sceptre may be seen in the woodcut, p. 314. For the case of epulis, see Gr. § 224. The term for table or feast is in the dative after accumbere; that on which one reclines is in the ablative, as, in lecto. The present indicative here, concilias, das, facis, denotes what has been, and still is being done by Juno for Aeolus; see Gr. § 145, 2. The infinitive after dare, as in 66.- -79. Epulis accumbere. As Aeolus was not one of the Olympian gods, this was the highest honor that could be bestowed upon him.- -80. Nimborum; lord of storms; Gr. § 213, R. 1, (3); Z. § 438.

81-123. The storm; the despair of Aeneas, the loss of one ship and extreme peril of his whole fleet.

$81. Conversa cuspide; with his inverted spear; not with the point turned

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downward, but turned from a vertical to a horizontal position. While still seated Aeolus strikes the point of the spear, which he had previously held as a sceptre, resting vertically on the ground, into the side of the hill.- -82. In latus; a more vigorous construction for in latere; comp. in puppim below, 115.- -Agmine facto; a military figure; a battalion being formed, or, in battle array: -83, Qua; where, by whatever way; strictly an ablative of route, though reckoned an adverb. Gr. § 191 1 & 255, 2.84. Incubuere; they descended upon the sea; the expression implies great weight and force. The verb in this sense is followed by the dative. Comp. ii. 514.- -Totum; supply mare, in the accusative after ruunt, which is transitive here, though intransitive in the foregoing sentence; they plough up the whole sea. —87. —que—que. See note above on 18.- -Virum; the Trojans.- -89. Nox; the term for night in all languages is often used in poetry, as here, for darkness.-90. Poli; the heavens; polus is frequently so used.- -92, Solvantur frigore; are paralyzed with chilling fear. Cold is analogous to fear in its effect on the blood. Comp. iii. 175, xii. 905.-93. Duplices; for ambas, both; as in vii. 140, x. 667, et al. Schirach understands folded, clasped hands.94. Terque quaterque; a climax is usually expressed in all languages by thrice; but Latin as well as Greek poets sometimes add "four times," for still greater emphasis.-95. Queis. Gr. § 136, R. 2; Z. § 133, noteOppetere; supply mortem; to meet death; especially as a warrior. See Ar


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