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HONEKEUYA. In botany, a genus of The plants from which the bees have been the class octandria, order monogynia. Calyx observed to extract it, are the kalmia angustifive-leaved ; petals five; nectaries resembling folia and latifolia of Linneus, the kalmia hir. stamens; capsule, bristly, five-celled, four- suta of Walter, the andromeda mariana, and valved, with a single seed in each. One some other species of this genus. The colour species, a native of Guinea, with terminal of the deleterions honey is not always the flowers three together.

same; nor is this a sutricient criterion of its HONEST. a. (honestus, Latin ) 1. Up- quality. It is experience alone that enables right; true; sincere (Il'atts). 2. Chaste the hunters and others to determine whether (Shakspeare). 3. Just; righteous; giving to the honey they find be poisonous or innocent. every man his due (Tnte).

They are accustomed, therefore, to eat a HONESTLY. ad. 1. Uprightly; justly small quantity before they venture to satisfy (Ben Jonson). 2. With chastity; modestly. their appetite. Should this produce any dis

HO'NESTY. 8. (honestas, Lat.) Justice; agreeable effects, they do not think it prudent truth ; virtue: purity (Temple).

to continue the use of it. But if, in a short The meaning of the wori bonesty is nour, time, it occasions no inconvenience, they think however, more restricted. Honesty is the they may, with perfect safety, indulge their guality of a man firm and constant in respect- appetite to the full. The poisonous honey has ing the rights of others, and rendering to been observed to produce the following effects: himself no more than what he is entitled to, at first a dimness of sight, or vertigo, suc. according to the strict rules of justice. Inte ceeded by a delirium, which is sometimes mild grity is the quality of a man, firm and con- and pleasant, and sometimes ferocious ; ebriety, stant in fulfilling his duty, without the least pain in the stomach and intestines, convul. intermission. Probity is the quality of a man sions, profuse perspiration, foaming at the firm and constant in the practice of morality, mouth, vomiting and purging, and, in a few according to the rules impressed by the Deity instances, death. In some persons a vomiting upon the human beart. Honesty requires an is the first eflect of the poison. Sometimes upright heart; its principle is love of order the honey has been observed to produce a and character. Integrity requires a pure temporary palsy of the limbs; an effect which heart and a scrupulous conscience ; its prin- we have reinarked in animals that have eaten ciple is love of duty. Probity requires what of one of those very vegetables from whose is usually terined a heart naturally good ; its flowers the bees obtain a pernicious honey. principle is love of virtue. Honesty excludes It is, however, very seldom fatal; the disall injnstice ; integrity, all corruption; pro. orders it occasions generally working their bity, áll evil. Honesty is the first virtue of the own cure, either by occasioning vomiting, poor; integrity, of the citizen ; probity, of purging, or profuse perspiration; the two the great.

former of which relieve the pain in the intesHo'nesty, in Botany. See LUNARIA. tines, and the latter the fever. The ethicacy

HONEY. (ollel.) A substance collected of medicine in promoting the recovery of perby bees from the nectary of flowers, perfectly sons who have eaten this boney has not been resembling saccharine juices. It has a white yet ascertained. or yellowish colour, a soft and grained con- Several of the ancient Greek and Roman sisience, and a saccharine and aromatic smell. writers have related instances of the deleterious Honey is an excellent food, and a softening and properties of the honey of certain countries, slighily aperient medicine: mixed with vine. Diascorides, Pliny, Diodorus Siculis, and car it forms oxymel, and is exhibited in va. Xenophon, have mentioned them ; but their rious modes in medicine and pharmacy. See descriptions of plants, for want of a methodiAPIs, and Bee.

cal nomenclature, are frequently so obscure, Honey is very soluble in water. By distil. that it is very difficult, if not impossible, to lation, it afford's an acid phlegm and an oil; determine precisely those to which they rethe residual coal is spongy anı porous, like ferred. that of the vegetable mucilages. When heated The proper management of bees is an ob. with nitric acid, oxalic acid is extracted, as jeet by no means of tritling importance. It from sugar. Honey appears to be composed is not sufficient that bees merely make honey of sugar, mucilage, and an acid : the sugar and wax: their honey may be injurious or in carbonat of time in powder

, and scumming Poisonors

, and their wax way be warly use

To assist and direct the labours of the solution while hot; crystals of sugar are these useful insects, the knowledge and the gradually deposited on the cooling of the hand of man are required. Lei him, sar's liquor.

Dr. B. carefully remove from about the babit. Honey (poisonous), of North America. ations of his bees every fetid or poisonous Dr. Benjamin Smith Barton has published in vegetable, however comely its colour or its . Tillochi's Philosophical Magazine, Vol. XII. form. In particular let bim be careful to and in the Imerican Transactions, Vol. V. a remove those vegetables which are noxious to image on this subject. It appears that the himself. In place of these, let loim spread

found in a wild state, hy the hunters the " marjoram and thyme," and other plants, arolina, Georgia, and the two Flo- “ the love of bees." (Armstrong.) Не more particularly East Florida. may then furnish his table with a honey

many

not inferior to that of Mount Hermettus, or split in that particular part. This cord or of Athens; nor to that of Sicily, to which roll is at least three times as thick as the Virgil has so handsomely alluded in the se. sides of the cell, and is even much thicker venth Eclogue:

and stronger at the angles of the cells than Nerine Galatea, thymo mihi dulcior Hyblæ, elsewhere, so that the aperture of each cell Candidior cynsis, hederâ formosior albâ. is not regularly hexagonal, thongh its inner

HO'NEY-COMB, a waxen structure, full of cavity be perfectly so. The several combs cells, framed by the bees to deposit their are all placed parallel to one another, and honey and eggs in. The construction of the there is such a space left between them, that boney.comb seems one of the most surpris- the bees can easily pass; and often they ing parts of the works of insects; and the place a part of the comb in a contrary direcmaterials of which it is composed, which, tion to the rest, so that while the others are though evidently collected from the flowers placed horizontally, these stand perpendicuof plants, yet do not, that we know of, existlarly. The cells which have served, or are in them in that form, have given great cause to serve, for the habitation of the worms of of speculation to the curious. The regular the common and of the male bees, are often structure of the comb is also equally won- made also at other times the receptacles of derful. When the several cells in it are ex- honey ; but though these are indifferently amined, it should seem that the nicest rules made to serve either use, there are others of geometry had been consulted for its com- destined only to receive honey. The celeriposition, and all the advantages that could ty with which a swarm of bees, received inbe wished or desired in a thing of that kind, to a bive where they find themselves lodged are evidently found in it. Each cell consists to their minds, bring their works of the of six plane sides, which are all trapeziums, combs to perfection, is amazing. There are bat equal to each other : the bottom of the vast numbers at work all at once: and that cell is contrived with three rhombuses, so they may not incommode one another, they disposed as to constitute a solid angle under do not work upon the first comb till it is three equal angles, and each of which is finished, but when the foundation of that is double the maximum angle of 54o. 41. laid, they go to work upon another, so that Hence it comes to pass, that a less quantity there are often the beginnings of three or of surface is sufficient to contain a given four stories made at once, and so quantity of honey, than if the bottom had swarms allotted to the carrying on the work leen flat, in the proportion of 4,658 to 5,550, of each. as has been found by calculation ; that is, To Honey, v. n. (from the noun.) To talk nearly a fifth of the whole, so far as the fondly (Shakspeare). figure in the end of the cells extends, in Honey-cup. In botany, nectarium, or rach ; which fifth part of wax and labour nectary. Honey-cup is improper, because saved amounts to a vast deal in the whole few nectaries are in form of a cup; not more comb. And if these admirable insects knew so, however, than glass ink-born, silver tertheir advantage, they could not more nicely rene, Dresden China, and many other barbaobserve the rules of modern geometry, risms. But why multiply these unnecessarily?

The method of making two sorts of cells in See Nectarium, each comb is also admirably contrived to save HONEY-DEW, or Suffusio mellita, a sweet the expence of wax, since had they been made substance found on the leaves of oak, hazel. single, every comb must bave had its peculiar not, hops, and other plants; and which has base, and every set of cells their bottom been erroneously supposed to fall from the of wax, whereas one bottom now serves for sky. two cells; and there is but one plate of wax According to Dr. Darwin, the honey-dew is in the centre of a double comb." This struc- a saccharine juice that exudes from trees, in ture occasions a very great sparing of the consequence of the retrograde motions of the was, or matter of the comb; but, besides cutaneous lymphatic vessels connected with this, there is another great advantage result, the umbilical, or with the common sap-vessels ing from this structure, which is, that the of plants ; insteail of being carried 'forward angles arising from the forementioned com- to increase the growth of the present leafbination of the bases greatly strengthen the buds, or to accumulate nutriment for the buds, whole work.

which are in an embryon state. The sides of the cells are all much thinner This exudation is consequently very injuthan the finest paper, and yet they are so rious to the trees which are subject to it; strengthened by their disposition, that they especially from its great sweetness, which are able to resist all the motions of the bee attracts immense numbers of bees and ants : within them, as they are frequently obliged no method of preventing it has hitherto been to he. The effect of their thrusting their discovered. bodies into the cells, would be the bursting HONEY-FLOWER, in botany. See Meli. of those cells at the top, were not this well guarded against. But to prevent this, the

Honey-GUIDE. See CUCULUS, creatures extend a cord, or roll of wax, HONEY-LOCUST. See GLEDI ISIA. round the verge of every cell, in such a HONEY-MOON. The first month after marmanner, that it is scarce possible they should riage (Addison).

ANTHUS.

LERIA.

HONEY-STONE. See MELLITES.

Historians have furnished us with some HONEY-SUCKLE. See LONICERA.

striking instances of honour, with regard to HONEY-SUCKLE, (African fly. See Hal- 'truth, humanity, &c. which have been ob.

served in different ages and countries. We HONEY-SUCKLE (American, upright). See select a remarkable one of a poor unenlightAZALEA.

ened African negro, recorded in Captain HONEY-SUCKLE. (Fr.) See HedYSARUM. Snelgrave's account of his voyage to Guinea. HONEY-WORT. See CERINTIIE.

A New England sloop, trading there in 1752, HONEYLESS. a. Being without honey left a second mate, William Murray, sick on (Shukspeare).

shore, and sailed without him. Murray was HO'NTED. a. (from honcy.) 1. Covered at the house of a black named Cudjoe, with with honey (Hilton). 2. Sweet ; luscious hom he had contracted an acquaintance (Shakspeare).

during their trade. He recovered; and the HONFLEUR, a considerable sea-port of sloop being gone, he continued with his France, in the department of Calvados. The black frionit till some other opportunity harbour, which is very capacions, is at the should offer for his getting bone. In the month of the Seine. Lat. 19. 21. N. Lon. mean time, a Dutch ship came into the road, 0. 15. E.

anil some of the blacks coming on board DONI SOIT QILAL Y PENSE, 9.d. ler, were treacherously seized and carried “ Evil to him that thinks evil ;" the motto off as their slaves. The relations and friends, of the most noble order of the Knights of the transported with sudden rage, ran

to the Garter. See GARTER.

konse of Cudjoe, to take revenge by killing BONITON, a borough of Devonshire, with Murray. Cudjoe stopped them at the door, a market on Saturday. A dreadful fire bap- and demanded what they wanted.

“ The pened there in July 1747, which consumed white men,” said they, “have carried away three parts of the town, and the damage was our brothers and sons, and we will kill all computed at 43,0001. It has one church, half white men, Give us the white man you a mile from the town, and a chapel within it. have in your house, for we will kill him." Here is a large manufactory of honelace. Just “ Nay,” said Cudjoe, “the white men that before the entrance into the town, from Lon carried away your relations are had men, don, is a bill, which commands one of the kill them when you can take them; but this most beautiful prospects in the kingdom. Ho- white man is a good man, and you must not niton is seated on the river Otter. Lat. 50. kill him.''-" But he is a white man," they 45. N. Lon. 3. 12. W.

cried, "and the white men are all bad meli, HONORIACI, an order of solviery under we will kill them all." • Vav,” says hir, the Eastern empire, who introduced the "you must not kill a man that has done no Goths, Vandals, &c. into Spain, when, in fact, härm, only for being white. 'This man is they were appointed to prevent their en. my friend, my house is his post, I am his trance.

soldier, and inust figlit for him ; vou must HO'NORARY. a. (honorarius, Lat.) 1. kill me before you can kill him. lihat good Done in honour; malle in honour (Addison). man will ever come again imider my root, it' 2. Conferring honour without gain. (Ald.) I let my foor be stained with in good man's

BO'XOCR. 8. (honcur, fii honor, Lát.) blood " The negroes seeing liis resolution, 1. Dignity; high rank. 2. Reputation ; faune and being convinced by his discourse thout (Bucoi). 3. The title of a man of rank they were wrong, went away ashamed. (Shakspeare). 4. Subject of praise (Shuk. a few days Murray ventured abroad again with speare). 5. Nobleness of mind; magnanimity his friend Chiljoe, when several of them tok (Rogers). 6. Reverence ; due veneration him hy the hand, and told him," They were (Shukspeare). 7. Chastity (Shakspearr). &. glad they had not killed him; for, as he was a Dignity of mien (Milton). 9. Glory; boast good (meaning innocent) mall, their 600 (Burnet). 10. Public mark of respect (inke). would have been very angry, and would have 11. Privileges of rank or birth (Shnkspeuro). spoiled their fishing.” 12. Civilities paid (Pope). 13. Ornament ; Honour, in the beau monile, bas a mean. decoration (Dryden).

ing which it is easier to illustrate than des Honour and Virtue were deified among the fine. It is, however, subject to a system of ancient Greeks anil Romans, and havi a joint rules, called the law of lionour, constructed temple consecrated to them at Rome; but af- by people of fashion, calculated to facilitate terwards each of them had separate temples, their intercourse with one another, and for which were so placed, that no one could enter

110 other purpose.

Consequently nothing is the temple of Ilonour without passing through considered as inconsistent with honour but that of Virtue; by which the Romans were what tends to incommode this intercourse. continually put in mind, that virtue is the only Bence, as Archdeacon Paley states the mardirect path to true glory. Plutarch tells us, ter, profaneness, neglect of public worsliip that the Romans, contrary to their usual or private devotion, cruelty to servants, custom, sacrificed to Honour upcovered ; per. rigorons treatment of tenants or other des is to denote, that wherever honour is, it pendants, want of charity to the poor, inju. no covering, but shows itself openly to ries done to tradesinen by insolvency or ile

lay of payment, with numberless examples

1

of the same kin:h, are acceunted no breaches tend her majesty when she goes abroad; &c. of honour; because a man is not a less agree. In England they are six in number, and their able companion for these vices, nor the salary 3001. per annum each. worse to deal with in those concerns which Honour is particularly applied in our are usually transacted between one gentleman customs to the more noble kind of scignories and another.

or lordships, whereof other inferior lordships If this, however, be honour, we may say, in or manors hold or depend. As a manor colithe lasguage of Shakspeare,

sists of several tenements, services, customs, The mere word's a slave,

&c. so an honour contains divers manors, " Debauch'd on every tomb; on every grave

koights-fces, &c. It was also formerly called " .I lying trophy; and as oft is dumb, beneficium or royal fee, being always held of “ Where dustand damn'd oblivion is the tomb the king in capite. * Of bonour'd bones indeed."

Ilo' NOUR-POINT, in heraldry, is that next HONOURS OF War, in a siege: when a above the centre of the escntcheon, dividing governor, having made a long and vigorous the upper part into two equal portions. defence, is at last obliged to surrender the To HONOUR. v. a. (honoro, Lat.) 1. To place to the enemy for want of men and reverence; to regard with veneration (Pope). provisions, and makes it one of his principal 2. To dignify; to raise to greatness. (Exod.). articles to march out with the honours of war; 3. To glorify (Exodus). that is, with shouldered arms, druns beating, HONOURABLE.a.(honorable, French.) colours flying, and all their baggage, &c. 1. Illustrious; noble (Isaiah). 2. Great ;

Honours (Military). All armies salute magnanimous; generous (Shakspeare). 3. crowned heads in the most respectful man. Conferring honour (Dryden). 4. Accompa. ner, drums beating a march, colours and pied with tokens of honour. (Sp.) 5. Not to standards dropping, and officers saluting. be disgraced ($hakspeare). 6. Free from Their guards pay no compliment, except to taint, or reproach (Maccabees). 7. Honest ; the princes of the blood; and even that by without intention of deceit (Ilay). 8. Equicourtesy, in the absence of the crowned table. head. To the commander in chief the whole Members of the King's privy council are line turns out without arms, and the camp. styled Right Honourable. guards beat a march, and salute. To gene. HIO'NOURABLENESS. 8. (from honour. rals of horse and foot, they beat a march, able.) Eminence; magnificence; generosity. and salute. Lieutenant-generals of ditto,

HÚ'NOURABLY. ad. (from honourable.) three ruffs, and salute. Major-generals of 1. With tokens of honour (Shakspeare). 2. ditto, two ruifs, and salute. Brigadiers of Magnanimously; generously (Bacon). 3. ditto, rested arms, one ruff, and salute. Reputably; with exemption from reproach Colonels of ditto, rested arms, and no beat- (Dryden). 105. Sentinels rest their arms to all field. HO'NÚURER. s. (from honour.) One that officers, and shoulder to every officer. All honours ; one that regards with veneration, governors, that are not general officers, shall, HOOD, in composition, is derived from in all places where they are governors, have the Saxon had, in German heit, in Dutch one ruff, with rested arms; but for those heid. It denotes quality ; character; conwho have no commission as governors, no dition: as knighthood; childhood; fatherdrum shall beat. Lieutenant-governors shall hood. Sometimes it is written after the have the main.guard turned out to them with Dutch as maidenhead. Sometimes, it is taken shouldered armis. Thus much in the general; collectively: as, brotherhood, a confraternity. the minutiæ we cannot specify.

Hood. 8. (hos, Saxon.) 1. The upper HONOUR (Fountain of). The king is so covering of a woman's head. 2. Any thing styled, as being the source of honours, dig. drawn upon the head, and wrapping round nities, &c. See PreROGATIVE. Although tle it (!Votion). 3. A covering put over the origin of all sovereignty is in the people, hawk's eyes. 4. An ornamental fold that yet it is absolutely impossible that govern- hangs down the back of a graduate, to mark ment can be inaintained without a duc sub, his degree. ordination of rank. The British Constitu- To Hoop. v. a. (from the noun.) 1. To tion has therefore entrusted the king with dress in a hood (Pope). 2. To blind as with the sole power of conferring dignities and a hood (Shakspeare). 3. To cover. (Dryd.) honours, in confidence that he will bestow Hood Island, one of the MARQUESAS. them only upon such as deserve them. Hence HOUDED WILLOW HERB. See ScuTELit is that all degrees of nobility, of knight. LARIA. hool, and other titles, are received by imme- Hooded, in botany. See Cowled. diate grant from the crown: either expressed HO'ODMAN (BLIND). 8. A play in which in writing, by writs, or letters patent, as in the the person hooded is to catch another, and creation of peers and baronets; or by corpo. tell the name; blindman's buff (Shakspeare). real investiture, as in the creation of a simple To HOOD-WINK. v. a. (hood and wink.) knight.

1. To blind with something bound over the Jionour (Maids of), are young ladies in cyes (Sid. Dav.) 2. To cover ; to hide (Shuk). the queen's household, whose office is to at. 3. To deceive; to impose upon (Sidney).

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HOOF. 8. (hof, Saxon; hof, Dutch.) The der surface of a mushroom. These are united, hard horny substance on the feet of gramini. or rather interwoven, with similar laminæ vorous animals (More).

or membranes which cover all the anterior Hoor of a horse or other quadruped, the and lateral substances of the sensible foot, hard horny substance at the lower extremity forming a very secure union between the of the levs, coming into contact with the crust and the internal parts : nor are these ground, and upon which are often placed membranes possessed merely of great strength; shoes, made of iron, for the preservation of they possess likewise a considerable degree the feet. The hoof of a horse, to be perfect, of elasticity, constituting one of those cu. should nearly circumscribe five cigliths of a rious springs which nature has provided to circle, with a transverse line from one point of prevent concussion when the animal is in the heel to the otber, as if a segment of three- motion. That these laminæ forin an union eighths was taken away: in addition to which between the crust and sensible foot, of sufform, it should be solid in substance, smooth ficient strength t support the animal's to the hand, and free from contractes rings, weight, has been proved beyond a doubt,

wrinkles, like those found upon the by removing from a living horse the bottom horns of cattle, by which their age is ascer- of the hoof, that is, the sole and frog : in tained.

this case, bad the laminæ been unable to The horse's foot is made up of a great support the horse's weight, the internal foot variety of parts; some of thein possessing must have slipped through the hoof, so as blood-vessels and nerves, like other parts of to come down upon the ground; but this the body, and highly sensible; otliers are did not happen, and the sole, as it was composed of dead hörny substance, that is reproduced, assumed its proper perfectly destitute of feeling. All the ex- form. ternal parts of the foot, which, when taken As these laminæ form so secure an union together, are termed the coffin, or Hoop, between the crust and the internal foot, it are composed of this horny substance, which is evident that the weight of the horse is is not only very hard, but is possessed also in great measure supported by the crust, of a considerable degree of toughness and which therefore ought to possess considerelasticity, which render it extremely uur. able strength; for, if it were too weak and able, and well calculated to protect the sen- flexible, it would not be adequate to the sible parts which it enclses-a purpose for burthen which it has to sustain, and must which it was obviously designed by nature. conseqnently bend to it. In this case, the

The loof consists of the wall or crust, the hoof would loose that oblique form which it sole, the frog, and the bars ; the upper part bad originally, and would approach the hori. of the crust, where it is connected with 'the zontal line; at the same time, the sole would skin, is termed the coronet, the lower part lose its concave form, from receiving an in front the toe; the sides of the crust are unusual degree of pressure, becoming tlat, nained the quarters, the quarters terminate and at length convex or projecting. But, in the heels, and the beels are connected when the crust is sufficiently strong, the with the frog. The crust grows from the internal foot, and consequently the whole coronet, and, instead of taking a perpendicuc animal, is suspended by those elastic memlar direction, becomes oblique in its descent, branes, as a carriage is by jis springs; and, whereby it acquires a conical figure, being though the bottom of the internal foot is in considerably wider at the basis than at the contact with the sole, it nevertheless does coronet. But this description of the hoof ap- not press upon it considerably, except when plies only to the healthy foot, that has not the horse is in motion, and then the back been improperly treated; for, when the bars part of the sole descends a little (being somehave been cut away, and the frog mutilated what elastic), and suffers the laminæ to clonand prevented from receiving pressure, the gate in a small degree, so as to prevent any heels will contract, or approach each other, painful concussion. and the shape of the foot will be considerably That portion of the hoof which comes in altered.

contact with the ground is formed by the When we examine a hoof that has been sole', the frog, and the bars. On these Mr. recently separated from the foot, an immense White makes the following observations: number of small orifices, or pores, may be The sole is rather concave, or hollow, on observed in that groove which is found on the its external surface, and consists of a difinside of the coronet; into these orifices the ferent kind of horn from that which forms extremities of those vessels are inserted which the crust, being of a scaly texture, and secrete the borny matter, the whole of which sometimes soft and pulverable, on its exappears to be pervaded by a fine fluid, serving terior surface. Its use is to defend the sento prevent brittleness, and to preserve in the sible sole, that lies immediately under it. hoof a proper degree of elasticity. All the From its concave form, the horse is enabled internal surface of the crust, except the groove to tread more firmly on the ground, and the we have just mentioned, is covered by a sensible parts are less exposed to blows or beautiful membranous er laminated sub pressure than they would be had it been stance, which very much resembles the un. made either tiat or convex; and, being some.

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