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AKT THE PILOT, A Journal of Religion, Politics, Literature
No. 6.—Vol. I.]
LONDON, WEDNESDAY, MAY 24, 1876.
LORD GRANVILLE'S RESOLUTIONS ON THE property, that it simply amounts to a confiscation of that property. BURIALS' QUESTION.
Ís it fair that the National Church in this country should be
the only Church that cannot prescribe the rules and regulaHUROHMEN are indebted solely to the two Arch tions which are to prevail in the conduct of the services in
bishops for the recent debate on the subject of the our churchyards? My noble friend talked a good deal about
Burials' Question, in the House of Lords. Those wounding the feelings and running counter to the conscienprelates own such a sensitive regard for the feelings of Dis- tious scruples of our Nonconformist brethren, and I am sure senters—and such a total disregard for the consciences of I should be very sorry to say anything which would wound Ohurchmen, that they seem resolved to over-rule and nullify | their feelings; but then the Nonconformists are not the only the proposals of the Lower House of Convocation, either by persons whose feelings are concerned in this matter. It is, I hook or by crook. Convocation has spoken out plainly. But may add, a somewhat remarkable fact that during the disits very concession, (a silent service,) is now turned against it: cussions with regard to Church-rates, this grievance as to the for Dr. Tait waxed sarcastic on the proposals of the Lower Burial Service was very seldom, if ever, put forward; and I House, and rated its members severely, because they had do not think it is open to those who were clamorous for the resolutely declined to do His Grace's bidding.
abolition of Church-rates to turn round now, after objecting The House of Commons, however, has shown how much to pay for keeping up our churchyards, and claim to have the the feeling of the country is altered, now that the views of benefit of them." political Dissenters are adequately comprehended : for the As regards the tactics of Dr. Tait, they are quite apparent. division this year was a very marked contrast to that of He intends to allow Dissenters to have all they demand, and previous years, and showed sufficiently well that, if our hectors and lectures the parsons because they won't aid him Episcopal leaders were not time-serving traitors, (which in the confiscation of property and in the abolition of their several of them certainly are.) we might easily win the battle rights. Sir William Lawson has told us what his clients by a sure and brilliant victory.
need :-“We must have this scandal removed at all hazards. Last Monday week the House of Lords was very full. So large Well, but I will be honest. I do not say let us get rid of a number of Bishops has not been present for some years. this and the Church will be stronger. No; I admit fullyThe owners of lawn-sleeves were in full force, and there had let me be honest about it—that if you let the Nonconformist been a vigorous whip on both sides. Lord Granville, who into the churchyard, it is only a step towards letting him was not very well, spoke somewhat feebly : but evidently into the church." These clients say that they are not satisfied rather to the Secularists and Nonconformists than to his with mere permission to perform services in the churchyard; peers. The whole affair was an obvious political dodge; a they want the church, and will not be satisfied until they get it. shrewd Liberal contrivance; a daring and bold Whig trick. Again, not a fortnight ago—on the 3rd inst. -at the meeting The Opposition want a policy. Their mournful song is of the Liberation Society, held in Birmingham, the Mayor, “We've got no work to do." So the whole party, aristocratic Mr. Joseph Chamberlain, in the chair, Dr. Landells, who is Whigs as well as Republican and Communistic Radicals, join well known in connexion with this question, made the fol. bands over the Dissenters' sham Burial-grievance. It will be lowing statements : one of their cries at the next General Election; and, no “Let me say, finally, in spite of Government and in spite doubt, a leading feature of their programme.
of clergy, we will carry our Burials' Bill, which is the next Lord Granville's Resolutiuns stand thus :—"That it is thing we have in hand, and, that done, we shall be a step desirable that the law relating to the burial of the dead in nearer the ultimate goal. There will not be much between England should be amended, (1) by giving facilities for the | us and the citadel then. Having taken possession of all the interment of deceased persons without the use of the Burial outworks, the fortress itself will soon fall into our hands ; for Service of the Church of England in churchyards in which we do not conceal the fact that this is our final aim, and that they have a right of interment, if the relatives or friends | we cannot rest satisfied until that aim has been realized. Our having the charge of their funerals shall so desire; (2) by clerical friends, in arguing against the Burials' Bill, tell us, enabling the relatives or friends having charge of the funeral with refreshing simplicity, that if we get into the churchof any deceased person to conduct such funeral in any church- yards, we shall want to get into the churches next. What yard in which the deceased had a right of interment, with charming innocents they must be to put it thus! I think if such Christian and orderly religious observances as to them by getting into the churches they mean that we shall demand may seem fit." His speech in support of them was entirely to have national property employed for national purposes, and wholly one-sided. Everybody and everything were con- and not reserved for the exclusive use of a sect, why then, sidered except Churchmen and the National Communion. of course, we mean to get into the churches ; and, what is The supposed “grievance" was shown to be an obvious more, if our right to the churches be as good as our right to imposture; yet no doubt could exist that it would well serve the churchyards, we shall succeed in gaining what we the Opposition : so it was frankly adopted. The Duke of demand.” Richmond's speech was admirable :-not well delivered, Now, all this is known as accurately to Drs. Tait nor very effective to his audience : but closely-reasoned and and Thomson, as it is to ourselves. Churches and churchmost convincing in its arguments. One most telling argu- yards stand on exactly the same footing. Grant one, and the ment, however, made a great impression. To those persons, other goes. Yet Archbishop Thomson is so sensitive of Disnot a small body, who being Churchmen, have given land senters' grievances, that be practically advocated unconditional for new burial-grounds the Liberal leader says: “You, as surrender. The piety and propriety of the Whigs--represented earnest supporters of your Church, have given this land for its by Lords Coleridge and Selborne-were also on the side of benefit because you believe your Church requires it; but I Dissent: while the old Whig hacks, or their representatives, insist that any person, whether Nonconformist or Freethinker, of course ranged themselves under the same banners. The shall be at liberty to go into the churchyard thus established and Bishop of Lincoln spoke boldly, but the early part of his perform services there such as he may think fit, although you gave speech was delivered in so low a tone, that it was practically the land for a very different purpose." “ If that be the noble inaudible. Lord Salisbury spoke very well, and with most earl's proposal,” remarked the able Lord President of the forcible arguments, and promised on the part of the GovernCouncil, “I can only say, with my view of the rights of ment some settlement by which the sham and artificial agitation
should be laid to rest by a new Bill. But we have not much of the Oriental Christian is the necessary result of his long hope. The Liberals, the Tory Orangemen, the Gladstonian subjugation to Mahometan rule. If the original cause be Ritualists and the Infidels, are of course all in favour (from removed, the effect may in time be cured. It is impossible to very different points of view,) of important concessions and regard the establishment of the Mahometan power in the a compromise. It is quite out of the question, therefore, to south-east of Europe, and in Asia Minor, otherwise than as a hope to defend our present position : more especially as our judgment upon the Byzantines for their perfidious and schisown leaders, the two Primates, and several of their Suffragans matical conduct. But the internal decay of the Ottoman have gone over to the enemy. At the division Lord Gran- power seems to indicate that the duration of this judgment is ville scored 92 votes : but was defeated by 148 Tory peers. drawing to an end ; and as the relaxation of the Babylonian The two Archbishops and the Bishops of Oxford and Chester captivity opened the way for the rebuilding of the Temple at left the House without voting at all. Şixteen Bishops voted Jerusalem, so the downfall of the Turkish Empire will pave with the Government: the Editor of Essays and Reviews voting the way for a re-construction of Oriental Christianity. with the Whigs. The Roman Catholic peers were divided. It is of course impossible to foretell, and unwise to attempt On the Liberal side we find the names of the Marquis of to foretell, the exact course which such a re-construction Ripon, Lords Acton, Camoys, Dormer, Emly, O'Hagan and will take ; but we think that it could not be otherwise than Vaux of Harrowden ; while in the Tory ranks were ranged a great gain to Christendom at large. The Easterns, althongh the Marquis of Bute and the Earls of Gainsborough and their religion is in a very stagnant condition, and although Orford.
separated from that which they themselves admit to be the The practical question, notwithstanding our good majority, central and chief See of Christendom, have yet no sympathy will soon come uppermost. It will speedily be made a political with Protestantism or Rationalism. Anything which tended cry. The poor parsons, whether they like it or not, will have to bring them to the front as an integral portion of Christento give way. So, in a little while, will it come to pass as dom, would strengthen the cause of ecclesiastical Authority regards our churches. Their turn will very soon arrive. The and of a belief in the Supernatural. They have, moreover, delight of Dr. Tait's eyes, and the joy of Dean Stanley's a better basis whereon to treat with Rome than the Anglican heart, will be speedily realized, not in Westminster Abbey | Church : if they could be set free from Mahometan rule and alone ; but in every parish church throughout the land. welded together in one political and ecclesiastical organisation,
The only question we choose to put to Churchmen in con- | the inevitable result must be the discussion of their attitude clusion, is very simple and very elementary. It is this-Are towards the Pope, an da possible issue might be the healing of you prepared to go on giving for buildings, restorations and | the schism between Old and New Rome. At all events it is endowments, when-as the Archbishops point out, you must clear that, even as they are now, they have more claim to be content to be robbed of your rights and, in return for rule the Turks than the Turks to rule them: and the efforts your charitable feebleness, have your consciences disregarded of all those who believe in Christianity should be directed and your property confiscated ?
towards the suppression of Mahometan supremacy, whether in Europe, Palestine, or Asia Minor.
If anything could impress this duty upon our countrymen, THE PROSPECTS OF CHRISTIANITY IN THE EAST it would be the evanescent results of the contrary policy
which England pursued at the time of the Crimean War. it not time that some one should advocate a Christian Within twenty years all that we thought we had achieved
policy in the East? The insurgents, as they are called, in has disappeared ; Turkey is in a worse plight than ever ; and - the Herzegovina, are really fighting for Christianity Russia is exercising a direct and potent influence in the against Mahometanism—for religious freedom against the solution of the matter along with Austria and Germany; most grinding and degrading tyranny. Had they been Gari- , while England and France, the conquerors in the Crimean baldian ruffians marching on Rome to unseat the Fope, or | War, are really left out in the cold. Much of this, of course, free-thinking Republicans in arms against any settled Christian is due to the general loss of influence which England has authority, the Liberal press of this country would have been undoubtedly suffered, however much she may choose to shut urgent about their grievances, and public attention would have her eyes to the fact ; but the Christian patriot will look even been concentrated on their movements. As it is, there is every deeper than this, and see in the present phase of the Eastern prospect that, after an ineffectual attempt, they will be over- Question a proof that a Christian country should never be so borne in their struggle for freedom and for Christianity, and carried away by the influence of “modern ideas," or so that the Turkish Empire will be propped up yet a little governed by considerations of temporal expediency, as to longer by the efforts of powers professedly Christian.
reverse the policy of the Crusades, and take up arms for a Such a result will be a lasting disgrace to the Europe of | Mahometan against a Christian people. the nineteenth century. Even judged by much lower standards than that, the key-note of which is Christianity versus Mahometanism, the Turkish Empire is a disgrace and
WHAT IS CONSERVATISM? NO. VI. a nuisance to Europe. It is impotent for good, but fruitful in mischief; and under its deleterious influences and wretched INHERE are two questions which call for discussion in misgovernment, some of the fairest portions of the earth, in
relation to the changes of human laws: the first is, point of climate and resources, are rendered useless and 1 whether they can ever be justly changed; the second, unprofitable. The most characteristic features of the Turkish whether they should always be changed even if change might Empire are recognized concubinage and polygamy, universal appear to be in the direction of improvement. dirt, official corruption, and national bankruptcy; such an As to the first question, St. Augustine teaches that “the Empire only exists, and is only permitted to exist, because temporal law, although it be just, may yet be justly changed Russia, Austria, and Germany cannot agree as to the partition at times.” of the spoil, and are too much afraid of each other to act But some object that human law can never be changed independently in the matter. What is required is a policy rightly, because it is derived from the natural law, but the which should befriend the Christian subjects of the Porte natural law remains unmoved, and therefore human law without furthering the aggrandizement of the three great should do so also. But human reason, (which deduces human powers above-mentioned, or any one of them; and such a law from natural law,) is mutable and imperfect; and thereresult might be obtained by the establishment, or rather fore its law is mutable. Besides, the natural law contains restoration, of a Greek or Byzantine Empire in the South- certain universal precepts, which always remain; but the law East of Europe.
posited by man contains certain particular precepts as to The chief difficulty in achieving this object is the very different cases which arise. unsatisfactory character of the Oriental Christians themselves. Again, it is said, that the highest or standard measure Those who have seen most of the Greek nature" like it least, should be permanent. Human law is the measure or standard and the almost simultaneous discovery of simoniacal tenden- of human acts, and therefore ought to be permanent. But, cies among Greek Archbishops and Bishops, and of mutinous granting the desirability of permanence, this must be limited and murderous propensities in Greek sailors, does not afford to the possible. In mutable affairs notbing can be immutably much encouragement to those who would wish to see a Greek permanent; and so human law cannot be absolutely immutable. Empire. Yet it must be borne in mind that the degradation 1 It is said again, that law decides what is just and right.
But what is just for one time is just for all time, therefore Cranmer's infamous conduct in connexion with Henry's what is law for one time is law for all time. It is true that divorce, the incident seems to show that the “Fathers of the we suppose physical laws to be absolute, and therefore what Reformation," both at home and abroad, thought more of is right in corporal things is said absolutely; and so far, in their duty to the king than of their duty to God. itself, it remains right. But legal rectitude is spoken of in relation to the common utility, to which one and the same thing is not at all times proportionate, and therefore this
FOUR LETTERS TO A. P. DE LISLE, ESQ., ON THE legal rectitude or law of right is changeable.
FORMATION OF AN UNIAT CHURCH. Since human law is a diotate of reason by which human acts are directed ; in accordance with this there are two causes
LETTER THE FIRST. which may justify change in it: one, on the part of reason ; the other, on the part of the subject whose acts are regulated TEARLY nineteen years ago-on the Feast of the by law. On the part of reason, because it appears natural
Nativity of Our Lady, 1857-a Society was formed to human reason to pass by degrees from the imperfect to
for promoting the Unity of Christendom. Its object the perfect. Whence we see in speculative sciences, that was “ to unite in a bond of intercessory prayer, members both those who have at first investigated any subject have handed of the Clergy and Laity of the Roman Catholic, Greek and it down in an imperfect condition to their successors, who | Anglican Communions ;” and it addressed itself to those who have again transmitted it in a more advanced condition. So
I look forward for” the “healing" of the divisions rife also in practical enquiries; for those who first addicted them- among Christians, “mainly to a Corporate Re-union of those selves to the discovery of anything useful to the community three great bodies which claim for themselves the inheritance at large, not being able to think of everything themselves, of the Priesthood and the name of Catholic.” You, Sir, have originated their inventions subject to many deficiencies, from the very first sympathised most warmly with our object : which later inventors have changed, and, by improvements, in fact from your previously published treatise “On the have arrived at results far more conducive to public utility. | Future Unity of Christendom" the Association may be said (This is eminently the case with regard to steam machinery.) | to have taken its rise. As one of its earliest members, I feel On the part of the subject, whose acts are regulated by law, | that I can address the present remarks to no one so fittingly the law may rightly be altered on account of the change of as to yourself. the conditions of men, which may render changes expedient. We had no “programme ” beyond our form of prayer, So St. Augustine suggests an example: “If a people be Nevertheless, it was but natural that in praying for the moderate and grave, and a careful guardian of the common Unity of Christendom, the members of the three bodies" utility, the law rightly lays it down, that such a people should expect a somewhat different answer to their prayers. may create its magistracy, by whom the commonwealth may The Roman Catholic members naturally hoped for Corporate be administered. But, however, if the same people, being Unity via the Corporate Submission of Anglicans to the depraved, exercise their suffrage corruptly, and commit the Holy See. The Easterns would as naturally look for its government to blackguards and scamps, the power of con- accomplishment by means of a Council happier and more ferring honour is rightly withheld from such a people, and lasting in its effects than those of Lyons and Florence ; while returns to the few who are good.”
we Anglicans hoped that the gradual Catholicizing of the Church of England might pave the way for a general Council
in whose decrees all would concur. With whatever ideal, NEBUCHADNEZZAR AND HENRY VIII.
however, each set out, all were agreed in accepting Corporate
Re-union as our object, and Rome, the East, and the Anglican T TAVE our readers ever reflected upon the numerous Church, as furnishing the subject matter of Re-union.
points of similarity between these two tyrants? The intervening years have been fraught with great events. I Both men were addicted to the unrestrained indul. At home the principles of the Association took root : a gence of sensual appetites, and both busied themselves in a Re-union School was formed, and may be said for a time to most unusual manner with the religious convictions and have leavened the Catholic movement in the Anglican Church. practices of their subjects; possibly in both cases from a wish | That movement had just begun to emerge from the study to to compound for their own sins by looking after other people's the parish; it had entered upon the phase now so widely souls. Both men were despots of the most ruffianly type, known a3 “ Ritualistic.” If every Re-unionist were not a having no regard for the sanctity of human life or the sin of Ritualist, it is hardly saying too much to affirm that every blood-shedding; yet both seem to have been possessed of a Ritualist was a Re-unionist. It was the A B C of our certain blunt good-nature to those who did not cross their theology “ de Ecclesiâ” that the Church consisted of three wishes. Both men were possessed of the ridiculous notion portions, parts, or branches, the centres of wbich were to be that they were the “supreme heads” of everybody and of sought for respectively in Rome, Constantinople, and Cantereverything within their reach, and were entitled to impose bury. When an Anglican talked about this or that their own passing fancies as to matters of religion upon the “Branch of the Church, he was invariably speaking of one consciences of everybody who had the misfortune to live in or other of these bodies in relation, or in contradistinction, their time and country. At the same time that they indulged to the other two. When Roman Catholics made merry over these blasphemous claims they were both of them the victims “the Branch theory” they made merry over the theory that of superstition in the bad sense of the word : and the same the Catholic Church was tripartite, Romo, Greece, and combination of superstition and arrogance which is to be England being three branches of one and the same tree. If found in each of them produced the same extraordinary I add that we looked upon the separation of these portions inconsistencies in both. Nebuchadnezzar was one day suppli or branches-their loss of intercommunion and fellowshipcating, in a state of abject terror, the Three Children to not merely as an evil, but as an unnatural and unchristian interpret for him a dream; and the next was ordering them divorce : a temporary dispensation which ought to be done to be cast into the fiery furnace : even so Henry VIII. was at away as speedily as possible: and that we regarded the See one moment the humble suppliant of the Pope to grant him a of St. Peter as the ecclesiastical pivot around which United divorce and to satisfy his timorous scruples, and the next was Christendom should revolve, I think I bave expressed the ready to do without the Pope altogether, to divorce himself, sum of the Tractarian belief “de Ecclesiâ ” as it existed in and to start a new religion. Talking of this divorce, which 1857, and as it continued to exist till 1870. really was the proximate cause of the Reformation, let anyone I am not concerned now to defend the “Branch" theory. contrast the refusal of the Pope to be a mere tool of Henry's It may have been logical or illogical. One thing it did for in the matter, with the conduct of Luther, Melanchthon, and us. It enabled us to work-honestly and loyally for the Bacon in obsequiously granting a “dispensation" to the Church of England; it enabled us to take her at her word, Landgrave of Hesse to have two wives at once; and he will and to strive to make her in reality what she was on paper-not, we think, find his affection for “the principles of the a living, energising, though alas ! an isolated portion of the Reformation" increased. The documents which establish Catholic family. If to restore among Englishmen the well. exclusively that such a dispensation was granted by the three nigh forgotten idea of Divine Worship : if to fill our churches innovators above named are given in extenso by Bossuet in his with large and devout congregations of both sexes : if to Histoire des Variations, Liv VI. Taken in conjunction with substitute the “beauty of holiness” for the ugliness and squalor of neglect and indifference: if to revive a belief in Court, they have become, in fact, merely its mouth-piece. the Sacramental system of the Church: if to bring crowds of Lastly, as if to demonstrate that every depth has a lower all ages, men and women, and from all ranks of society, to the deep, Parliament has revolutionized the whole status of the Confessional: if to put before our countrymen the Daily Anglican Church ; and from the ruins of Ecclesiastical Sacrifice and frequent Communion as essentials of the Courts has arisen a nondescript tribunal, the chief feature in Christian life: if to bring back due and reverent observance the creation of which has been, that one of the few men who of fast and feast: if to show men that the Catholic Church has a knowledge of the intricacies of English ecclesiastical is a reality, not a name, and a reality wider and deeper than law has been spirited away to preside over the Divorce Court any mere national or local Church: and that heresy and while an ex-Divorce Judge, abysmally ignorant of Canon schism are tangible evils and (where knowledge brings | Law, has been substituted in his place. responsibility) actual sins :-if these, I say, be good and Three issues await the Ritual movement. To submit to desirable works, then all these, and many such, the Branch the Courts is not only to give the things of God to Cæsar, theory enabled the Ritualists to do in hundreds of parishes but to efface ourselves. For the Clergy to resign, as attacked, through the length and breadth of England.
is equally to efface ourselves ; for if there be no pastors, what But now, Sir, after thirty yoars of not unsuccessful is to become of the flock ? Passive resistance, again, can struggles, we are confronted with two dangers which threaten lead only to one end-separation from the State Ohurch. our existence as a party within the Anglican Church. Our The State is strong enough to enforce its decrees, and who first danger is from within. Many Ritualists have shifted can doubt that it will enforce them to the “bitter end ?" their ground. What I have called our old theology “ de Sooner or later, the Courts will suspend and depose recalcitrant ecclesiâ ” has given place in the minds of many to a novel clerics ; the benefices will be declared vacant, and filled up in scheme, in which the place occupied by the great Latin due course. As the Clergy cannot retain the fabric vi et Communion has been usurped by Dr. Döllinger and the armis, they can only continue to minister according to their 80-called “Old Catholics"! With these neo-Ritualists the consciences, by falling back upon their spiritual character Re-union of Christendom-of the “ three bodies" under the and repeating the course taken by the Nonjurors. Cæsarism, presidency and primacy of the Holy See-has given place to resignation, separation: these are our alternatives—all an alliance with the East viâ the German schismatics. By a equally fatal to the fortunes of "Ritualism” as a part and species of legerdemain, the “ three great bodies which parcel of the Anglican Church. claim for themselves the inheritance of the priesthood and This, then, is the situation in 1876. Within-disunion, the name of Catholic," have vanished, and in their place divided Councils, and a cultivation of a spirit towards the have appeared the Eastern and Anglican Churches, plus Bishop See of St. Peter the very opposite of that which the moveReinkens and his questionable following! I need not stop to ment of 1857 was designed to exhibit: without-the marpoint out how little there can be in common between those shalling of forces against the Catholic idea—which must, who adhere to the old programme and those who have humanly speaking, and without a miracle, prove fatal to the adopted the new. This alone would be sufficient to produce claims of the Anglican Church to be an integral part of the a schism ; and the proposal of “Presbyter Anglicanus” for a Catholic family. Uniat Church, and its repudiation by the hundred clergymen, I might, Sir, onlarge upon both these points. Especially I are indications of our divisions.
might use the history of the Association to which allusion Our second danger is from without. While we are bringing has been made, to illustrate the deterioration of the Catholic considerable numbers of the people under the Catholic party in the Church of England. I might pause to point out system, the Church of England is submitting to an aggressive that while the party was loyal to its original programme we Erastianism, which will make it a mere department of the bad an active and energetic Secretary, and frequent successful civil Government. The theory of the Church-confidence
meetings. The Secretary has vanished, and his successor in which supplied the raison d'être of “Ritualism "—is makes no sign. The Society might be in Timbuctoo for all giving place to a widely different practice. As long as the the majority of its members know. Again, what could be State merely claimed to give its sanction to Church laws more fatal to the Society, as originally planned and constituted, claimed, that is, to have a veto upon ecclesiastical motions than the appointment of a Freemason as President? Such and as long as the Courts-ecclesiastical and lay-merely an appointment could have but one effect--one would imagine claimed the office of enforcing those laws, our position was it could have had but one object to disgust and alienate all tolerable. But now the Supreme Court of Appeal—in no Roman Catholic sympathisers. Such an alienation would sense an ecclesiastical assembly-claims, and exercises, the have been feared and regretted beyond measure twenty or ten right, not of enforcing the law, but of interpreting it; and years ago. But it is regarded with indifference now, which not merely of interpreting it according to the evidence, but shows how widely we have drifted from our old moorings. of interpreting it ad libitum to suit thë fancied exigencies of But what avails it to dwell upon these things-only too the moment! Hence, under cover of a Court of Final sadly known as they are to many of us ? As we bave sown Appeal, we really have a Legislative body, in perpetual so we must reap. The past cannot be undone ; the future is session, ready and willing to revolutionize the doctrine and still ours. If the ship must needs be wrecked, something at discipline of the Church at the call of expediency. In the least may be saved from the devouring waters. domain of faith, it is a Lay Synod which has declared Bap
I am, with respect, your faithful Servant, tismal Regeneration, the Inspiration of Scripture, the Brighton.
CHARLES WALKER. Eternity of Punishment, the Real Presence, the Personality of Satan "open questions.” Could the Vatican Council, in full sitting, have more directly and more thoroughly dealt
Reviews and Notices of New Books. with matters of faith? In the domain of discipline, it is a lay “Congregation of Sacred Rites " which, at the call of
DELIVERY AND DEVELOPMENT OF CARISTIAN DOCTRINE. The “expediency," has interpreted Rubrics so as to include and
Fifth Series of Cunningham Lectures. By Robert Rainy, exclude the ornaments of the Church and her ministers—the
D.D., Professor of Divinity and Church History, New Eastward Position, &c. Could the Sacred Congregation itself
College. Edinburgh: T. and T. Clark. more directly and more thoroughly deal with matters of
[First Notice.] ceremonial ? If it is asked what doctrine a clergyman of AE Cunningham Lectures appear to be an institution the Anglican Church may or may not preach, it is the Prive
in the Free Kirk corresponding very much to the Council which decides the matter. If with what rites he is - Bampton Lectures in the Church of England; and to celebrate Divine Service, the Privy Council decides. If Dr. Rainy's volume will fully bear comparison with the who is to be admitted to or repelled from the Sacraments, average products of the Oxford foundation. At the same the Privy Council decides. Faith, Ritual, Discipline, all are time these Lectures strike us as of very unequal merit, submitted to its manipulations, and on all its decisions are and the work, as a whole, will disappoint those who look final and irreversible.
to it for any complete or adequate treatment of the vast Meanwhile the Ecclesiastical Courts are secularized. Their subject announced in the title-page. Partly, no doubt, rulings, as Courts of first instance, are liable to be reversed as will become clear presently, this was inevitable from on appeal, and, as a matter of fact, generally are reversed; the author's standpoint, and partly also from the limits and, by binding themselves to the Judgments of the Supreme 'imposed upon him ; but still we cannot help thinking that